The Advanced Engineering of Reservoirs & Hydro-Electric Projects – Part 1 North America

I have always found reservoirs and dams/hydroelectric projects to be very interesting in my research, as I have found many in the process of tracking the Earth’s grid-lines.

As a matter of fact, they are go-to places for me when they surface at a place I am looking into on a particular alignment.

In this post, I am going to share with you why I find them such a noteworthy topic for investigation into the ancient advanced civilization that has been removed from our collective awareness.

I am going to start my investigation into this topic with the northern part of the Province of Quebec in Canada.

Lake Manicouagan is described as an annular, or ring, lake, covering an area of 750-square-miles, or 1,942-kilometers-squared, in Central Quebec.

Rene-Lavesseur Island in the center of the lake is classified as the world’s second-largest lake-island.

We are told that Lake Manicouagan is an impact crater formed by a meteor.

The crater is described as a multiple-ringed structure, about 60-miles, or 100-km, across, with the Manicouagan Reservoir at its 40-mile, or 70-kilometer inner ring being its most prominent feature.

We are also told the creation of the Daniel-Johnson Dam, with its construction starting in 1959, created the Manicouagan Reservoir as it presently exists, and part of the Manicouagan, or Manic, series of hydroelectric projects undertaken by Hydro-Quebec, the provincial electrical utility.

The reservoir, acting as a giant headpond for the Manicouagan River, feeds the Jean-Lesage generating system, which opened in 1967…

…and the Rene Levesque generating station, which opened in 1976…

…and is an underground hydroelectric power plant with six power-generating units.

The Wembo-Nyama Ring Structure in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is similar in appearance to Lake Manicouagan…

…and is also described as a circular meteor impact crater, which the Unia River flows around, with many tributaries, like Lake Manicouagan.

Another so-called impact crater on northern Quebec’s Ungava Peninsula in Pingualuit National Park…

…is the Pingualuit crater.

Another meteor-impact forming a perfect circle in the landscape?

Only this time, we find that Pingualuit is one of the deepest lakes in North America, said to be 876 feet, or 267 meters, deep, and holds some of the purest fresh water in the world.

Compare Pingualuit with the Bacalar Cenote Azul, on the Yucatan Peninsula, not far from Chetumal, Mexico, said to be 295-feet, or 90-meters, deep.

My understanding about the planetary grid system is that it was intentionally created in accordance with sacred geometry, and that everything on it has meaning. When I realized that both of these deep circular wells are on peninsulas, on the same alignment I was tracking off of Algeria, I was guided to connect them with Algiers on the world map.

While Algiers may not be the third point of what could be an equilateral triangle relationship in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, there does appear to be an isosceles triangle relationship, one where two sides are of equal length, between these three points.

One of the largest hydroelectric systems in the world, the James Bay Project is a series of hydroelectric power stations on the LeGrande River in northwestern Quebec.

The red-dots on the map show where the James Bay Project’s power-generating stations are located.

Not without controversy, particularly regarding First Nations’ land claims in the region, we are told that by 1986, the largest power-stations and reservoirs were mostly completed, including the Robert Bourassa Generating Station, said to have been built between 1974 and 1981…

…named for the Premier of Quebec who gave the vital political impetus to the James Bay Project.

Some interesting things to note about the Robert Bourassa Generating Station.

It uses the reservoir and dam system of the Robert Bourassa Reservoir to generate electricity… 

…It is Canada’s largest hydroelectric power station, and is the world’s largest underground power station… 

…and the spillway is near the north-end of the main dam, and part of Dyke D-4, which is part of a section of dykes known as the “Staircase of the Giants,” .and notable for the spillway flowing down a 4,900-foot, or 1,500-meter, rock-cut channel, with ten steps ranging from 30- to 40-feet, or 9.1 – to 12.2-meters, in height, and 417- to 656-feet, or 127- to 200-meters in length. 

This is said to be a circa 1907 photograph of the Shawinigan Water & Power Company, which played a major role in the history of hydroelectricity in Canada.

At the end of the 19th-century, American engineers considered the Shawinigan Falls to be among the best hydroelectric sites in North America.

One of its founders in 1898 was the American businessman John Edward Aldred, who was born in 1864…

…and a Director of the United Railways and Electric Company…

…a President of Baltimore’s Consolidated Gas, Electric Light & Power…

…the Pennsylvania Water & Power Company…

…and a Chairman of the Gillette Safety Razor Company.

Another founder of the Shawinigan Water & Power Company was Andrew Frederick Gault, an Irish-born Canadian merchant, industrialist, and philanthropist born in 1833, and known to history as the Cotton King of Canada.

Andrew Gault was born in 1833, and emigrated with his family to Montreal in 1842. His father was said to have died of cholera 9-months later, and his mother returned to Ireland.

He and his brothers stayed in Montreal, and starting in 1853, Andrew Gault entered into a partnership in wholesale textiles with a man named Stephenson, and ultimately went into partnership with his brother, Robert, forming “Gault Brothers & Company.”

Now the “Hotel Gault,” this building was said to have been the location of the “Gault Brothers & Company Store” and warehouse building, built, we are told, in 1871.

Then in the early 1870’s, he went into business with his brother, Matthew, investing in cotton textiles, and they invested in a cotton mill in Cornwall, Ontario, known as the Stormont Manufacturing Works.

Gault also had investments in beet root sugar manufacturing; silk manufacturing; woollen mill companies; the Citizens’ Gas company in Montreal; manufacturing companies; and electric light and tramway company’s.

This was Gault’s home called Rokeby on Sherbrooke Street in Montreal, circa 1885.

I am bringing up these two founders of the Shawinigan Water & Power Company to show you how wealth, power, and control of utilities and amenities was consolidated into the hands of a few individuals early on in the new historical narrative we were given, of which the official start I have come to believe was the 1851 Exhibition of the Works of All Nations, held in the Crystal Palace in London.

All of this was part of the process of re-starting the existing infrastructure of the original ancient civilization in order to create the world we are living in today, where power and control were consolidated in the hands of a few, and upon whom, like in this example, we are required to pay for things like razor blades and cotton fabric for clothing, as well as electricity and water.

The people with the money had their hands in all of the action!

The Churchill Falls Generating Station is in the Province of Labrador, and is an underground hydroelectric power station.

It is the 10th-largest in the world, and the second-largest in Canada, after the Robert-Bourassa Generating Station in Quebec.

Rather than a single large dam, the plant’s Smallwood Reservoir is contained by 88-dykes, totaling 40-miles, or 64-kilometers, in length.

The Smallwood Reservoir has a catchment area that is larger than the Republic of Ireland, at 27,000-square-miles, or 72,000-kilometers-squared, that drops over 1,000-feet, or 305-meters, to the location of the plant’s 11 turbines.

The plant’s powerhouse was hewn from solid granite, 984-feet, or 300-meters, underground.

We are told construction began in 1967, and was completed in 1974, costing almost a billion Canadian dollars to build.

We are also told that the region opened up for this kind of development because of the completion of the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway, said to have been built between 1951 and 1954, and owned by the Iron Ore Company of Canada (IOC).

In 1958, the IOC opened the Wabash Ore Body near Labrador City, and that one and other iron ore reserve locations were developed through the region.

A good bridge between Canada and the United States on this subject is literally and figuratively Sault Ste. Marie, also referred to as “The Soo.”

Sault Ste. Marie was one city until the border between the United States and Canada was established at the St. Mary’s River in a treaty after the War of 1812, creating Sault Ste. Marie in Michigan, and Sault Ste. Marie in Ontario, on both sides of the St. Mary’s River.

In Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, the Edison Sault Electric Company Canal, also known as the Edison Sault Power Canal, supplies the St. Mary’s Falls Hydropower Plant, an 18-MW, with capacity up to 30-MW, hydroelectric generating plant.

Made from sandstone masonry, it was said to have been built under the supervision of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, starting in 1898, with operation starting in 1902, and is one of the oldest, continuously-operating power plants in North America. Just want to point out the doors in the middle of the building, above ground level. Seems to be an odd location for a full-size set of doors.

The water velocity of the power canal varies at times but can be up to 7-mph, or 11-kph, with the entrance being controlled by four steel headgates.

The first locks were said to have been built here in 1855, and operated by the State of Michigan until transferred to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1881, who owns and maintains and operates the St. Mary’s Falls Canal, within which the locks are located.

There are two hydroelectric powerhouses next to the Soo Locks, together generating 18.4-MW for the Soo Locks complex.

The Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge runs between the United States and Canada, which permits vehicular traffic to pass over the locks.

It is the northern terminus of I-75, which goes all the way to Miami, Florida.

The Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad bridge runs adjacent to the International Bridge, and was said to have been built in 1887. It has a vertical lift bridge and swing bridge features as well.

Really sophisticated engineering feats for the times!

Next are the St. Mary’s Falls, of which the International boundary goes through the middle.

In the right foreground of this photo, in front of the International Bridges, are what are known as the Compensating Works.

They consist of 17 piers and concrete aprons bearing on sandstone bedrock. Piers 1 – 9 are in Canada, and Piers 10 – 17 are in the United States. These were said to have been constructed between 1913 and 1919 (with World War I occurring between 1914 and 1918), and has an extremely sophisticated sluice gate and gate machinery system.

On the Ontario side of Sault Ste. Marie, is the Great Lakes Power Canal.

Great Lakes Power was established in the early 1900s by Francis H. Clergue.

He was another one of those early businessmen in on all of the action.

Francis H. Clergue was the leading industrialist of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, in the late 1800s and early 1900s.

In addition to Great Lakes Power, he established the Sault Ste. Marie Pulp and Paper Company in 1895…

…the Algoma Steel Factory, which is said to have opened in 1902, at which time the factory was said to have produced its first rail-tracks, and where it specialized in rails for Canadian Railways as its primary product for the next twenty-years, we are told.

Clergue was also credited with the development of the Algoma Central Railway, connecting it to the Transcontinental artery of Canada.

He was said to have initially owned it, and needed a way to transport logs from the Algoma District in northeastern Ontario for his pulp mill, and iron ore for the steel factory, and that it was chartered on August 11th, 1899. It was said to have been completed to Hearst, Ontario, in 1914.

