Freemasons, Bankers, Revolutionaries & Civil Wars

A year ago, when I was looking into the life of George Peabody, the lines of research kept growing because of all of the interconnected people and events of the 19th-century that he was connected to in one way or another.

Widely regarded as the “Father of Modern Philanthropy,” George Peabody was said to have been born into a poor family in Massachusetts in 1795.

There were other major historical figures who became wealthy said to have been born into poverty or difficult circumstances.

Ones off the top of my head included:

Canadian brewer John Molson, who was born in England in 1763 and said to have been orphaned at the age of 8, when first his father died, then his mother two years later. 

He ended up in Montreal, Quebec at the age of 18, and by the age of 21, completely took over the brewery in which he was a partner.

He was appointed the Provincial Grand Master of the District Freemasonic Lodge of Montreal by the Duke of Sussex in 1826, a position he held for five years before resigning in 1831.

Another poor boy made good story that comes to mind is another Canadian, distiller Joseph E. Seagram.

Born in 1841 in what is now Cambridge, Ontario, his parents died when he was a child and he and his brothers were said to have been raised by clergy.

He received education at a business college and eventually learned about the distilling process at Waterloo Distillery, and ultimately bought out other owners to become the full owner, and renamed it Seagram’s. His 1907 Creation of “VO Whiskey” became the largest-selling Canadian whiskey in the world.

Seagram was also a freemason, and at one time Senior Warden of the Grand River Lodge, Number 151, in what is now Kitchener, Ontario, which was previously known as Berlin.

Jack Daniel, same idea.

Jasper Newton “Jack” Daniel was born sometime in the mid-1800s. The birth date of 1850 was on his tombstone, however, his birthdate was said to be listed as September 5th, 1846 in Tennessee state records from the time.

He was the youngest of ten children, and his mother died shortly after he was born.

When his father died in the Civil War, he ran away from home because he didn’t get along with his stepmother.

He was taken in by the local lay-preacher and distiller, Dan Call, and began to learn the distilling trade.

Jack Daniel purchased the hollow and land the distillery was located on in Lynchburg, Tennessee, after taking over the distillery in 1884.

I couldn’t find anything about Jack Daniel being a Freemason, but I did find some interesting connections Freemasons and his whiskey.

One was a limited-edition commemorative bottle of “Jack Daniel’s Single Barrel Whiskey,” bottled exclusively for American Freemasons…

…and the other thing I found was a rare “Jack Daniel Whiskey Freemasonic Watch,” complete with skull and bones in between the compass and the square underneath the cover of it, that the information is no longer available for on the website where one was auctioned off.

This biographical information about these men would be otherwise unremarkable, but it is interesting they all share a similar theme in childhood and how they all came into fame and fortune.

And when I looked for a connection to Freemasonry for George Peabody, I found one…and much, much more.

I found this passage referring to the British Freemasonic Banker, George Peabody, on page 175…

…of the book “The Secret Founding of America, the Real Story of Freemasons, Puritans & the Battle for the New World,” by Nicholas Hagger.

There are the other names I am finding in the book here that are ringing bells from my past research, which I will be tying in as I go.

However, before I go any further down this Freemasonic rabbit hole, about which this book is a treasure trove of information, I am going to continue researching what we are told about George Peabody’s life, and then return to this subject because there is quite a bit that can be tied together using “The Secret Founding of America” as a guide about what has actually taken place here as opposed to what we have been told.

I didn’t know about this book’s existence until I did an internet search for “Was George Peabody a freemason?”

Here is another connection of George Peabody, where he is striking the Freemasonic “hidden hand” pose in this portrait, signifying “Master of the Second Veil.”

George Peabody was born on February 18th of 1795 in South Danvers, Massachusetts, near Salem, as one of seven or eight children in a poor family, as the number of siblings varied from reference to reference.

Only attending school for a few years, George left school at the age of 11 to work in his brother’s shop in Newburyport, Massachusetts, to help support his mother and siblings when his father died, and the poverty of his early years was said to have influenced his philanthropy in later years.

The George Peabody House Museum in Peabody, Massachusetts, is touted as his birthplace.

When his brother’s Newburyport, Massachusetts, dry goods business burned down, Peabody went to Georgetown in Washington, DC, in 1811, to work in a wholesale dry goods’ warehouse.

The owner of the warehouse, Elisha Riggs. hired George Peabody as his office boy, and by 1814, Riggs provided the financing for the wholesale dry goods firm of Riggs, Peabody & Company, specializing in importing dry goods from Great Britain.

When Riggs retired in 1829, the firm became Peabody, Riggs & Company, as George became the Senior Partner.

Elisha Riggs also financed the founding of Riggs National Bank, which was organized by his son George Washington Riggs.

This building on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, DC, said to have been completed in 1902, served as the headquarters for Riggs National Bank until 2005, when Riggs was dissolved, and acquired by PNC Financial Services.

The reason for the change in ownership of the bank was the investigation of Riggs Bank for several money-laundering scandals, including “unknowingly” allowing the hijackers involved in 9/11 to transfer money “due to lax controls” at the bank…

…allowing the former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet to hide his fortune after his accounts were frozen.

It is interesting to note that as a “National Bank,” Riggs was authorized to print currency at one time in its history.

