So far in this series, tracking the circle alignment that begins, and ends, in Algiers, the journey has taken us through Algeria, Mali, and Guinea in West Africa, across the Atlantic Ocean over the Equatorial Counter Current, to where the alignment enters South America in Brazil. The last post ended in Manaus, Brazil, the largest city in the Amazon Rainforest.
The starting point on the alignment for this post is Concordia, a town in the Colombia Department of Antioquia, in the Southwestern Subregion of the Department.
It is said to have been founded in 1830.
It is located in the mountains, and coffee farming is the primary economic activity for the people who live here.
Coffee Community Aid operates La Josefina Cooperative in Concordia, and provides direct assistance to improve the quality of life for the people who live here.
The average farm size is 4 hectares, or about 10 acres, producing 600 pounds of green coffee…
… or 480 pounds of roasted coffee each year.
Concordia, in Antioquia, is just north of a vast region of Colombia which this alignment passes through, known as the Coffee Triangle, Coffee Growing Axis, or the Colombian Coffee Region. It is comprised of the Departments of Caldas, Quindio, Risaraldo, and Tolima.
Nestled within the Coffee Triangle is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – the Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia (CCLC) – designated since 2011.
This region is in the central and western foothills of the Andes Mountain Range.
Interestingly, there is a direct connection to Africa with this piece of information. The coffee plant, or Coffea Arabica, originated in Ethiopia.
This is a photo of an Ethiopian coffee farm where the Sidamo coffee bean is grown, in the Province of Sidamo in the Ethiopian Highlands.
So the growing of coffee is freely acknowledged to have originated in the Ethiopian highlands.
It is said, however, to have spread through the Arab and European worlds in the 16th- and 17th-centuries, and that it came to South America in the 18th-century.
According to this map, there is a convoluted history story given to us showing how the Coffea Arabica plant was distributed around the world, with the point of origin in Ethiopia. It shows that Ethiopia’s neighboring countries of Kenya and Tanzania didn’t get the coffee plant until the late 1800s, and Cameroon, almost directly across the continent from Ethiopia, didn’t get the coffee plant until the early 1900s. Hmmmm.
I read that it was said no one is exactly sure who inhabited the mountainous regions of Colombia in pre-Columbian times.
This is where the available history on the Antioquia Department gets really interesting. While it does not mention Ethiopia, it does mention other things that one would not expect to find here.
For one thing, the Spanish to English translation of Antioquiao is Antioch.
What is the name Antioch doing in Colombia? Antioch, we are told, was an important city in Ancient Syria.
Prior to the Colombian Constitution of 1886, Antioquia was a state with its own sovereign government. This map shows the boundaries of Antioquia in 1863.
Prior to the Spanish Conquest, this area was primarily inhabited by the Muisca, an indigenous people here the formed the Muisca Confederation. Their language was called Muysca or Mosca.
If this is the first time you are hearing of the Muisca, we are told they were one of the four advanced civilizations of the Americas encountered by the Conquistadors, the other three being the much better known Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas. Why would they be removed from the history books, I wonder?
Here are some examples of their workmanship in gold. This conch shell is one…
…and this ceremonial raft is another.
From estimates of a population through this region of up to three million people at the time of the arrival of Spanish Conquistadors, the modern population number for the Muisca people is approximately 14,000.
This is the pre-Columbian Muisca archeoastronomical site, in Villa de Leyva in Colombia, called El Infiernito. This means “Little Hell” in Spanish.
It is comprised of several earthworks surrounding a setting of pink sandstone menhirs (upright standing stones). To date, a total of 109 standing stones have been excavated. It served as an astronomical observatory, for at least one of its purposes.
The other interesting thing I want to bring forward about Antioquia’s history is this.
There is considerable evidence about a historical Basque presence here, especially with regards to Basque surnames in the population, and Basque terminology in the language.
The Basques are ancient people, with their homeland being considered Basque Country in Spain and France. The language and DNA of the Basques are distinct. Their language, Euskara, is the only pre-Indo- European language that is still spoken in Europe.
While there has been significant Basque emigration here from Basque Country over the last couple of centuries, for researchers into this subject, it does not easily explain the prevalence of the use and retention of the Basque language here, in a place conquered and colonized by the Spanish. The Spanish dialect of Antioquia is heavily influenced by the Basque language, indicative of a long-time presence in this region of Colombia.
Moving further up the circle alignment in Colombia from Concordia is Bogota, the capital and largest city of Colombia. Administered as the Capital District, it is has the same administrative status as Colombia’s other departments.
Bogota was said to have been founded in 1538 by the Spanish Conquistador Jimenez de Quesada, after he somehow managed to conquer the powerful Muisca.
It was the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada, which included lands of present-day Colombia, Venezuala and Panama.
This was the flag of the New Kingdom of Granada.