This is the Algoma Central & Hudson Bay Railway Terminal Station in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, said to have been built in 1912.

Entering into the United States, I will start with several places on the West Coast.

In Washington State in the United States, the Grand Coulee High Dam was said to have been built between 1935 and 1942, during the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Keep in mind, this would have been during the middle of the Great Depression and half-way through World War II.

By its maximum capacity, it is the largest power station in the United States.

It is a concrete gravity dam on the Columbia River…

…and the centerpiece of the Columbia Basin Project, the irrigation network that the Grand Coulee Dam makes possible.

The Columbia Basin Project is the largest water reclamation project in the United States, supplying water to over 670,000 acres, or 2,700-kilometers-squared, of the 1.1 million acres, or 4,500-kilometers-squared, large project area, all of which was originally intended to be supplied.

We are told the proposal to build the dam was the focus of a bitter debate during the 1920s between two groups.

One group wanted to irrigate the ancient Grand Coulee with a gravity canal, while the other pursued a high-dam and pumping scheme.

The dam supporters were said to have won, and in August of 1934, FDR endorsed the “high dam” design.

The Grand Coulee is described as an ancient river bed.

A coulee, in the northwestern United States, is defined as a large, steep-walled, trench-like trough, which commonly are spillways and flood channels incised into the basalt plateau.

This was said to be an 1853 lithograph of the ancient Ground Coulee.

It stretches for about 60-miles, or 100-kilometers southwest from the Grand Coulee Dam to Soap Lake, being bisected by Dry Falls in to the Upper and Lower Grand Coulee, and part of the “Channeled Scablands” region of Washington State.

Dry Falls, a scalloped precipice with four major alcoves on the opposite side of the Upper Grand Coulee from the Columbia River, is described as one of the largest waterfalls ever known.

Estimates are that the falls were five times the width of Niagara Falls, with ten-times the flow of all the current rivers in the world combined…

…and which brings to my mind in appearance the King George Falls in the Kimberley region in Australia.

One of the theories about the formation of the “Channeled Scablands” from the 1920’s was that they were created by immense, but short, floods…for which the theorist, J. Harlan Bretz, had no explanation.

I can’t help but wonder what story we are not being told about this region.

The Chief Joseph Dam is further west along the Columbia River at Bridgeport, Washington, from where the Grand Coulee Dam is located…

…and is a concrete gravity dam, with construction said to have begun in 1950 and completed in 1961.

Operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers for the Bonneville Power Administration, it is the third-largest hydroelectric power producer in the United States.

As a run-of-the-river dam, which is not able to store large amounts of water, water flowing to the Chief Joseph Dam from the Grand Coulee Dam must be passed onto Wells Dam.

Wells Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Columbia River, downstream from the confluence of the Okanagon, Methow, and Columbia Rivers.

It has been open and producing electricity since August of 1967.

Lake Pateros is the reservoir for the Wells Dam.

The aerial picture seen here is of Chelan, Washington, which is located on Lake Pateros.

Of particular note is the shaped shoreline seen here.

While the lake is not deep, a high-volume of water moves through it.

The John Day Dam spans the Columbia River where it forms the border between the states of Washington and Oregon.

It was said to have been built between 1968 and 1971.

It is a concrete run-of-the river dam, featuring a navigation lock and fish-ladders on both sides.

The John Day navigational lock has the highest lift, at 110-feet or 34-meters, of any lock in the United States.

Lake Umatilla was said to have been created in 1971 with the construction of the John Day Dam, and is its reservoir.

The John Day Dam is located 28-miles, or 45-kilometers, east of the city of The Dalles in Oregon, where another dam is located.

The Dalles Dam is also a concrete, run-of-the-river dam spanning the Columbia River, said to have been built by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1952 and 1957.

The city of the Dalles was said to be a major Native American trading center for at least 10,000 years, and that the general area is one of North America’s most significant archeological regions.

The rising water filling The Dalles Dam submerged the Celilo Falls, and the village of Celilo, in 1957…

…the economic and cultural hub of Native Americans in the region, and said to be the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in North America.

We are told that 40 petroglyph panels were removed with jackhammers before the land was inundated with water, and placed in storage before being installed in the nearby Columbia Hills State Park in the 2000s.

I have long-suspected that the fate of Celilo was the fate of many ancient sites, and was among the first a-ha’s of this particular journey for me, when I was living in Oklahoma between 2012 and 2016.

The very first place I went to in-person to test my idea that man-made lakes covered up ancient infrastructure was Lake Thunderbird outside of Norman.  I knew what to look for, and was not surprised when I found it.

What my research is leading me to conclude now is that the hydrological-engineering technology was pre-existing too, and the “construction” was just re-started for present-day use, in the creation of a water supply, and the cover-up of ancient infrastructure.

At any rate, Lewis and Clark of westward expedition fame were said to have camped for three nights near Celilo, at the Rock Fort Campsite, described as a natural fortification, in late October of 1805.

As a matter-of-fact, the historic Granada Theater in downtown The Dalles…

…is on the Lewis and Clark Trail, and still in use as a theater today.

It was said to have been built in the Moorish Revival style, between 1929 and its opening in 1930, and is famous for having been the first theater west of the Mississippi to show a “talkie.”

Various fur trading companies were said to have become active in the region around present-day The Dalles starting around 1810, and this continued on with growth of trading networks, like that of the Hudson Bay Company, starting in the 1820s through the 1840s

This is the full Hudson Bay Company mural in The Dalles.

We are told that in 1850, the United States Army founded a small post at the site of an old mission that was here…

…and a post office established within the city’s current boundaries in 1851.

The Dalles was incorporated as a city in 1857.

A neighborhood in southeast Portland is named Mount Tabor, which is also the name given to an extinct volcanic vent, and park, located there.

Portland is said to be one of six cities in the United States to have an extinct volcano within its boundaries.

It was said to have been named after Mount Tabor in Israel, the biblical site of the Transfiguration of Jesus.

We are told that the land making up the Mount Tabor volcanic butte were identified as an ideal site for reservoirs in the 1880s due to its ideal location as a water distribution system.

The Mount Tabor reservoirs were said to have been built between 1894 and 1911.

We are told the reservoirs and their gatehouses were artistically constructed, incorporated using extensive reinforced concrete that was designed to “look like” stonework, two early patented techniques by engineer Ernest Ransome.

We are told that John Charles Olmsted, stepson and nephew of famed landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, was in Portland in 1903 to help design the 1905 Lewis and Clark World Exposition, said to have been held to celebrate the centennial of the Lewis and Clark Expedition…

…for which all the buildings were said to have been designed for the exposition, after its site was selected in September of 1902 at Willamette Heights, which was described as a “grove of trees, of pasture, and waist-high stagnant water at the site’s center.”

…and during the time John Charles Olmsted was in Portland, he was asked to create a grand plan of parks in Portland, which would come to include in time Mt. Tabor Park.

Before I head over to the East Coast of the United States to look at noteworthy reservoirs and dams, I would be remiss if I did not stop at the Hoover Dam to take a look.

Hoover Dam is a concrete, arch-gravity dam…

…said to have been constructed between 1931 and 1935 during the Great Depression, and which caused the deaths of over a hundred workers.

We are told many of the workers on the dam had been unemployed due to the Depression, as a great number of unemployed men and their families were said to have converged on southern Nevada, creating squatters’ camps there during the time of its construction.

It is located in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River on the border between the states of Nevada and Arizona.

The Hoover Dam’s Reservoir is Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the United States by volume when it is full.

There are two details I would like to point out about the Hoover Dam.

The first is that the timeline for Ames Shovels includes helping to build the Hoover Dam.

I am curious as to exactly where all those shovels came into play building the Hoover Dam, with all of the hard rock, water, and massive infrastructure seen here.

What were they digging?

The other thing I would like to point out is the star map at the Hoover Dam Memorial on the Nevada side of the complex…

…said to have been created by Oskar J. W. Hansen, a Norwegian-born, naturalized American citizen.

In-laid into a terrazzo floor, which consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass poured together with a binder, is a star chart, said to preserve for future generations the date on which FDR dedicated Hoover Dam on September 30th of 1935.

In this celestial map, the bodies of the solar system are said to be placed so exactly that those versed in astronomy could calculate the precession of the pole star for approximately the next 14,000 years.

There is even an inlaid marking showing that Thuban was the pole star for the ancient Egyptians at the time of the Great Pyramids.

I just find all of this about the star map being inlaid into the Hoover Dam complex to memorialize the building of it for future generations to be able to tell when it was built in precessional time, which measures an approximately 26,000-year cycle of time, to be very…maybe the words I am looking for are “out-of-place.”

It just seems very strange to me to be coming from people in our relative day and age who aren’t oriented to astronomy and measuring the cycles of time…which the Ancients very much were into doing.

This is the ancient Mayan observatory at Chichen Itza.

The Ancient Ones faithfully tracked the stars over incredibly long cycles of time.

Here are some notable places I have identified from my research on the East Coast.

The first I would like to bring up is the Scituate Reservoir in Rhode Island.

The Scituate watershed and reservoir system has six tributary reservoirs, which provide the drinking water for 60% of the state’s population.

This massive public works construction project was said to have gotten underway in about 1915, and completed by 1925.

Interesting to see the low-tech-looking equipment for the project pictured here in 1921, according to the date at the bottom right…

…that we are told was being used to build this…


…and this. On top of that, World War I was happening at the beginning of that time period.

The next place I am going to take a look at is the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir in Manhattan’s Central Park, a decommissioned reservoir that was said to have been built between 1852 and 1862 (with the Civil War taking place between 1861 – 1865)…

…to receive water from the Old Croton Aqueduct.

The Old Croton Aqueduct, said to have been built between 1837 and 1842, originates in Croton in Westchester County, and is 41-miles, or 227- kilometers, long.

This is the High Bridge of the Croton Aqueduct, which crosses over the Harlem River, on its way to Central Park…

…which reminded me of the Ribblehead Viaduct in the Yorkshire Dales National Park in northern England, said to have been built for the railroad between 1869 and 1874.