Lots of rabbit holes on this trail, once I started looking for information on this particular bank!

During the years George Peabody lived in Baltimore, he established his career as a businessman and financier.

Here are some of the things I am finding about his business career.

He first travelled to England in 1827 to purchase wares, and negotiate the sale of American cotton in Lancashire.

This is interesting because by 1825, cotton was Britain’s biggest import, primarily from American cotton fields, and Lancashire was dominant force in the British economy with its cotton industry, where the raw cotton was turned into thread and fabrics in a factory-based production line with the advent of the Industrial Revolution in this industry, and marked the birth of the British-working class.

George Peabody opened an office in Liverpool, with British business playing a more and more important role in his business affairs.

The bankers who helped establish him in Liverpool included the son of the Irish-born banker in America, Alexander Brown, Sir William Brown, 1st Baronet of Richmond Hill, who managed his father’s Liverpool office.

Alexander Brown, an Irish linen merchant who immigrated to America, established the first investment banking firm in the United States in 1800.

He was joined in business by his sons William, George, John, and James, and the firm became “Alex. Brown & Sons” in 1810.

So his son William established the Liverpool office of the family business; George and John founded “Brown Bros. & Company” in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and James opened a branch in New York City and Boston.

This is what we are told about Brown Brothers & Company, that during the first 100-years of its existence, it helped make paper money standard currency in the United States; underwrote the first railroad and trans-Atlantic steamship companies; and essentially created the first foreign exchange system between the American dollar and the British pound.

In 1931, the Brown Brothers merged with the Harriman Brothers & Company, a private bank started with railway money, in 1931 to become known as the “Brown Brothers Harriman & Company,” one of the oldest and largest private investment banks in the United States.

Founding partners of the “Brown Brothers Harriman & Company” included W. Averill Harriman, the son of railroad baron E. H. Harriman, and Secretary of Commerce under President Harry S. Truman…

…and Prescott Bush, American banker and politician, and the father of President George H. W. Bush.

Alexander’s son George stayed in Baltimore and took a leading role in the founding of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in 1827, and became the head of the business branch upon Alexander’s death in 1834.

The “Alex. Brown & Sons” company proclaimed itself “America’s Foremost International banking enterprise in the 19th-century.”

This bank building for “Alex. Brown & Sons” was said to have been built in 1901, and survived the 1904 Great Fire of Baltimore, having the least amount of damage of any building within the “Burnt District.”

Since then, the building has served as a “Capitol One” Branch, and in 2019 became the “Alex Brown Restaurant,” only to be permanently closed in 2020.

The company “Alex. Brown & Sons” was purchased by the Bankers Trust in 1997, absorbed into Deutsche Bank in 1999, and Alex Brown Wealth Management was sold to Raymond James in 2016.

“Alex. Brown & Sons” sure sounds like the American-Irish version of the Rothschild International Banking family dynasty, started by Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt in the 1760s, who established an international banking family through his five sons:

His oldest son, Amschel Mayer Rothschild, succeeded his father as the head of the Frankfurt bank.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild settled in Manchester, England in 1798, and established a business in textile trading and finance, and made a fortune in a banking enterprise he began in London in 1805 that dealt in foreign bills and government securities.

Nathan had become a freemason in London of the “Emulation Lodge, No. 12, of the Premier Grand Lodge of England” in October of 1802.

By the time of his death in 1836, Nathan Mayer Rothschild had secured the position of the Rothschilds as the preeminent investment bankers in Britain and Europe, and his own personal net worth was over 60% of the British national income.

Mayer Amschel’s son Salomon Mayer von Rothschild went to Austria, and established the “S M von Rothschild” banking enterprise in Vienna in 1820, and was raised to the Austrian nobility as a baron in 1822, with the offer extended to all of his brothers, and which Nathan turned down.

Among other major funding projects in Austria, his banking enterprise financed the Nordbahn Rail Transport Network, Austria’s first steam railway.

Mayer Amschel’s son Carl Mayer von Rothschild went to live in the “Kingdom of Sicilies,” located in Southern Italy between 1816 and 1860, in 1821.

He set up C M de Rothschild & Figli, which became the dominant financial house in Naples and operated as a satellite office to the main Rothschild bank in Frankfurt.

Clients of the Naples Rothschild bank included the Vatican, the Dukes of Parma and the Dukes of Tuscany.

James Mayer de Rothschild was the founder of the French branch of the Rothschild family, moving to Paris in 1812 to coordinate the purchase of specie (money in the form of coins rather than notes) and bullion (gold and silver in bulk before coining, valued in weight) for his brother Nathan back in London, and in 1817, opened the De Rothschilds Freres (The Rothschild Brothers) bank in Paris, and by 1823, was firmly established as the banker to the French government.

Just looking at parallels in the historical record between the Irish-American Brown business history, the German-Jewish Rothschild business history, and the born-into-poverty George Peabody’s business history, all which included links to textile merchants, banking and railroads.

With all of his great connections, George Peabody branched out.

He took up residence in London permanently in 1837, and went from being a wholesale dry-goods and cotton merchant, to a merchant-banker offering securities in American railroad and canal enterprises to British and European investors.

He started a banking business trading on his own account a year after he moved to London, and by 1851, he established the banking firm of “George Peabody & Company” to meet the increasing demand for securities issued by American railroads, and his company specialized in financing governments and large companies.