Bogota is located in the center of Colombia on a high plateau known as the Bogota Savannah in the eastern ranges of the Colombian Andes…
…which is part of the larger Altiplano Cundiboyacense, which is a high plateau in the eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes.
Tequendama Falls are 20 miles southwest of Bogota, and formed from where the Bogota River reaches the southwestern edge of the plateau. If you have been following my work, I have shared that I consistently find waterfalls on planetary alignments.
The definition of a plateau is an area of highland consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateau is one of the code words used to cover-up ancient infrastructure. In this photograph of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense you can see relatively flat ground in the fore- to mid-ground.
In the center of this next photo of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, there are smooth and rounded shapes that would be called hills, but actually look like mounds or earthworks…
…and are compared with an acknowledge earthwork called the Skipsea Castle Motte in East Yorkshire, England that it is being studied as part of the Round Mound Project by the University of Reading and the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Center…
…as is Castle Hill in Thetford, England.
Another one of the recurring features on these alignments are canal systems, and Bogota is no exception. This canal is in Suba, in the 11th locality of Bogota, in the northwest part of the city…
…and this one is in the Parque el Virrey in North Bogota.
The next place is Medellin, which is the capital of Antioquia, and Colombia’s second-largest city.
We are told the Museo el Castillo was modelled after the French chateaux of the Loire Valley and built by the first architectural firm in Medellin in the 1930s for a prominent Medellin family, becoming an art museum in 1971.
This is a chateau in the Loire Valley in France, the Chateau Chenonceau, said to have been built in the early 1500s.
My question is, based on what we have been taught about our history, how did they build these two castles when they are said to have been built? We are not supposed to have had advanced building technology in these eras, and we can’t even build with stone like this today.
I think something is going on with falsely attributing builders all over the world. See my dedicated blog post on this subject “Castles and Ruins in North America” for more information on why I say this.
Here is another example of what I am talking about. This is the Uribe Palace of Culture, in Medellin’s Botero Plaza…
…said to have been built between 1925 and 1932…
…compared with The Seo, or Cathedral of San Salvador in Zaragoza, Spain, said to have been consecrated in 1318.
The Seo is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Mudejar Architecture of Aragon. Mudejar is the name given to Moors of El-Andalus during the Christian Reconquista.
While the Moors are given credit in our history books for ruling Spain from 711 A.D. to 1492 A.D. we are given pretty much the same dates for the time period of the Christian Reconquista.
One more thing I want to share before leaving the Medellin area. This is the Stone of El Penol in Guatape, Colombia, which is a short distance east of Medellin in Antioquia.
The new town of El Penol claims the granite monolith as their own too, and the old town of El Penol is underwater because of a hydroelectric dam project.
As a matter of fact, the rock rises from the bottom of the Penol-Guatape hydroelectric dam.
The staircase is the only way to get up to the top, where there is this brick observatory and other infrastructure. However they did it, it would be a heck of a job getting all the building supplies up to the top, much less build everything. Just saying.
Next the alignment crosses over Panama’s Isla del Rey, or King Island, the largest of the Pearl Islands in the Gulf of Panama.
..at the port town of San Miguel on the northwestern coast of the island.
On a modern pop culture note, the 2003 series of “Survivor: Pearl Islands” was filmed on Isla del Rey. I actually think I saw all of that one. I stopped watching “Survivor,” and television, a long time ago.
The alignment crosses mainland Panama at Panama City, the capital and largest city of Panama.
The city is located at the Pacific Entrance of the Panama Canal.
Panama City was said to have been founded by the Spanish Conquistador Pedro Arias D’Avila in 1519, and used as the starting point for the expeditions that conquered the Inca Empire in Peru.
Panama Viejo, the original city, is said to have been destroyed by fire after being sacked by the Welsh pirate Henry Morgan in 1671.
This is a diorama showing was Panama Viejo would have looked like before 1671, which apparently included a star fort at this location.
And now that I am looking at the actual ruins of Panama Viejo, I question that fire was the only thing that destroyed this place. Maybe he torched the place, but this is stone. It would take more than fire to create the ruins seen here to day.
The still existing historical district of Panama City, Casco Viejo, we are told was built and settled in 1673, immediately after the destruction of Panama Viejo.
This is a street view of the Casco Viejo in Panama City…
…compared with Old Sao Luis back where the alignment enters South America on the Brazilian coast. The streets are curving in opposite directions, but in the old towns of both places, the architecture is similar, and both streets are steeply sloping. Both are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Another example of this striking similarity is the Plaza de la Independencia, the main square of Spanish Casco Vieja in Panama City…
…compared with the old historic center of Portuguese Sao Luis, back on the coast of Brazil.
I am going to end this post here, and pick up the alignment in the next post as it tracks over the Panama Canal.