How could they have accomplished these kind of engineering feats in a time period we are taught was low technology?

The Upper Roxborough Reservoir is an abandoned watershed project in northwest Philadelphia. These stately structures are described as filters of the reservoir.

It brought to mind the fort the Portuguese are said to have built on Hormuz Island after they captured the island between today’s United Arab Emirates and Iran in 1507 – the interestingly named Fort of Our Lady of the Conception (for a military fort?)…

…compared with a pedestrian underground associated with the long-gone Crystal Palace in London.

Jones Falls is described as an 18-mile, or 29 kilometer, major North-South stream that runs from the North through Baltimore City before it empties into the Inner Harbor.

This is the Lake Roland Dam and Reservoir in Baltimore County, north of Baltimore City, and said to have been built between 1854 and 1861.

The Jones Falls flow into, and out from, Lake Roland.

Lake Roland is described as having been a defunct reservoir since 1915.

They sure put an enormous amount of effort into building something that wasn’t used for very long, like not even 60 years?

I have many more examples I could bring forward in North America, but the examples I have given are more than enough to make my point about the similar, and advanced, nature of the engineering and architecture of reservoirs and hydroelectric projects in North America, as well as the anomalies and inconsistencies in the explanation we are given about them, that do not make sense within the context of our historical narrative.

In the second part of this two-part series, I am going to be looking at reservoirs and hydroelectric projects in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Creating the New World from the Old World – Part 3 The Centuries of Exploration

The subject matter I am going to bring forward in this post is largely about, but not limited to, “The Age of Discovery,” described as the period of European history in which extensive overseas exploration occurred from the beginning of the 1400’s to the middle of the 1600’s.

Overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.

I will also be looking at the various scientific expeditions of the 1800s.

I think it is important to begin this post with some information about how concepts of space and time are viewed in the present-day versus how they were viewed in the past.

The study of geodesy is the science of accurately measuring and understanding the Earth’s shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

A geographic coordinate system enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters and symbols.

The coordinates are often chosen such as that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, which would derive from the North-South lines of latitude on this map projection of the Earth, and the horizontal position, from the East-West lines of longitude.

We are told that in cartography, the science of map-making, a map projection is the way of flattening the globe’s surface into a plane in order to make it into a map, which requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane.

This is a 1482 engraving by Johannes Schnitzer of the “Ecumene,” an ancient Greek word for the inhabited world, and used in cartography to describe a type of world map used in late antiquity and the Middle Ages.

He was said to have constructed it from the coordinates in Claudius Ptolemy’s “Geography,” an atlas, and treatise of geography, from 150 AD said to compile the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire, and a revision of the now-lost atlas of Marinus of Tyre, a Phoenician cartographer and mathematician who was said to have founded mathematical geography, and who introduced improvements to the construction of maps and developed a system of nautical charts.

Longitude fixes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a North-South line of latitude called the Prime Meridian, given as an angular measurement that ranges from 0-degrees at the Prime Meridian to +180-degrees westward and -180-degrees eastward.

In 1851, Sir George Airy established the new prime meridian of the Earth, a geographical reference line at the Royal Observatory of Greenwich in London, and by 1884, over two-thirds of all ships and tonnage used it as the reference meridian on their charts and maps.

Previous to that, the great pyramid of Giza, located at the exact center of the Earth’s landmass, was the Prime Meridian.

Carl Munck deciphers a shared mathematical code in his book “The Code,” related to the Great Pyramid, in the dimensions of the architecture of sacred sites all over the Earth, one which encodes longitude & latitude of each that cross-reference other sites. 

He shows that this pyramid code is clearly sophisticated and intentional, and perfectly aligned over long-distances.

In October of 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by twenty-five countries, in order to determine the Prime Meridian for international use.

Twenty-two of the twenty-five countries in attendance voted to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich as the zero-reference line.

The International Meridian Conference was held right before the Otto von Bismarck-organized Berlin Conference, which was convened in November of 1884 and lasted until February of 1885, during which time the entire continent of Africa was carved up between the European powers.

Interestingly, in earlier maps, ley-lines were depicted, and not latitude and longitude.

The Catalan Atlas of the Majorcan Cartographic School is considered the most important map of the Medieval period in the Catalan language, dated to 1375.

I encountered another old map depicting ley-lines when I was researching for information on Fernando de Noronha, an island group just off the coast of Brazil.

The Cantino Planisphere was said to have been completed by an anonymous Portuguese cartographer some time before 1502.

A planisphere is defined as a map formed by the projection of a sphere or part of a sphere on a plane.

Were there deliberate manipulations of Space and Time introduced in the 1500s?

The following are examples of why I think there was a deliberate manipulation of how we viewed the Earth, and our perception of Space and Time.

It would seem that the Earth’s grid-lines started to disappear from maps in the 1500s, as Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish geographer, cartographer and cosmographer…

…published a world map in 1569 that is considered to be the first where sailing courses on the sphere were mapped to the plane map, allowing for a “correction of the chart to be more useful for sailors.”

Here is a close-up section of the 1569 map showing the depiction of straight ley-lines in the seas…

…but not on land and sea as were present on the flat projections of the Cantino Planisphere and the Catalan Atlas.

Not only that, Mercator was also a globe-maker, like this one from 1541.

And this is the cover of Mercator’s 1578 publication of “Tabulae Geographicae,” along with the globe, and Ptolemy said to depicted on the left, and Marinus of Tyre on the right.

Notice the difference between the lines on the globe at the top of the engraving, and the globe at the bottom, and while he is pointing down to the globe at the bottom…

…and Ptolemy is holding up a geometric shape that looks like the lines on the globe at the top on the left, which looks remarkably like the shape the sacred hoops formed in the Native American Hoop Dance on the right.

The Erdapfel, which translates from the German as “Earth apple,” was a terrestrial globe produced by Martin Baheim, a German textile merchant and cartographer, between 1490 and 1492.

This engraving of him was said to have been done in 1886.

The Erdapfel is the oldest surviving terrestrial globe.

It is a laminated linen ball, constructed in two-halves, reinforced with wood…

…and overlaid by a map painted by Georg Glockendon, pasted on a layer of parchment around the globe.

The German-English geographer and cartographer, Ernst Georg Ravenstein, who was born in Germany in 1834, but spent most of his adult life in England, wrote a book about Martin Baheim and his Erdapfel in 1908, and, as we shall see, Mr. Ravenstein’s name will come up again in more than one reference.

I have to ask the question – is all of this information telling us something about what was actually going on here to manipulate the true shape of the Earth?

Then, as far as the manipulation of our perception of time goes, only 13-years after Mercator was said to have published his world map, the Gregorian Calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in October of 1582, for the given reason of correcting the Julian calendar on stopping the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes, and included the addition of leap years. 

Gregorian Calendar

It took 300 years to implement the calendar in the west, and nowadays used in non-western countries for civil purposes.

The Mayan calendar was involved with the harmonization and synchronization of Human Beings and the development of Human Consciousness with natural cycles of time.

The Mayan calendar consisted of several cycles, or counts, of different lengths.

The 260-day count, or Tzolkin, was combined with a 365-day solar year known as the Haab’, to form a synchronized cycle lasting for 52 Haab’, called the Calendar Round, still in use today by many Mayan groups in the highlands of Guatemala.

Mayan Calendar

The Tzolkin calendar combines twenty day-names and symbols, with thirteen day numbers, which represent different-sounding tones, to produce 260 unique days.

The Mayan Long Count calendar was used to track longer periods of time.

The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day-year, with three seasons of 120-days each, and 5-6 epagomenal days, also known as an intercalary month, transitional days that were treated as outside of the year proper to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases in common years and leap years.

Now on to the main subject of this post.

The primary initiator of the earliest time period of maritime exploration in our historical narrative, known as “The Age of Discovery, was Prince Henry the Navigator, who was said to have been born in 1394.

The fourth child of the Portuguese King John I, he was a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.

The Portuguese Empire was composed of the overseas colonies and territories government by Portugal, existing from 1415 with the capture of the port of Ceuta, on the Moroccan-side of the Strait of Gibraltar…

…to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999, the last remaining dependent state in China and the final vestige of European colonialism in the region, we are told, after 442-years of Portuguese rule.

Macau is designated as an autonomous region on the south coast of China, across the Pearl River Delta from Hong Kong…

…where there is Moorish-looking architecture in Macau on the left that looks like what is found in Madrid, Spain, on the right…

…as well as Venice, Italy, in Macau.

The Venetian Resort in Macau on the left is owned by the American Las Vegas Sands Company, which was said to have opened in 2007 after the main hotel tower was completed.

For comparison, the Bell Tower of St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice, said to have been built starting in the early 10th-century, is in the middle, and the Giralda Bell Tower, acknowledged Moorish architecture said to have been first completed in 1198 AD, is on the right.

At any rate, Prince Henry the Navigator, who was involved in the capture of Ceuta, took the lead role in promoting and financing Portuguese maritime exploration until his death in 1460.

He was said to have been responsible for the early development of Portuguese exploration and maritime trade with other continents through the systematic exploration of western Africa, the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, and the search for new routes.

We are told that under Prince Henry’s direction, a new and lighter ship was developed, called the Caravel, to replace the slow and heavy ships of the time that were unsuitable for exploration.

The caravel was independent of prevailing winds, and Portuguese mariners could explore rivers and shallow waters as well as the open ocean.

Prince Henry’s father had appointed him the governor of the Algarve Province in 1419, the southernmost region of Portugal.

He was said to have gathered a school of navigators and map-makers, at his villa on the Sagres peninsula, described as a wind-swept, shelf-like promontory…

…which is the location of the Fortaleza Sagres, said to have been constructed on the orders of Prince Henry to guard the town and harbor of Sagres.

Portuguese navigators were said to have discovered and practiced the “Volta do Mar,” or “Turn of the Sea,” during Prince Henry’s time and after.

This is the dependable pattern of trade winds blowing largely from the East, near the equator, and the returning westerlies in the mid-Atlantic.