Apparently railroad and canal developers in the early 19th-century in the United States needed investment capital, and turned to European money markets for the funding to complete their projects.

George Peabody’s bank quickly rose to become the premier American banking house in London, and this is a statue of him that is located near the Royal Exchange in London.

Now I am going to go back and dissect information that I stumbled across about George Peabody being a Freemason in “The Secret Founding of America” book by Nicholas Hagger, and tie-in some if it in with other research I have done.

This type of information is very hard to find, but it dovetails with other information I have been finding about this period in history.

There is a lot more information contained in the pages of this book, but I am going to concentrate primarily on some things I have uncovered in my research that are 1) either hard to find in writing; or 2) hard to substantiate when found in writing.

This paragraph called “Rothschilds Plan an American Central Bank” from page 73 of “The Secret Founding of America” talks about Mayer Amschel Rothschild funding Adam Weishaupt’s Order of the Illuminati in the 1770s; his five sons controlling banks in the major cities of Europe; the Rothschilds’ wanting to start a central bank in America; and several of the Rothschilds being behind the funding of both North and South “in the planned division.”

In the “planned” division?

We have already seen Mayer Amschel Rothschild and his five sons establish their International banking family dynasty throughout major cities of Europe.

And this is the saying that has been attributed to more than one prominent member of the Rothschild family, starting with the first London family banker, Nathan Mayer Rothschild.

Adam Weishaupt established the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati on May 1st of 1776.

Born in Ingolstadt, Germany, He was educated by Jesuits starting at the age of 7, and was initiated into Freemasonry in Munich in 1777.

He died in Gotha in Germany, under the protection of Duke Ernest II, of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg in 1830.

The lineage of the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg eventually became the House of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha, to which first-cousins Queen Victoria & Prince-Consort Albert both belonged, which became known to us as the House of Windsor in 1917.

On page 174, we find the name of “Giuseppe Mazzini,” taking over the Illuminati in 1834.

Apparently Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian politician, journalist, and activist, had links with Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, who served as Great Britain’s Prime Minister between 1855 and 1865, which was both the year of his death, and the year the American Civil War came down an end.

According to this book, Giuseppe Mazzini, who had founded a political movement for Italian youth (under age 40) in 1831, sent his right-hand man, Adriano Lemmi, and Louis Kossuth, head of the radical-democratic wing of the Hungarian-nationalists during the Uprisings of 1848, to the United States to organize “Young America” Lodges based on the same ideas.

The Revolutions of 1848 were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe that year.

The Revolutions had the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states, and was the most widespread revolutionary wave in Europe’s history, with 50 countries being affected.

So, the goal was to remove the original ruling families, and ultimately replace them with a new form of government, which was ultimately controllable.

When I looked for information on the topic of Mazzini, Lemmo and Kossuth, this is what I found.

We will see some of these same names, and others, at the February 21st of 1854 meeting coming up in just a moment on page 175.

Before we get to the names at the February 21st, 1854, meeting on the same page, we also find references to U. S. Attorney General Caleb Cushing; British Freemasonic banker George Peabody; and J. S. Morgan, on page 175.

This passage says that Caleb Cushing was affiliated with the Northern Jurisdiction of Freemasonry, and became the architect of the Civil War.

The architect of the Civil War?

More from “The Secret Founding of America” in just a moment.

Let me see what else I can find out about Caleb Cushing in a search.

Caleb Cushing was an American Democratic politician who served as a Congressman from Massachusetts and Attorney General during the administration of the 14th-President of the United States, Franklin Pierce.

Here are a couple of other things about Caleb Cushing that I find interesting.

Caleb Cushing’s hometown in Massachusetts, from when his family moved there when he was ten, which would have been 1810, was Newburyport, which was the same town where George Peabody worked in his brother’s shop until Peabody moved to Baltimore in 1811.

No indication they knew each other, but an interesting connection nonetheless.

But an even more interesting find about Caleb Cushing was his connection to China.

Caleb Cushing was appointed by President John Tyler, the 10th-President of the United States, as Ambassador to China in 1843, a position which he held until March 4th of 1845.

The Cushing Mission to China arriving in Macau consisted of four American Warships, which were loaded with gifts, and devices like telescopes and revolvers, in the hopes of impressing the Royal Chinese Court.

When the Chinese were not inclined to receive Cushing as an envoy, Cushing threatening with the U. S. Warships in his entourage, to go directly to the Chinese Emperor.

This tactic resulted in the Chinese Emperor negotiating with Cushing, and the Treaty of Wanghia, also known as the Treaty of Peace, Amity, and Commerce between the United States and the Chinese Empire in 1844.

This sounds like exactly the same tactic that was used on the Japanese by the U. S. Navy’s Commodore Perry – warships visiting Tokyo and threats – resulting in the Treaty of Kanagawa, also known as a “Treaty of Peace and Amity” in 1854.

Within six years of the signing of the Treaty of Wanghia, China was enmeshed in the Taiping Rebellion, a civil war between 1850 and 1864.

It was a civil war between the established Qing Dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, and Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, an unrecognized oppositional state in China supporting the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty.

Though, we are told, the Qing Dynasty ultimately defeated the opposing forces with the eventual help of British and French forces, the Taiping Rebellion left the economic heartland of China in the central and lower Yangzi River basins in ruins, and millions of people lost their lives as a result of it, as well as that in western eyes, China was marked as poor and backwards.

Okay, so that’s little bit more about Caleb Cushing.

Been talking about George Peabody, so what about Junius Spencer Morgan, the man the book says George Peabody hired in 1854 to handle the funds Cushing had transferred from Peabody’s bank to the United States for the Southern insurrections who were calling for the dissolution of the Union.

Junius Spencer Morgan was the founder of the company that would become J. S. Morgan & Company in 1864, that was the successor company to George Peabody & Company, of which he became the Junior Partner in October of 1854.

In 1854, Morgan was put in charge of the firm’s iron portfolio, which included the marketing of railroad bonds in London and New York.

By the time J. S. Morgan died in 1890, the Morgan banks were the dominant forces in government and railroad finance, and his son John Pierpont Morgan had taken the helm of the company, becoming known as. J. P. Morgan & Company in 1895.

J. P. Morgan, an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance on Wall Street throughout this period of time, also known as the “Gilded Age,” between the years of 1870 and 1900.

He was a driving force behind the wave of industrial consolidation in the United States in the late 18th- and early 19th-centuries…

…including the creation of U. S. Steel in 1901 by merging three companies into one, and creating the world’s first billion-dollar corporation!

So, anyway, what about the others who were at that February 21st of 1854 meeting at the house of George Sanders, American Consul, and the person who was said to have handled the Peabody funds in London, according to the “Secret Founding of America” book.

These two different sources information name many of the same names at being at this meeting.

The over-lapping names between the two lists are: Sanders, Mazzini, Garibaldi, Kossuth, Ruge, Herzen, and the future American President James Buchanan, the 15th-President, who served in the years immediately preceding the Civil War.

George Sanders was appointed as the Consul in London during the administration of President Franklin Pierce.

He was involved in the “Young America” movement, which had become a faction in the Democratic Party in the 1850s.

Sanders was believed to have been involved in the plot to assassinate Abraham Lincoln, though he escaped being taken into custody after it took place.

Giuseppe Garibaldi was an Italian general and revolutionary, and follower of Mazzini who embraced the republican nationalism of the Young Italy movement.

Garibaldi was born in Nice on July 4th of 1807, which was part of the French First Republic, which was founded in September of 1792 during the French Revolution and ended with the declaration of the First Empire in May of 1804 under Napoleon Bonaparte.

His family was Ligurian, the coastal region of northwestern Italy bordered by Monaco and France on the Ligurian Sea.

In 1814, Nice was returned to King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna.

Then Nice was returned to France in 1860 by the Treaty of Turin, conducted between France and Piedmont-Sardinia,and in which the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice were annexed to France.

Garibaldi ardently opposed this.

Garibaldi was certified in 1832 as a merchant navy sea captain and an active participant in the Nizzardo Italian Community of Nice that wanted the County of Nice annexed to the Kingdom of Italy.

In April of 1833, Garibaldi joined the Young Italy movement of Giuseppe Mazzini, a proponent of Italian unification as a liberal republic via liberal and social reform, and they met for the first time in November of 1833.

Garibaldi joined the Italian Carbonari movement, a network of secret revolutionary societies divided into small covert cells that was active from about 1800 to the 1830s.

Garibaldi participated in a failed Mazzini insurrection in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy in February of 1834, and fled the country ultimately finding his way to Brazil.

There, among other things, he participated in the successful effort of the Riograndense Republic to secede from the Empire of Brazil during the Ragamuffin War of 1835, a republican uprising that began in southern Brazil in what is now the Rio Grande de Sul Province.

In 1841, Garibaldi moved to Uruguay where first he worked as a trader and schoolmaster.

Garibaldi took command of the Uruguayan fleet, however, in 1842, and raised an Italian legion of soldiers, known as Red Shirts, from the large Italian population of the capital city of Montevideo for the Uruguayan Civil War, which officially went from 1839 to 1850, but unofficially started in 1832 and ended in 1904.

The Red Shirts became the symbols of Garibaldi and his followers.

Garibaldi joined the Freemasons in 1844 when he was initiated into a masonic lodge in Montevideo while in Uruguay.

He was eventually elected as the Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Italy, and he saw freemasonry as a network othat united progressive men as brothers within nations and countries.

Garibaldi returned to Italy in the midst of the Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian States, and first offered his services in Piedmont to King Charles Albert of Sardinia.

Rebuffed, he offered his services to the provisional government of Milan in Italy’s Lombardy region, and won some minor battles for them in their fight against Austrian occupation during the First War of Italian Independence from March of 1848 to August of 1849, after which Austria remained dominant in Italy until the Second War of Italian Independence.

Garibaldi commanded the Defense of Rome against a French Force sent by Louis Napoleon.

The French overthrew the Roman Republic,which had briefly replaced the Papal States, and the Pope was restored to power, but the defeat in Rome strengthened the cause of Italian Unification.

Garibaldi went to New York in 1850, where he anticipated becoming the captain of a merchant ship which was being built, but for which the funds ran out.

While in New York, he was said to have attended masonic lodges there, meeting supporters of democratic internationalism and socialist thought, and he worked in a candle factory in the Rosebank section of Staten Island owned by Italian inventor Antonio Meucci, preserved today as a memorial to Garibaldi.