The understanding of oceanic wind patterns was a crucial step for Atlantic navigation, enabling the main trade route between the New World and Europe, and future voyages of discovery in other parts of the world, including the East Indies with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice trade. More on the spice trade later in this post.

One last thing about Prince Henry.

Apparently no one used the nickname “the Navigator” during his lifetime, or in the following three centuries.

We are told the term was coined by two 19th-century German historians – Heinrich Schaefer and Gustave de Veer – and that the nickname was popularized by two British authors in the titles of their biographies of Prince Henry.

One was by Richard Henry Major in 1868…

…and the other was by Raymond Beazley in 1895.

I included this information I found because I found the nationalities of the authors of Prince Henry’s biography to be noteworthy, as well as the time-frame within which they were published, in the period of time after which, I have come believe from my research, the New World Order timeline was officially started in 1851.

Let’s see what else comes up like this.

The next Portuguese explorer to come on the scene was Bartolomeu Dias, a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household.

We are told he sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, in 1488, setting up the route from Europe to Asia later on.

He was also said to be the first European during the “Age of Discovery” to anchor at what is present-day South Africa.

Bartolomeu Dias was the sailing master of the caravel “Sao Cristovao” or “Saint Christopher.”

In 1487, he led a Portuguese exploration expedition down the west coast of Africa

Provisions were picked up on the way down at Sao Jorge de Mina, a fortress said to have been built by the Portuguese in 1482…

…on the Portuguese Gold Coast, a Portuguese colony on the West African Gold Coast, present-day Ghana, known for its gold, petroleum, sweet crude oil, and natural gas.

The Portuguese Gold Coast was the first claim.

The Dutch arrived in 1598 and in 1642, incorporated the Portuguese Territory into the Dutch Gold Coast.

This was said to be a 1675 map of the Dutch Gold Coast, depicting ley-lines instead of lines of longitude and latitude.

Then the Prussians established the Brandenburger Gold Coast in the area in 1682, for less than 50-years, when they sold it to the Dutch in 1742.

The Swedes established settlements on the Swedish Gold Coast starting in 1650, but this state-of-affairs, was said to have only last 13-years…

…because in 1663, Denmark seized the Swedish territory, and incorporated it into the Danish Gold Coast.

Then in 1850, all of the settlements became part of the British Gold Coast…

…which remained in British hands in 1885 after the Berlin Conference.

In the 1487 expedition of Bartolomeu Dias, after the caravel left the Portuguese Gold Coast, the crew sailed to Walvis Bay, the name of the location in modern Namibia.

After encountering violent storms along the way, the ship eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope, the name it received from King John II of Portugal because it represented an opening of a route to the East.

The expedition ended up not going any further, and set sail back for Portugal, returning to Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, in 1488.

Not only did I find the German-English geographer and cartographer, Ernst Georg Ravenstein, come up  in association with a biography of Bartolomeu Dias…

… he also published “A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco Da Gama” in 1898, the next Portuguese explorer of note, who made it to India in a journey between 1497 and 1499.

Ravenstein was said to have translated what was called the only known copy of a journal believed to have been written on-board ship during Vasco da Gama’s voyage to India.

We are told that Vasco da Gama’s first voyage to India was the first link to Europe and Asia by an ocean route.

He was said to have landed in Calicut on May 20th of 1498.

This is said to be a steel engraving from the 1850s of the meeting between the King of Calicut and Vasco da Gama, which apparently didn’t yield the favorable results the Portuguese explorer desired, as it failed to yield the commercial treaty with Calicut that was da Gama’s principal mission.

Regardless of the failure to secure a commercial treaty with the King of Calicut, Vasco da Gama’s voyage to and from India led to the yearly Portuguese India Armadas, fleets of ships organized by the King of Portugal dispatched on an annual basis from Portugal to India…

…and 6-years after da Gama’s initial arrival in 1498, the Portuguese State of India was founded.

Portugal’s unopposed access to the Indian spice trade routes boosted the economy of its empire, and maintained a commercial monopoly on spice commodities for several decades.

Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India, we are told, is what enabled the Portuguese to establish a long-lasting colonial empire in Asia.

It was considered a milestone in world history and the beginning of a sea-based phase of global multiculturalism.

The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire (Crown of Castile), a long a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, off the West Coast of Africa.

Then, 35-years later, the Treaty of Zaragoza was signed, which specified the Antimeridian to the line of demarcation specified by the Treaty of Tordesillas, defining the areas of Spanish and Portuguese influence in Asia.

Pedro Alvares Cabral, a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer, was a contemporary of Vasco da Gama.

He was said to have led a fleet of thirteen ships into western Atlantic Ocean, and made landfall in what we know as Brazil in 1500.

As the new land was in the Portuguese sphere according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, Cabral claimed it for the Portuguese Crown.

He explored the coast, and realized, we are told, that the large land-mass was most likely a continent, and dispatched a ship to notify the Portuguese King, Manuel I of the new territory.

The land Cabral had claimed for Portugal later became known as Brazil on the continent of South America.

From Brazil, Cabral turned his fleet eastward to sail to India.

He was said to have lost seven of his thirteen ships in a storm in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

The remains of Cabral’s fleet regrouped in the Mozambique Channel, located beween the East African country of Mozambique and the island of Madagascar.

Mozambique had become a Portuguese colony in 1498 as a result of Vasco da Gama’s first voyage, and is known for what is described as its Portuguese colonial architecture.

Here are some examples from Maputo, the capital of Mozambique.

We accept the idea that the colonial Portuguese built infrastructure like this because it is what we have been taught…

…and at the same time we are told that the indigenous people of Mozambique were the San, who were hunter-gatherers.

The San, also known as bushmen, are considered the oldest inhabitants of southern Africa, with a history there said to date back 20,000-years, and are among the oldest peoples in the world.

From the Mozambique Channel, Cabral’s fleet sailed to to Calicut in India, at which time Cabral was said to have been attacked by Hindus and Muslims stirred up by Arab traders who saw the Portuguese venture as a threat to their monopoly.

Cabral was said to have retaliated, with his men looting and burning the Arab fleet at Calicut, and he sailed onto the Kingdom of Cochin, befriended its ruler, founded the first European settlement in India at Kochi, and loaded his ships with coveted spices before returning to Portugal.

After his return, Cabral’s voyage was deemed a success, in spite of the loss of ships and lives, and we are told the extraordinary profits resulting from the sale of the spices he brought back with him helped lay the foundation of the Portuguese Empire.

Interestingly, apparently after that, Cabral slipped into obscurity for 300 years, until the 1840s that is, when the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II…

…sponsored research and publications dealing with Cabral’s life and expedition through the Brazilian Historical and Geographic Institute, which was founded in 1838, and part of the emperor’s plan to foster and strengthen a sense of nationalism among Brazil’s diverse citizenry.

The Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, is best known for crossing the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming the first European expedition to have seen the Pacific from the New World.

Wait a minute!

There was already a viable waterway across the Isthmus of Panama?

What was the Panama Canal all about then?

The Panama Canal was said to have been built, starting with the French in 1881…

…and completed and opened by the Americans on August 15th of 1914, about two weeks after the start of World War I on July 28th of 1914.

Ferdinand Magellen was a Portuguese explorer who organized the Spanish expedition, which started in 1519 and ended in 1522, to the Spanish East Indies, a fleet known as the “Armada de Molucca” to reach the Spice Islands, and said to have resulted in the first circumnavigation of the earth.

Magellan was said to have been killed in the Philippines in the Battle of Mactan on April 27th of 1521, and a Basque-Spanish explorer by the name of Juan Sebastian de Elcano was said to have completed the expedition after Magellan’s death, from the Moluccas and back to Spain.

I found a biography about Magellan written by an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer named Stefan Zweig, who was born in Vienna in 1881, and died, along with his wife, in Petropolis, Brazil in 1942, of barbituate overdoses, we are told.

Petropolis is the name of a German-colonized mountain town 42-miles, or 68-kilometers, north of Rio de Janeiro.

Called the “Imperial City,” the Emperor Pedro II was said to issue an imperial decree ordering the construction of a settlement to be formed, with the arrival of German immigrants, as well as for the construction of his summer palace there, with the cornerstone said to have been laid in 1845, and that it was built by 1847.

Interesting edifice, and intriguing blue glow of its steeple, in Petropolis.

The first cinema was said to have opened in Petropolis in 1897, showing the Lumiere Brothers first films.

The Lumiere Brothers premiered ten short films in Paris on December 28th, 1895, considered the breakthrough of projected cinematography, meaning pertaining to the art or technique of motion picture photography.

More on the role of movies in the creation of the New World from the Old World later in my conclusions.

Back to the Moluccas.

The Moluccas that Juan Sebastian de Elcano reached and sailed back to Spain from are also known as the Spice Islands, because of the nutmeg, spice, and cloves that were exclusively found there, the presence of which sparked extreme colonial interest from Europe in the 16th-century.

So much so, that the Dutch-Portuguese War between 1601 and 1663 was also known as the Spice War, the commodity at the center of the conflict.

On March 20, 1602, Dutch East India Company was chartered to trade with India and Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly for the Dutch spice trade.  It was an early  multinational corporation that existed until 1799.

Dutch East India Company flag

Beginning in 1602, the conflict was said to have primarily involved the Dutch companies invading Portuguese colonies in the Americas, Africa, India, and the Far East.

The Dutch West India Company was formed on June 3rd of 1621.

It was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors, with a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies.

A charter is a legal document that formally establishes a corporate entity, and stipulates its business purpose.

The Dutch-Portuguese War was said to have served as a way for the Dutch to gain an overseas empire and control trade at the cost of the Portuguese.

The outcome was that Portugal successfully repelled Dutch attempts to secure Brazil and Angola.

The Dutch were the victors in capturing the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa; the East Indias except for Macau; the Malacca in Malaysia; Ceylon (which later became Sri Lanka); the Malabar Coast on India’s west coast where Portuguese India was located; and the Moluccas.

British ambitions benefited from this long-standing rivalry between the Portuguese and the Dutch, beginning in the late 18th-century and early 19th-century, as Malacca, Ceylon, and Malabar became British possessions.