He was dissatisfied with this, and Garibaldi left New York for Central America, going first to Nicaragua and other parts of the region with a travelling companion.

Then, he went on to Lima, Peru, in and took command of the ship Carmen, going first to the granite Chincha Islands off the coast of Peru for a load of guano.

Guano is defined as the excrement of seabirds and bats that is used as a fertilizer.

Then Garibaldi took off on several trading voyage across the Pacific, to places in China like Canton, and Manila in the Philippines; around the southern coast of Australia and the Bass Strait; and around Cape Horn at the tip of South America heading back to New York and Boston with goods like copper and wool.

In November of 1853, after resigning his command of the Carmen, he sailed to England in command of the Commonwealth, and having arrived on March 21st of 1854 according to the references I have found about Garibaldi’s life. This still puts him in England in the ballpark of the historical time-frame of the February 21st meeting at George Sanders house.

There’s a lot more to Garibaldi’s story, but this gives you the idea about how he fits in to our historical narrative.

Arnold Ruge was a member of the “Young Hegelians” and expressed his belief that history is a progressive advance towards the realization of freedom, and that freedom is expressed in the State, the creation of a rational general will, which is the will of the people as a whole.

A believer in a unified Germany, and also involved in the Revolutions of 1848, Ruge organized the extreme left in the Frankfurt Parliament.

He was forced to take refuge in London in 1849, where he met up with Giuseppe Mazzini, and formed the “European Democratic Party.”

He was considered a leader in religious and political liberalism in his time.

As mentioned in this paragraph from “The Secret Founding of America,” Ruge was co-editor of a revolutionary magazine for “Young Germany” with Karl Marx, who also happened to be living in London during this same time-frame, where he had moved in 1850, and was to have his home base in London for the rest of his life.

As a matter of fact, another German-born revolutionary socialist, Friederich Engles, and Russian revolutionary socialist, Vladimir Lenin, along with Karl Marx, all lived in London at some point in time!

The name Herzen at the February 1854 meeting was Alexander Herzen, a Russian writer and thinker known as the “Father of Russian Socialism” and one of the main fathers of “Agrarian Populism.”

Herzen was born out of wedlock to a rich Russian landowner in April of 1812, right before Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

He left Russia for good in 1847, landing first in Paris, where he supported the Revolutions of 1848, but was disillusioned with the failure of associated European Socialist movements.

He had assets from his inheritance that were frozen after he emigrated from Russia, but because of a business relationship of his family with Baron James de Rothschild in Paris, who negotiated the release of Herzen’s assets which were nominally transferred to Rothschild.

He ended up in London in 1852, where he started his own printing company, the “Free Russian Press” in 1853, with a view to becoming the “uncensored voice of free Russia.”

The “Free Russian Press” was launched shortly before the beginning of the Crimean War, which started in October of 1853, and ended in February of 1856, and which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance comprised of France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom, and Sardinia.

This is a painting depicting the “Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Balaklava,” which took place during the Crimean War in the Ukraine on October 25th of 1854, which resulted in a failed attack by a British Light Cavalry unit led by Lord Cardigan against Russian forces.

Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during much of Queen Victoria’s long reign, made the battle famous in his poem “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” which was published only six-weeks after the event, in which he emphasized the valor of the brave cavalry carrying out its orders, regardless of well-prepared artillery units and high casualties until it was forced to retreat.

The Russian Empire lost the Crimean War in the end, resulting in a weaker Imperial Army, a drained treasury, and its influence undermined in Europe.

The future U. S. President James Buchanan was named as President Franklin Pierce’s Ambassador, or Minister to the United Kingdom, a position he held from August 23rd of 1853 to March 15th of 1856.

So he would have also been in London at the time of the aforementioned meeting on February 21st of 1854.

James Buchanan was nominated to be the Democratic Party’s Presidential nominee in 1856, and said to have benefited from being out of the country when he was living in London and not associated with slavery issues, and won the 1856 election with his running mate John C. Breckinridge.

As President, he was said to have intervened in the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott case to gather majority support for a pro-slavery decision, in which a majority of the Supreme Court ruled in March of 1857 that the United States Constitution was not meant to include citizenship for people of what was called African-descent (who were in actuality the indigenous Moorish people of North America), so that the rights and privileges of the Constitution could not be conferred on them…

…and Buchanan attempted to engineer Kansas entering the Union as a slave state, by sending a message to Congress urging the acceptance of Kansas as a slave state, which it rejected and set the admission for Kansas as a free state in June of 1861.

This was several years after the Kansas-Nebraska Act became law on May 30th of 1854, creating the two new Territories and allowing for popular sovereignty.

It also produced a violent uprising known as “Bleeding Kansas” when pro-slavery and anti-slavery activists flooded into the new territories seeking to sway the vote.

Ultimately the cause of eleven states to secede from the Union in 1860 was in support of states’ rights in the context of slavery to support the South’s agricultural economy, and the federal government not overturning abolitionist policies in the North and in new territories.

As a matter of fact, James Buchanan went down in history as the worst President of the United States.

I wonder if he took a hit to his reputation for the team?

More on this possibility from “The Secret Founding of America” book in just a moment.

The last named person at the meeting in London that I haven’t touched upon being in London yet was Louis Kossuth, the Hungarian Revolutionary.

Louis Kossuth, a member of the Hungarian lower nobility through his family origins, was a leader of the 1848 Revolution in Europe, and he inspired the people in speeches to rise up against the Austrian Empire, which was created by proclamation in 1804 out of the realms of the Habsburg Empire, and included Hungary.

The Hungarian Declaration of Independence declared the Independence of Hungary from the Habsburg Monarchy during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, issued by Louis Kossuth from the Protestant Great Church of Debrecen, said to have been built between 1805 and 1824, and which passed the National Assembly on April 13th of 1849.

Subsequently, Kossuth was the first, and only, Governor-President of the short-lived Hungarian State in 1849 from April 14th to August 11th.

In the meantime, an alliance was formed in May between the Austrian Empire and the Russian Empire, and by August of 1849, the Hungarian Army had been defeated, and the new State of Hungary ended.

Louis Kossuth left Hungary, and as things went, ended up in Great Britain, touring and speaking for a couple of weeks, in 1851, and then left for a trip to the United States, and in the 1851 – 1852 time-frame toured the country, during which time he gave a speech to a meeting of the joint-houses of the U. S. Congress, where a bust of him in the U. S. Capitol building can be found today.

He applied for admission to the Freemasonic Grand Lodge #133 of Cincinnati…

…which was the same Cincinnati lodge used by Kossuth and Lemmi as headquarters for their “Young America” lodges mentioned previously in the book, which also referenced the steps taken to “begin the process of bringing about a civil war by forming revolutionary groups throughout the United States to intensify the debate on slavery.”

Kossuth returned to London from America in July of 1852, where he lived for the next eight-years.

So, based on a review of what is in the written historical narrative about the men listed that were said to have been at the February 21st of 1854 meeting in London were actually living in London at the time of the meeting, and most of the men at the meeting were known revolutionaries.

What else did “The Secret Founding of America” have to say?

I was really interested in this section because I have come across Albert Pike on several occasions in my research.

According to the earlier paragraph shown, Caleb Cushing had ties to the Northern Jurisdiction of Freemasonry and became the architect of the Civil War…

…and in the next paragraph, it says that Caleb Cushing tapped Albert Pike to take the steps necessary to become the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction of Scottish Rite Freemasonry.

It is not hard to find Albert Pike’s connection to Freemasonry in the historical record.

Not hard at all.

What is hard to find is Albert Pike’s and Freemasonry’s connection to historical events, and that is why I was so glad to find this, because there are other very interesting pieces of information that I have come across that point to a deep involvement in major events of the 20th-century that are hard to substantiate.

I will explain what I mean by this shortly.

A couple more things before I leave this informative book.

One was the mention Caleb Cushing’s role in encouraging the previously mentioned 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act.

According to this paragraph, Caleb Cushing used former Master Mason John Brown to cause the Civil War.

And indeed John Brown was very involved in what happened in “Bleeding Kansas.”

John Brown was best known for the Harper’s Ferry raid on October 16th of 1859 in West Virginia.

There was a federal arsenal located there, and while the plan was to raid the arsenal and instigate a major slave rebellion in the South, he had no rations or escape route.

In 36-hours, troops under the command of then Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee had arrested him and his cohorts, who had withdrawn to the engine house after they had been surrounded by local citizens and militia.

So while his plan was doomed from the start, it did serve to deepen the divide between the North and South.

John Brown was hung on December 2nd of 1859, less than two months after the onset of the Harper’s Ferry Raid.

Did John Brown take one for the team, too?

Or did he not see that one coming?

Another involves several of Albert Pike’s roles during the Civil War.

One is that when he became the most powerful Mason in the World when he became the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Southern Jurisdiction; he secretly organized the rebellion in the Southern States using this jurisdiction as a cover; and that most of the leadership of the Confederacy, both political and military, were Freemasons under Pike’s secret command.

One of the first times in my research that I came across Albert Pike’s name in connection with the Civil War was finding out that he was a senior officer in the Confederate Army who commanded the District of Indian Territory, what later became known as Oklahoma, in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War.

The Trans-Mississippi Theater of the Civil War covered everything west of the Mississippi River as pictured here.

We are told that there were all together 7 battles in Arkansas, New Mexico, Missouri and Louisiana between 1862 and 1864 in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of War.

This region was also the heart of the ancient Washitaw Empire, with Monroe, Louisiana being the Imperial Seat, in what was known as “Washitaw Proper.”

I think what was really going on here was very different from what we are told, and it has everything to do with what actually happened to the advanced, ancient Empire that was originally here.

Let’s take a look at some details from the American Civil War.

During the entire course of the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865, there were an estimated 10,500 battles, engagements, and other military actions fought in 23 states, with over 650,000 casualties.

I am going to focus on Fort Sumter and Charleston Harbor and see what comes up.

The official beginning of the American Civil War was said to be the Battle of Fort Sumter between April 12th and 13th of 1861, in South Carolina’s Charleston Harbor, with victory going to the Confederate forces under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard.

This is Fort Sumter today.

It is described as a sea fort that was said to have been built starting in 1829 as one of a series of fortifications on the southern coast of the United States to protect American harbors from foreign invaders, and said to have never been fully completed.