Other notable explorers from the first “Age of Discovery” include:

Giovanni da Verrazzano was said to be a Florentine explorer, in the service of the French King Francis I, and being the credited with first European to explore the Atlantic Coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick between 1523 and 1524.

This included New York Bay, where the Verrazzano Narrows and bridge forever enshrines his memory, with Fort Hamilton on the Brooklyn side…

…and Fort Wadsworth on the Staten Island side.

He also explored Rhode Island’s Narragansett Bay in 1524…

…and he even gave Rhode Island its name, we are told, when he was said to have likened an island near the mouth of Narragansett Bay to the Island of Rhodes.

Now…what would make him think that…if there wasn’t anything here?

The island of Rhodes is the largest of the Dodecanese Islands in the Aegean Sea pictured here.

This is the City Gate of the Island of Rhodes.

What kinds of things do we find in Rhode Island?

Well, for one, the Narragansett Twin Towers, what is said to be the remnant of the Narraganset Pier Casino said to have been built in the 1880’s.

…and for another at Waterplace Park in downtown Providence, there is the presence of megalithic masonry.

The park was said to have been finished in 1994.

The meaning of megalith is a large stone used in construction, typically associated with Peru and Egypt, but actually found everywhere around the world. Here is another megalithic wall at Waterplace Park.

The Narragansetts are an Algonquin people whose land is now Rhode Island. Here is an historic photo of the Narragansett.

We are told that the book “Verrazano’s Voyage Along the Atlantic Coast of North America, 1524,” was reproduced from an original artifact that was written by Giovanni da Verrazzano himself.

It was published in 1916, with an introduction by Edward Hagaman Hall, a New York State historian who was born in 1858 and died in 1936.

Edward Hagaman Hall also published a book about Jamestown, Virginia in 1902.

What I remember about Jamestown, which I visited with my parents when I was 6-years-old on a trip to Williamsburg in 1969, is that it was supposed to have looked something like this…

…and that when the colonial capital was moved to Williamsburg in 1699, Jamestown was said to have ceased to exist as a settlement.

These brick masonry ruins are in Jamestown…

…even though the attention of tourists is drawn to the living history museum there.

It is interesting to note that when I was doing research on Expositions and World Fairs awhile back, I came across the 1907 Jamestown Exposition, said to have commemorated the 300th-anniversary of the founding of Jamestown in the Virginia Colony.

It was held on Sewell’s Point at Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia.

…which is Norfolk Naval Base today.

Henry Hudson was said to have been an English navigator and explorer during the early 17th-century, best known for his explorations of parts of the northeastern United States and Canada.

Between 1607 and 1611, he was engaged by various trading companies to sail to the Far North to find another way to Asia, via either the Northeast Passage or Northwest Passage.

In 1609, Henry Hudson was chosen by Dutch East India Company merchants to find an easterly passage to Asia.

His attempts to go in an eastward direction were said to have been blocked by ice in northern Norway, so he decided to go west and find a northerly passage through North America.

His ship, the Half Moon, travelled down the coast…

…from LaHave in Nova Scotia; to Cape Cod; to the Chesapeake Bay; to Delaware Bay; then New York Bay…

…and the river which bears his name, New York’s Hudson River.

His voyage was said to have been used to establish Dutch claims to the region, and to the fur trade that prospered there when a trading post was established at Albany in 1614, and with New Amsterdam on Manhattan island becoming the capital of New Netherland in 1625.

Then Henry Hudson received backing from the Virginia Company and British East India Company in 1610, and sailed north to Iceland and Greenland in his new ship, the “Discovery,” and then across the Labrador Sea to what is now the Hudson Strait at the northern tip of Labrador, and through when he entered the Hudson Bay.

Hudson met his death in the James Bay region of the Hudson Bay, when his crew mutinied, and sent him, his son, and 7 crew members adrift in a small boat with limited supplies.

Did Henry Hudson happen to have anything thing published about him in the late 19th-century, early 20th-century?

I found this 1909 publication about Henry Hudson by Thomas Allibone Janvier, described as an American story-writer and historian, who was born in 1849 and died in 1913.

John Harrison was a carpenter and clock-maker who was said to have invented the marine chronometer, a device which solved the problem of calculating longitude while at sea.

The problem of solving longitude was considered so important after a naval disaster in 1707, that the British Parliament passed the 1714 “Longitude Act,” offering a financial reward.

Harrison presented his first design, H1, to the Longitude Board in 1730.

He received the support of the Longitude Board in building and testing his designs.

The second chronometer, H2, was said to have been finished in 1741.

Number 3, H3 was completed, we are told, in 1757…

…and that he produced the marine chronometer that won the Longitude Act prize in 1579, H4, also called the “sea watch.”

I have to wonder about this now, as I have found also found that winners of architecture contests, like Cuthbert Broderick for one example, a 29-year-old architect who was said to have won a design contest in 1852 for the…

…Leeds Town Hall, said to have been opened by Queen Victoria in 1858.

And, according to this picture of what is called the ruins of a “sugar mill” in Belize, someone knew a thing or two about gears a very long time ago.

A new era of scientific maritime exploration commenced in the 1800s.

in August of 1822, Jules Dumont d’Urville set out on an expedition to collect scientific and strategic information, on a ship named originally La Coquille, and sailed to the Falkland Islands; the coasts of Peru and Chile in South America; New Guinea; New Zealand and Australia.

The expedition carried out research in the fields of botany and insects, bringing back thousands of specimens to the Natural History Museum in Paris.

Then, 1826, Dumont d’Urville departed on La Coquille, now called L’Astrolabe, or the Astrolabe, named for a navigational device…

…for a three-year voyage to New Zealand; Fiji; the Loyalty Islands; New Guinea; the Solomon Islands, Caroline Islands, and the Moluccas in eastern Indonesia.

In 1837, Dumont d’Urville set out yet again on the Astrolabe for the South Orkney Islands in the Southern Ocean; the Marquesas Islands; Tasmania; along the coast of Antarctica, at which time he claimed land on January 21st of 1840 for France, considered it his most significant achievement. He named it Adelie Land after his wife Adele.

He then sailed onto New Zealand; the Torres Strait; Reunion Island; and St. Helena island, and returning to France later in 1840.

He was promoted to Rear Admiral upon his return, and he wrote a report of the expedition entitled “Voyage au Pole Sud et dans L’Oceanie sur les Corvettes Astrolabe et la Zelee 1837 – 1840,” which was published between 1841 and 1854 in 24 volumes.

An interesting side-note about Dumont d’Urville’s life was his death – he and his entire family were killed in the first ever rail disaster in France in May of 1842, called the Versailles Rail Accident, in which the train’s locomotive derailed, the wagons rolled, and the coal tender ended up at the front of the train and caught fire. This was said to be a painting of the incident.

The U. S. Exploring Expedition was another exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and the surrounding lands, conducted by the United States between 1838 and 1842.

The expedition was described as of major importance to the growth of science in the United States, and that during the events of its occurrence, armed conflict between Pacific Islanders and the expedition was common, and dozens of natives were killed, as well as a few Americans.

It involved a squadron of four ships, with specialists on each including naturalists, botanists, a mineralogist, a taxidermist, and a philologist, which is someone who studies written and oral histories.

It is sometimes referred to as the “U. S. Ex. Ex.” or “Wilkes Expedition,” after the commanding officer, Navy Lt. Charles Wilkes.

The ships of the Wilkes Expedition was said to have departed from Hampton Roads in Virginia for the first stop the Madeira Islands off the coast of Africa on August 18th, 1838.

The routes of the expedition went something like this – all over the place.

The squadron of ships pretty much sailed together, at different rates of speed, from their first stop at Madeira, to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil; Tierra del Fuego at the southern tip of South America; Valparaiso in Chile; Callao in Peru; the islands of Tahiti, and Samoa, in the South Pacific; Sydney in Australia; Antarctica, which they arrived at and “discovered” on January 16th of 1840, just mere days before the completely different expedition of Dumont d’Urville’s claimed land on Antarctica on January 21st of 1840; and then, by way of Fiji, to the Sandwich Islands (otherwise known as the Hawaiian Islands), before returning to the United States. The ships did break-off into pairs on occasion to explore different places in the same general location.

Then there were the voyages of the HMS Beagle, originally a Cherokee class 10-gun boat of the British Royal Navy, said to have set off from the Royal Dockland of Woolwich at the River Thames on May 11th of 1820.

The HMS Beagle’s first voyage was between 1826 and 1830, accompanying the larger ship, HMS Adventure, on a hydrologic survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, under the overall command of the Australian Navy Captain, Phillip Parker King.

The second voyage of the HMS Beagle, between 1831 and 1832, was joined by naturalist Charles Darwin, on a second trip to South America, and then around the world.

Charles Darwin kept a diary of his experiences, and rewrote this as a book titled “Journal and Remarks,” becoming published in 1839 as “The Voyage of the Beagle.”

It was in “The Voyage of the Beagle” that Darwin developed his theories of evolution through common descent and natural selection.

The third voyage of the HMS Beagle took place between 1837 and 1843, and was a third surveying voyage to Australia, stopping on the way at Tenerife in the Canary Islands; Salvador on the coast of Brazil in Bahia State; and Cape Town in South Africa. I have found all three of these places on planetary grid alignments.

In Australia, the crew surveyed Western Australia, starting in what is now Perth, to the Fitzroy River; then both shores of the Bass Strait in Australia’s southeast corner; then north to the shores of the Arafura Sea, across from Timor. Again, all of these places figure prominently on grid alignments.

In 1845, the HMS Beagle was refitted as a Coast Guard watch vessel in Essex, in the navigable waters beyond the Thames Estuary, moored in the middle of the River Roach, until oyster companies and traders petitioned to have it removed in 1851, citing the vessel was obstructing the river and its oyster beds.

The Navy List shows that on May 25th of 1851, the Beagle was renamed “Southend ‘W.V. No. 7′” at Paglesham, and sold in 1870 to be broken-up.

All of my conclusions are the result of information from many different sources, plus what I am seeing with my own eyes in following the planetary alignments – that the infrastructure of the world was built by the same advanced civilization up until relatively recently, and that the very positive timeline of Humanity is missing from the collective memory.