70,000 tons of granite? Which is 63,500 metric tons?

To build up the artificial island the fort is situated on, we are told that 70,000 tons of granite were transported to South Carolina from New England.

How did they manage to accomplish transporting that weight of stone according to the history we have been taught?

Oh…okay…apparently on schooners.

That makes perfect sense, right?!

When I pulled up a map looking for Fort Sumter, I found this one showing at least 9 references to forts, batteries, castles in Charleston Harbor.

The “Star of the West” Battery is at the head of the Main Channel leading into Charleston Harbor.

Apparently the battery received its name from a civilian steamship that was built in 1852 for Cornelius Vanderbilt.

The “Star of the West” was used in an effort to re-supply Union troops at Fort Sumter on January 9th of 1861, several weeks after South Carolina had become the first state to secede from the Union on December 20th of 1860, and was fired upon by an artillery battery situated on Morris Island.

The “Star of the West” steamship ended up having a storied career during the Civil War, and ended up at the bottom of the Tallahatchie Channel near Yazoo City in Mississippi, where she was deliberately scuttled and sunk by Confederate forces before the Battle of Fort Pemberton, an earthen fort said to have been built hurriedly by Confederate forces, which resulted in a victory for them which took place on April 12th of 1863, two years exactly after the Battle of Fort Sumter.

The Cummings Point Battery was located on a promontory of Morris Island, and was directly across the harbor from Fort Sumter.

The battery on Cummings Point was said to be an earthwork in a belt of waterfront fortifications, and to have originally been built in February of 1780, during the American Revolutionary War, under the direction of Colonel William Moultrie when it became clear that the British were going to attack Charleston from the south and west.

By the time of the American Civil War, it had been faced with bars of railroad iron placed side-by-side, and became known to history as the “ironclad battery.”

A story about the ironclad battery at Cummings Point appeared in Harper’s Weekly Magazine, on March 2nd of 1861, along with the 21st Chapter of Charles Dickens novel “Great Expectations,” which was first released in a serial format in his weekly periodical “All the Year Round,” starting December 1st of 1860, and apparently it appeared in other magazines as well.

Interesting.

I have come to believe most famous novelists including, but not limited to, Charles Dickens, Victor Hugo, Mark Twain, Jack London, and John Steinbeck, were all involved in delivering the brand-new historical narrative right into our collective minds.

When looking for information on the Cummings Point battery, I found the historical Fort Wagner on Morris Island, which would have been located between the “Star of the West” battery to the south and the Cummings Point battery to the north of it.

The Battle of Fort Wagner took place on July 18th of 1863, where the 54th Massachusetts, known to history as the first African-American regiment in the Union Army, unsuccessfully assaulted Fort Wagner as depicted in the 1989 movie “Glory.”

Nothing remains of the physical infrastructure of Fort Wagner today…

…as apparently it was somehow lost to the sea in the late-1800s.

On the same side of the Charleston Harbor as Fort Wagner, and the two batteries I just mentioned, Fort Johnson was located further up towards the city of Charleston, on the coast of James Island, where the first shot of the Civil War was said to have been fired at Fort Sumter by Confederate soldiers…

…of which its only remains today are only two cisterns…

…and the old magazine, said to have been built in 1765, buried by Confederate soldiers during the Civil War, and uncovered in 1931.

Fort Sumter was located in Charleston Harbor almost directly in-between where Fort Johnson was located on James Island, and Fort Moultrie, which is still standing on Sullivan Island on the other side of the Harbor from Fort Sumter.

The first fort built on this location, Fort Sullivan, was said to have been built from Palmetto logs, giving the inspiration for the flag of South Carolina and its nickname “The Palmetto State,” and said to have been still incomplete when it was attacked by the British during the American Revolutionary War in 1776, and named after the commander, Colonel William Moultrie.

This is the fort standing on Sullivan Island today.

What is called the Moultrie flag on the left was flown during the defense of Fort Sullivan in 1776.

The Palmetto was added in 1861, and it was adopted as the state flag.

Another battle commander’s flag with the crescent symbol in the upper-left-hand corner was the flag of Confederate Army Major General Earl van Dorn, the great-nephew of Andrew Jackson, who led the Confederate forces at the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas in March of 1862.

This was the battle flag of General Van Dorn.

Why are there crescent images on these battle flags?

The star and crescent symbolism has been identified with Islam, and what we are told is that this happened primarily with the emergence of the Ottoman Turks, and for one example of several national flags, are depicted on the modern Turkish flag.

I also read where the Egyptian hieroglyphs of a star and the crescent moon denote the Venus Cycle from morning star to evening star.

The Floating Battery was said to be located at the northern tip of Sullivan Island, above the location of Fort Moultrie.

We are told it was an ironclad vessel constructed by the Confederacy early in 1861 before the start of the war, and as a strategic naval platform, it was utilized in the April 12th and 13th bombardment of Fort Sumter.

The last three things I am going to look at on the map of the Charleston Harbor Defenses are the Mt. Pleasant Batteries; the Castle Pinckney; and the tip of Charleston known as “the Battery.

Along the coast of Mt. Pleasant which includes Hog Island, there were three Confederate batteries said to have been constructed over the course of the war to defend Charleston Harbor.

Battery Gary was said to be the first one constructed, and utilized in the bombardment of Fort Sumter in April of 1861.

Interesting side-note…Charleston’s professional soccer team is called the “Charleston Battery” and their stadium is located at Patriots Point in Mt. Pleasant.

Next up for scrutiny is Castle Pinckney.

Castle Pinckney is located on what is called Shute’s Folly in Charleston Harbor between Patriot’s Point and “The Battery” of Charleston.

We are told that Castle Pinckney was a small masonry fortification built by the United States government in 1810, and was used as an artillery position during the Civil War, garrisoned by the Charleston Zouave Cadets, a light infantry regiment of the French Army, after the attack on Fort Sumter.

Zouave units were said to have been used on both sides of the conflict.

Castle Pinckney was declared a National Monument in 1924, and then in 1951, Congress passed a bill to abolish its status as a National Monument.

Since then, primarily under state ownership, it has undergone some limited restoration efforts, but is in the process of being reclaimed by nature.

Lastly, I am going to take a look at “The Battery,” described as a defensive seawall and promenade in Charleston, and said to have been named for a civil war coastal defense battery at the site.

The Battery is famous for its antebellum homes…

…and its great view of Fort Sumter!

Interestingly, this is called the “Crisp Map of Charleston” from 1711, named after its English publisher Edward Crisp based on a 1704 survey he did, showing Charleston as a walled, bastioned star city.

I found one reference that called this map a “flawed, 19th-century fake.”

Well, that may be, but this is said to be the 1721 Herbert Map, showing the same idea.

I am going to end with the subject of what kinds of things happened in the year of 1871, a very eventful year it would seem, only a short 6-years after the end of the American Civil War in 1865.

First, I encountered in my research the short-lived Paris Commune, established on March 28th of 1871, which was a radical socialist, anti-religious and revolutionary government that ruled Paris until it was suppressed by the French army in May of 1871.

What happened in the Paris Commune was closely followed by London resident Karl Marx, who published a pamphlet in June of 1871, called “The Civil War in France,” about the significance of the struggle of the Communards in the Paris Commune.

What we know of as Commune-ism is also known as Marx-ism, and still very much with us today.

Why is that?

The second subject are these graphics I have encountered displaying alleged quotes of Albert Pike’s about World Wars I, II, and III.

The following three quotes that appear to be the military blueprint for three world wars were said to have been contained a letter written Albert Pike to Giuseppe Mazzini in 1871.

I have encountered the quotes and the information about them being from Pike’s letter to Mazzini before, but this is the first time I have encountered a real-life Mazzini, and others, with which to connect the information.

For the First World War, he was talking about the Illuminati overthrowing the Czars and making Russia a fortress of atheistic communism in the same year Karl Marx first wrote about Communism with regards to the Paris Commune. 

Coincidence?

For the Second World, he talked about taking advantage of the differences between Fascists and Zionists; destroying Nazism; Zionism creating Israel, and Communism being strong enough to control Christendom.

And for the Third World War, the Illuminati taking advantage of the differences between Zionist and Islamic leaders so they mutually destroy each other.

Any of this sound familiar to what we know in the present-day?

It does to me.

Could all of these conflicts, at least since the American Civil War, and maybe even the Crimean War and other wars of the 19th-century, been planned, even scripted out, for the Controller’s desired outcome, which was world control and domination?

Also, 1871 was the year the U. S. Congress passed the “District of Columbia Organic Act,” which repealed the charters of the cities of Washington and Georgetown, and established a new territorial government for the District of Columbia.

This created a single municipal government for the federal district, which was incorporated, defined as the process of “constituting a company, city, or other organization as a legal corporation.”

Thus the 1871 U. S. Corporation was born, which opened the door for ownership by foreign interests.

I am passionate about trying to find out how we got to the craziness of the world we live in today from what was originally a very advanced, integrated, and harmonious world civilization…when it was the Old World Order and not the New World Order.

Hopefully I have been able to shine some light on this vast subject of what might have taken place here that is available to find in a search, that in some way, shape, and form provides a plausible explanation for how we might have gotten to this point.

Did you know that the famous American author, Jack London, was also a Socialist?

And that he published a book in 1908 called “The Iron Heel,” about the rise of an oligarchic tyranny in the United States.

An oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

The story-line emphasized future changes in society and politics, and not technological changes. It is called a dystopian novel, meaning characterized by mass poverty, public mistrust and suspicion, a police state or oppression.

They have actually been telling us in a disguised way all along because they are required to tell us what they are doing in order to gain our consent because of our Free Will…

…so they have to managed to convince us that handing over our freedom is our own idea.

See how that works?!!

They have been working on getting us to this place for a very long time, but they have lost control of the narrative, no matter how hard they try to get it back!

Author: Michelle Gibson

I firmly believe there would be no mysteries in history if we had been told the true history. I intend to provide compelling evidence to support this. I have been fascinated by megaliths most of my life, and my journey has led me to uncovering the key to the truth. I found a star tetrahedron on the North American continent by connecting the dots of major cities, and extended the lines out. Then I wrote down the cities that lined lined up primarily in circular fashion, and got an amazing tour of the world of places I had never heard of with remarkable similarities across countries. This whole process, and other pieces of the puzzle that fell into place, brought up information that needs to be brought back into collective awareness.

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