I can’t definitively prove what I am saying in that you can’t go to a book and look it up.   However, awareness of this information has come up for me synchronistically and intuitively, and I can definitely give you the information which forms the basis for my beliefs.

I have come to the conclusion that beings with a negative agenda for Humanity  knocked Humanity off the positive Moorish Timeline in order to control Humanity, using Humans in wars against each other, the Creator and Creation. 

I think there is more than one group of negative beings involved in this, including fallen angels.

I think they hijacked the timeline by deliberately creating what I believe to have been a worldwide cataclysm, known as the mud flood, by creating a 3D-time-loop between 1492 and 1942, with 1717 as the midpoint year.

When I started to research the years around 1717 and 1942, this is what I found.

King George I of the German House of Hanover became King of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714.

This marked the end of the rule of the House of Stuart, which originated in Scotland.

King James I

On January 4th, 1717, Great Britain, France, and the Dutch Republic sign the Triple Alliance in an attempt to maintain the Treaty of Utrecht, which was signed in April of 1713, in which in order to become King  of Spain, Philip had to  renounce his concurrent claim to the French throne.

This prevented the thrones of Spain and France from merging together, and ultimately paved the way for the maritime, commercial, and financial supremacy of Great Britain.

War of Spanish Succession

In February of 1717, James Francis Edward Stuart of the House of Stuart, called the Pretender, who at one time was claimant to the throne, left where he was living in France, after the Triple Alliance was signed in January, to seek exile with Pope Clement XI in Rome – why he went specifically there, I don’t know, but he died in Rome in 1766.

While most portraits on-line are of a white person, this is believed to be a portrait of James Francis Edward Stuart that was painted when he lived in France.

James Francis Edward Stuart

On June 24th, 1717, the Premier Grand Lodge of England – the first Free-Mason Grand Lodge – was founded in London. 

I find it highly significant that this event shows up at the exact mid-point year between 1492 and 1942.

Grand Lodge of London

And then on 7/17/1717 – an interesting date from a numerological perspective – the premier of George Frideric Handel’s “Water Music” took place for King George I on a barge on the Thames.  Eyes are now on Handel.

Handel's Water Music Premier

In 1727, George Frideric Handel became a British citizen.

I was guided through a psychic friend to look at Ireland in 1742.

So I searched for it on the internet, and only two things came up.

The first was that Dublin, Ireland, was the location for the premier of Georg Frideric Handel’s Messiah on April 13th, 1742.

Handel's Messiah

The second is that between 1740 – 1741, there was an extraordinary weather event in Ireland involving extreme cold.

There is a book out about it entitled “Arctic Ireland.”

Arctic Ireland

During this time in Ireland,  there was an almost two-year period of extremely cold, enduring weather in Ireland.  The cause is not known and this information is in the historical record, but kept pretty much out of sight.

What if the explanation for it involves a disruption in the fabric of space-time?

So far, during this time period around 1717, we find the new British monarch coming from Germany; the Stuart heir in exiled in Rome; and Handel shows up on the scene from Germany premiering on a numerological date and again right after an extremely severe anomalous weather event in Ireland.

So, who else shows up during this time period?

Well, for one, in 1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild was born in Frankfurt, Germany.  He established his banking business there in the 1760s, which became the start of an international banking family.

His third-born son, Nathan Mayer Rothschild, was sent to England in 1798, and after becoming a citizen, established a bank in the City of London in 1804.

Then on February 6, 1748, Bavarian Order of the Illuminati founder Adam Weishaupt was born in Ingolstadt, Germany. 

He went to a Jesuit school at the age  of 7.  

He was initiated into Freemasonry in 1777.

In 1839, John D. Rockefeller, Sr. was born in the United States, the progenitor of the wealthy Rockefeller family and considered to be the wealthiest American of all time.

So fast forward to the time period of November 20th to November 30th, 1910.  A meeting took place at Jekyll Island off the coast of the State of Georgia to lay the foundations for the Federal Reserve.

Creature from Jekyll Island

On April 15th, 1912, the Titanic sank.  All the bankers opposed to the creation of the Federal Reserve were on-board, including John Jacob Astor IV, one of the richest people in the world at the time.


Then on December 23rd, 1913, the Federal Reserve Act Passed Congress, signed into law by Woodrow Wilson.  It created and established the Federal Reserve System, and created the authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (commonly known as the US dollar) as legal tender.

Federal Reserve Act

World War I started on July 28th, 1914, and ended on November 11th, 1918. 

World War 1

It was one of the largest wars in history, with 70 million military personnel mobilized, and of that number, 60 million were Europeans. 

An estimated 9 million combatants died as a direct result of the war, and 7 million civilians. 

And many more died as an indirect consequence of this war.

On July 17, 1917, the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and its Commonwealth, the House of Windsor, was founded after the death of Queen Victoria. 

House of Windsor

There’s that 17 showing up again. 

It is also of German paternal descent.

World War II started on September 1st in 1939, and ended on September 2nd in 1945 – exactly six years later.  It is considered the deadliest conflict in human history.


Almost halfway through World War II, on July 22nd, 1942, the strange Philadelphia experiment took place at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. 

These next slides give an overview of the experiment.

Philadephia Experiment 6
Philadephia Experiment 1
Philadephia Experiment 7

Did the USS Eldridge just become invisible?  Or did it go somewhere else?  And if it went somewhere else, where might it have gone?

Was the USS Eldridge somehow transported back to the time of the Great Frost of Ireland in 1740 and 1741 , creating a rip in the fabric of space-time?

If this was actually the case, it would have taken the beings involved in the cataclysm a little over 100-years to dig enough of the original infrastructure out of the mud flow to re-start civilization and create the new, false historical narrative superimposed onto this infrastructure.

There is plenty of underground infrastructure around the world where people could have lived until the Earth’s surface became habitable once-again.

I believe the official kick-off of the New World Order timeline was “The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations” in 1851, in the Crystal Palace in London, the first in a series of World’s Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th-century…

…and I think subsequent Exhibitions, Expositions, and World Fairs, for the next 100 years, were showcasing the technology and architectural wonders of the original civilization before being hidden away or forever destroyed.

So, how did the new historical narrative get inside our heads?

The following screenshots are from a page entitled “The Origin of Compulsory Education” on Foster Gamble’s Thrive website. As I recall, it was from his movie “Thrive” that I first learned that the Rockefellers were the originators of the American Educational System.

When John D. Rockefeller established the General Education Board, it says the interest was in organizing children, and creating reliable, predictable, and obedient citizens, and not in producing critical thinkers.

Massachussetts passed the First Mandatory Attendance Law in 1852, which lines up with what I believe was the beginning of the new historical timeline.

This brings me to the example of a writer and a book that has been in the high school English curriculum in the United States seemingly forever.

Jack London was born in San Francisco on January 12th, 1876. We are told he was one of the first writers to have worldwide fame, and great financial success.

One of his most famous novels is “Call of the Wild.”

It was first published in serialized form in the Saturday Evening Post in 1903.

Basically the story-line of “The Call of the Wild” was about a St. Bernard – Scotch shepherd mix dog named Buck…

…who was stolen from a happy life in California to be sold into service as a sled dog in Alaska, and terribly abused by most of the humans he came into contact with from there on. He ultimately became feral, and answered “The Call of the Wild” by the end of the book.

Not uplifting content at all! Very strange actually that it would have themes of animal theft and extreme animal abuse.

Why are we made to read a book with this kind of subject matter in school?

The “Call of the Wild” was even made into a movie multiple times, starting in 1935…

…and even as recently as February of this year, in 2020.

How was an ancient advanced worldwide civilization erased from our collective awareness so much so that we don’t even see the copious evidence of it in the environment around us?

Literature is a powerful tool with which to form our world view and the accompaniment of movies based on the literature we are required to read in school in, for example, the United States, this information is coming into our conscious-thought processes through different modalities, and into our subliminal processes as well.

We are thoroughly schooled in the new narrative from the moment we are born.

Somewhere along the way I learned that the Druids used the wood of the holly tree to cast spells.

Hence “Hollywood.”

I absolutely believe this name was chosen for this purpose.

In the course of my research, I also found numerous early theaters called “Orpheums,” like this one in Los Angeles, California.

Orpheus was a musician and poet in Ancient Greek legend, said to have had the ability to charm all living things, and even stones, with his music.

These are examples of the many ways we forgot who and what we were, and how the false information we have been taught in school has been reinforced.

The writer Jack London was also an advocate of socialism.

In 1908, he published the book “The Iron Heel,” which refers to the rise of an oligarchic tyranny in the United States.

An oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.

The story-line emphasized future changes in society and politics, and not technological changes. It is called a dystopian novel, meaning characterized by mass poverty, public mistrust and suspicion, a police state or oppression.

The same themes come up in the art world.

Salvador Dali was a surrealist artist, born in Figueres, in the Catalonia region of Spain in 1904, and died there in 1989. He is best-known for his eccentricity.

Surrealism was an artistic and literary movement that started in France and Belgium in 1917, and on the surface, one of its aims, we are told, was to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind by the juxtaposition of irrational images.

Surrealism is also called one of the most influential cultural, artistic, and literary movements of the 20th-century. It impacted art, philosophy, social theory, and political thought and practice.

Beneath the surface, the founder of Surrealism, Andre Breton, was a dedicated Marxist. He got his start in the Dada movement, which was said to have developed in reaction to World War I by artists who rejected the logic, reason, and aestheticism of modern capitalist society, instead expressing nonsense, irrationality, and anti-capitalism protest in their works.

He wrote his first of four Surrealism Manifestos in 1924. The Surrealists sought to overthrow the oppressive rules of modern society by demolishing its backbone of rational thought by tapping into the “superior reality” of the subconscious mind.

The Surrealists hailed Dali’s development of the “Paranoiac-critical” surrealistic technique in the 1930s, in which the artist invokes a paranoid state, said to result in the deconstruction of the concept of identity, allowing subjectivity to become the primary aspect of the artwork.

Surrealism definitely seemed to promote mental illness and the breakdown of society!

The Book of Enoch is an ancient Hebrew text, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah.

The Book of Enoch contains unique material on things like the origins of demons and giants, and why some angels fell from Heaven.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church considers the Book of Enoch to be divinely-inspired, and the most complete Book of Enoch comes from Ethiopian manuscripts…

…said to have been brought back to Europe in 1773 by the Scottish traveller James Bruce.

The Book of Enoch was said to have been excluded from the Bible by the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD.

The Georgia Guidestones, anonymously erected in 1980 in Elberton, Georgia, use positive-sounding verbiage to disguise a negative agenda towards Humanity.

“Maintain Humanity under 500,000,000…” with Earth’s current population said to currently be 7.8 billion?

Say what?!

Like the destruction of the Ancient Civilization, this is another human and social engineering process that has nothing to do with benefiting Humanity.  

Problem – Reaction – Solution:  The destabilization of Western Civilization by Socialism and radical Islam is going to be restored to order by the New World Order.  Or so they planned.

Their activities are being more and more exposed in the alternative media and the Internet.  They do destruction, death and deception well, and will say and do anything that serves their purposes, but it is getting harder and harder for them to keep their activities hidden, and high crimes within government and crimes against humanity are being exposed.

II think very soon there will be more public awareness of those of who have committed innumerable crimes being held accountable for their crimes.

In my next post, I am going to be looking at Reservoirs and Hydroelectric Power systems.

How the New World was Created from the Old World – Part 2 Catholicism, Colonization & Place Name Changes

In the second part of this series, I am going to take a close look how through the vehicles of Catholicism, European colonization, and the widespread occurrence of place name changes to obscure true history, were used to create the New World from the Old World.

I will start by focusing on the colonization of the Spanish West Indies and the Spanish East Indies.

There sure was a lot of colonization going on in the all of these islands and island groups of the East and West Indies on the part of different European colonial powers that I have encountered in tracking earth’s alignments, not just the Spanish!

The Spanish West Indies and East Indies were administered by the Council of the Indies, and the crown of Spain held absolute power over the Indies…

…and the Trading House was the agency which managed expeditions to the New World on behalf of the Spanish crown.from the 16th- to the 18th-century, organized by Queen Isabella in 1503.

Initially, Queen Isabella had granted extensive authority to Christopher Columbus, but then withdrew that authority, instead putting it in the hands of her personal Chaplain, Juan Rodriguez de Fonseca, in 1493.

Fonseca was an archbishop and bureaucrat who not only initially headed the Trading House, but oversaw the expedition of Christopher Columbus.

The Trading House became an instrument of the Spanish Crown’s policy of centralization and imperial control.

The year of 1493 was the year that Pope Alexander VI authorized the land-grab of the Americas in the “Inter Cetera” papal bull.

This papal bull became a major document in the development of subsequent legal doctrines regarding claims of empire in the “New World” and assigned to Castile in Spain the exclusive right to acquire territory, to trade in, or even approach the lands laying west of the meridian situated one-hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands, except for any lands actually possessed by any other Christian prince beyond this meridian prior to Christmas, 1492.

A papal bull is an official papal letter or document, named after the leaden seal, or bulla, used to authenticate it.

They figure prominently in the effort to authenticate what has taken place on earth in the historical narrative we have been taught, and there will be other ones that I will be mentioning in this post.

Christopher Columbus first set-sail in 1492, which was the same year as the Fall of Grenada, which took place on January 2nd of 1492, and which effectively ended Moorish rule in Spain when Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Grenada to King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile.

I have come to believe through my research that negative beings hijacked the positive timeline that Humanity was originally on by creating a 3D time-loop between 1492 and 1942, and deliberately causing a liquefaction event resulting in a world-wide mud flood which wiped out an advanced civilization of giant humans, and I believe the Philadelphia Experiment, where the USS Eldridge disappeared for 15 minutes in July of 1942,was involved in how they accomplished this.

I talk about why I believe this extensively in my post “My Take on the Mud Flood & Historical Reset Timeline.”

The Council of the Indies began the Archives of the Indies, which contains priceless documents that provide a key to the history of Spain’s relationships with its overseas colonies in the Americas.

The Archive of the Indies is housed in what is called the Ancient Merchants Exchange of Seville…

…and the man to whom it was attributed is Juan de Herrera, a Spanish architect, mathematician, and geometrician, with a construction start date of 1584.

The Council of the Indies was said to have been established in 1524 by Charles V, King of Spain, Holy Roman Emperor, and Lord of the Netherlands.

I am just going to put these two different portraits of Charles V that I have found in my research, revealing similar facial structure between the two portraits, the tilt of the chins, the similar clothing, and a similar-looking hand.

The Council of the Indies was created following the Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, in the historical narrative we have been given.

In terms of governance of the Spanish Empire, “the Indies” was the designation for all of its overseas territories, and when the Viceroyalty of New Spain was established by the Crown in 1535, the islands of the Caribbean came under its jurisdiction.

The Spanish West Indies was the collective name for the colonies in the Caribbean.

The islands claimed by Spain were Hispaniola, an island in the Greater Antilles which is divided into the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic; Cuba; Puerto Rico; St. Martin; the Virgin Islands; Anguilla; Montserrat; Guadalupe; the Lesser Antilles; Jamaica; the Cayman Islands; Margarita Island; Trinidad & Tobago; and the Bay Islands.

I have chosen to take a look at two of the islands of the Spanish East Indies.

The first is Cuba.

We are told that before Columbus arrived in his first voyage on what became known as Cuba on October 28th of 1492, and claimed its islands for the new Kingdom of Spain, the indigenous inhabitants were the Taino, the Guanahatabey, and the Ciboney people, who were all farmers and hunter-gatherers.

The first Spanish settlement and capital was Baracoa, still a municipality and city to this day in Guantanamo Province, near the eastern tip of Cuba.

It is notable that we are told that there were three Spanish fortifications here that were built during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to protect the city from pirates and privateers.

El Castillo…

…which is now a hotel…

…Matachin fortress…

…and La Punta, which is now a restaurant.

Cuba’s capital today, Havana, was said to have been founded in 1515 as San Cristobal de la Habana.

Due to Havana’s strategic location, it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and became a stopping-point, we are told, for the treasure-laden Spanish galleons on the crossings between the New World and the Old World…Treasure-laden…going from the Americas to Spain?

Here are some sights from Old Havana, all claimed by the Spanish as their infrastructure…

…while, from what we are told in the historical narrative, the indigenous peoples of Cuba were forced to work under the encomienda system, a Spanish labor system that rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people, and applied on a large-scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and Philippines…

…and the harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation, along with infectious diseases, virtually wiped-out the indigenous population of Cuba within a century.

I also found this information about the original Cubans from past research, which ties their identity to Manasseh, one of the Tribes of Israel.

Next, I am going to look at the island of Hispaniola, the second-largest island, and most populated, in the West Indies.

Today’s countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic are co-located on the island.

This is a painting of what we are told pre-Columbian Hispaniola looked like…

…and that the first permanent European settlements in the Americas were founded on Hispaniola in Christopher Columbus’ first three voyages.

Christopher Columbus was said to have founded Concepcion de la Vega after the Battle of Vega Real took place there on March 27th of 1495, between an indigenous alliance, and Spanish forces commanded by Christopher Columbus, his brother Bartholomew Columbus, and the Spanish conquistador Alonso de Ojeda.

The battle resulted in the defeat and capture of the Taino leader Caonabo, and ended indigenous resistance on Hispaniola.

We are told that the city of Santo Domingo on Hispaniola is the oldest continously inhabited European settlement, and the first seat of Spanish Colonial Rule, in the New World, with its first University, in 1538…

…first cathedral, built between 1514 and 1541…

…first fortress, the Ozama fortress, said to have been built by the Spanish between 1502 and 1515…

…and the first monastery, the San Francisco Monastery, said to have been built between 1509 -1560 with the arrival of the Franciscan Fathers.

The Franciscans were members of related-religious orders said to have been founded by St. Francis of Assisi in 1209.

Three Franciscan missionaries accompanied Christopher Columbus in his second expedition in 1493, and were sent by a special commission of the Franciscan order in response from royal instructions from the Spanish Crown aimed at bringing the indigenous people of the Americas to Catholicism.

The Franciscans were at the vanguard of missionary activity in the New World, and in 1502, seventeen more Franciscans arrived.

Santo Domingo became the base of operations for countless missionary expeditions to the islands, as well as to the mainlands of North, Central and South America.

Like Cuba, the primary indigenous people on the island of Hispaniola were the Taino people.

When Columbus landed on the coast of present-day Haiti on December 6th of 1492, at a bay he named San Nicolas, the Taino traded more gold with him than he had yet encountered, and learned from them much more could be found inland.

He had to leave Hispaniola before he could explore because his flagship the Santa Maria ran aground on December 24th of 1492.

He left a crew of 21 in a fortified encampment he named “La Navidad.”

Upon his return in his second voyage in 1493, he brought approximately 1,200 men to Hispaniola with then intention of establishing a permanent settlement.

He found the encampment at “La Navidad” had been destroyed and his crew killed.

He established a new settled named “La Isabella” in the present-day Dominican Republic in January of 1494.

The Spanish colonists practiced harsh enslavement practices against the Taino, for labor to search for gold, and later mining, and to grow food to feed the Spanish settlers, as well as redirecting existing food supplies to the Spanish.

We are told that precious metals played a large role in the history of the island after Columbus’ arrival.

The first find of major significance were large gold nuggets at the lower Haina River in the Cordillera Central in 1496 in what is now the Dominican Republic, resulting in the San Cristobal mines, and eventually becoming known as the Minas Viejas, or “Old Mines.”

Then in 1499, there was another discovery of gold in the Cordillera Central, called the Minas Nuevas, or “New Mines.”

The development of these two major mining areas led to a mining boom, the gold rush of 1500 to 1508.

By 1503, the Spanish Crown legalized the distribution of indigenous people to work the mines through the encomienda system.

In 1504, the Minas Viejas pit mines became royal mines for King Ferdinand, who reserved the best mines for himself, and almost 1,000 Taino were made to work the mines, supervised by salaried miners.

We are told that as a result of the encomienda system and its harsh, repressive practices, the indigenous population of Hispaniola was reduced from 400,000 in 1508, to 26,334 by 1514.

In 1665, French colonization of the island was officially recognized by King Louis XIV, and in 1667, the western third of the island was officially ceded to France by Spain via the Treaty, or Peace, of Ryswick, which ended the “Nine Years War” between France and the Grand Alliance, which included England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Dutch Republic.

The French Colony on Hispaniola was named Saint-Domingue, and soon became the richest and most prosperous colony in the West Indies…with a system of slavery used to grow sugar cane during a time when the European demand for sugar was high.

We are told that Haitian slaves were inspired by the message of the French Revolution, which lasted between 1789 and 1799, and rose up in a revolt in 1791…

…and established the Republic of Haiti in 1804.

A key leader during the rebellion, Henri Christophe, first became President of the State of Haiti in northern Haiti in 1807, which was separate from the Republic of Haiti in the South.

He was said to have built the mountaintop Citadelle Laferriere in northern Haiti near Cape Haitien, one of the largest fortresses in the Americas…

…as well as the Sans Souci Palace, along with seven other palaces and six chateaux…

…after he became King of Haiti (still in the North) in 1811, and the first crowned monarch of the New World.

He was said to have taken his own life in 1820…and his son and heir was assassinated ten days later.

Haiti’s history has been quite tumultuous for a variety of reasons, and for simplicity’s sake, I am just going to focus on just a couple of other things that caught my attention.

The first is Faustin Soulouque.

He was said to have been a general in the Haitian army, and was appointed President of Haiti in 1847.

He acquired autocratic powers to purge the army of the ruling elite; install loyalists in administrative positions and the nobility, and created a secret police and personal Army.

Soulouque’s process of obtaining absolute power in Haiti culminated in the formation of the Second Haitian Empire after the Senate and Chamber of Deputies proclaimed him Emperor of Haiti in August of 1849, and he and his wife were officially coronated in 1852.

One of the things that happened during his short reign was a direct confrontation with the United States over the island of Navassa.

This small island is subject to an on-going territorial dispute between the United States and Haiti.

The United State claimed the island since 1857, based on the Guano Islands Act of 1856.

The legislation essentially said that an American could claim an uninhabited, unclaimed island, it contained guano, or bird droppings, which was an effective early fertilizer.

Haiti’s claims over Navassa go back to the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697, which I mentioned previously, establishing French possessions in mainland Hispaniola that were transferred from Spain by the treaty.

Soulouque dispatched warships to the island in response the incursion, but withdrew them after the United States guaranteed Haiti a portion of the revenue from the mining operation there.

This is the deactivated lighthouse on Navassa. This is the only building left of what was previously on Navassa Island…

…possibly including this star fort identified as being in Lulu Town on Navassa, but I can’t confirm this finding because whatever was there isn’t there any more.

Lulu Town was previously situated around Lulu Bay on Navassa Island.

In 1858, a revolution was led against him by another Haitian General, Fabre Geffard, and the army of Emperor Faustin I was defeated in December of that year, and he was exiled to Jamaica with his family after he abdicated his throne on January 15th of 1859, with Fabre Geffard becoming the new President of Haiti.

I was drawn to look into this historical figure in Haiti because the dates of his presidency and imperial reign coincide with 1851, the year I believe marked the official start of the New World historical reset timeline, with “The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations” of 1851, held in the Crystal Palace in London between May 1st and October 15th, and the first in a series of World’s Fairs, exhibitions of culture and industry that became popular in the 19th- and 20th-centuries.

For more information about this subject, see my blog post “Exposing Exhibitsions, Expositions, and World Fairs since 1851.”

These are several other things I would like to bring forward.

There was a small German community in Haiti, of approximately 200 people, in 1910, who wielded a disproportionate amount of economic power, controlling utilities, the main wharf, and rail-lines.

The Germans were said to serve as the principal financiers of the nation’s innumerable revolutions, floating loans at high-interest rates to competing political factions, between 1911 to 1915, when there were six or seven different Haitian presidents, each of whom was killed or forced into exile, said to have been fueled by peasant brigands from the mountains of the north, who were enlisted by these rival political factions with promises of money to be paid after a successful revolution and an opportunity to plunder.

Then in 1915, responding to complaints from American banks, to which Haiti was deeply in debt, President Woodrow Wilson ordered the U. S. occupation of Haiti.

This occupation lasted until 1934, with a new, democratically-elected president and government that had first been installed in 1930.

So, the island of Hispaniola is a study in contrasts.

Haiti was saddled with unmanageable debt for decades and became the poorest country in the Americas, while the Dominican Republic gradually developed into one of the largest economies of Central America and the Caribbean.

Here’s the rub. The combined value of all of its mineral and oil resources puts Haiti in the top 1% of the wealthiest nations on Earth.

Then there is this…the Haitians are identified as the Tribe of Levi…

…and the Dominicans as the Tribe of Simeon.

Now moving along to the Spanish East Indies, an overseas territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia and Oceania from 1565 to 1901, governed from Manila in the Spanish Philippines…

…including, besides the Philippines, the Marianas Islands; the Caroline Islands; Palau; Guam; parts of Formosa (now Taiwan); and Sulawesi and the Moluccas in Indonesia.

I will look into two places in the Spanish East Indies.

The first is the Philippines.

The earliest European expedition to the Philippines was led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the service of the King of Spain in 1521. He made landfall there on Homonhon Island in eastern Samar at the mouth of the Leyte Gulf.

The next day, on March 13th, which was Easter Sunday of the year 1521, Magellan claimed possession of these lands for the King of Spain on what is believed to now be the island of Limasawa in southern Leyte.

Magellan and fourteen of his men died shortly thereafter in the Battle of Mactan, which took place on April 27th of 1521 on the Mactan Island of Cebu.

This monument to Magellan was said to have been erected on Mactan Island in 1866, on the spot where he was said to have been killed.

After Magellan’s voyage, five expeditions were sent to the islands.

This is a coin bearing an image of King Phillip II…

In 1543, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos named the islands of Leyte and Samar “Las Islas Filipinas,” after Phillip of Austria, heir-apparent to the throne of Spain, who became King Phillip II in 1556.

…a bust of King Phillip II by Pompeo Leoni…

…and a portrait that is typical of King Phillip II.

Cebu is the oldest city in the Philippines, as it was said to have been the first Spanish settlement and first capital city.

It is important to note that there was a star fort located in Cebu, called the Fort San Pedro.

It was said to have been built by the Spanish starting in 1565.

 Manila is the capital of the Philippines, and the most densely populated city in the world within its boundaries.

Manila, alongside Mexico City and Madrid, is considered one of the world’s original global cities, due to Manila’s historic commercial networks connecting Asia with the Americas.

We are told the Spanish city of Manila was founded in 1571 by the conquistador Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies from 1565 to 1572.

The historic walled city part of Manila is called the Intramuros, said to have been established by the Spaniards in the late 1500s.

Apparently the Intramuros is a star fort also.

This is a view of a street inside the Intramuros, with cobblestones, colonnades, stone masonry and balconies.

The first University in Manila, Universidad de San Ignacio, was said to have been established in the Intramuros by the Jesuits in 1590.

In 1540, Pope Paul III had issued a papal bull forming the Jesuit Order, under the leadership of Ignatius Loyola, Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees in Northern Spain.

The Jesuit Order included a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment.


With regards to the efforts to establish one universal, hierarchical, organized religion, in which Humanity was taught it needed an intermediary to reach the Creator, the main Catholic missionaries, besides the Franciscans, were the Jesuits, Benedictines, and Dominicans…

…and most likely involved in many activities of cultural obfuscation, some known, and many more not known.

When I looked up “Philippines, lost Tribe of Israel,” this popped up.

The Philippines is one of the places believed by many to be the biblical wealthy land of Ophir.

Other candidates for Ophir include the Solomon Islands, India, Africa, and the Americas.

The other place I am going to take a look at in the Spanish East Indies is the Republic of Palau.

Palau was made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1574.

The seat of government of the Republic of Palau is located in Melekeok, and called Ngerulmud.

Melekeok is located in the central east coast of Palau’s Babeldaob Island.

The government was said to have moved here in 2006 from Koror Island, which is the population center of Palau…

…and the capitol buildings were said to have been built in the middle of nowhere just prior to the time of the move.

The Badrulchau Stone Monoliths are located on the northern part of the island of Babeldaob.

There are 52 here, some of them weighing over 5 tons.

These monoliths are said to be made for a type of stone material not found here.

I can’t find a specific Tribe of Israel associated with Palau, but I did find this.

After Spain’s defeat in the Spanish-American War in 1898, the islands Palau were sold to Imperial Germany in 1899 under the terms of the German-Spanish Treaty.

The other islands purchased by Germany as a result of this treaty were the Caroline Islands and the Mariana Islands.

They were all part of German New Guinea, which was part of the German Colonial empire that existed from 1884 to 1919.

German New Guinea ceased to exist after World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.

The Germans had previously purchased the Marshall Islands from Spain in 1885, and in 1888, the Germans annexed the island of Nauru to the Marshall Islands protectorate.

Today, Nauru is the third smallest country in the world, after Vatican City and Monaco.

Interestingly, at one time the island Republic of Nauru was the second-richest nation in the world by GDP per capita from the mining of its phosphate reserves.

There is much more to be found in the East Indies and West Indies, but now I am going to skip around bring forward examples of how other ancient countries were subjugated, and controlled, through the processes of western colonialism.

One such is example is the Kingdom of Kandy was said to have been founded in Ceylon in 1469.

Known as Ceylon since ancient times, it has been known as the island country of Sri Lanka since 1972.

In 1592, Kandy became the capital city of the last remaining independent kingdom in Ceylon after the coast regions had been conquered by the Portuguese.

From that time, the Kingdom of Kandy kept the Portuguese and Dutch East India Company at bay, but succumbed finally to British colonial rule when the kingdom was absorbed into the British Empire as a protectorate via the Kandyan Convention of 1815, an agreement signed between the British and members of the King’s court which ceded the kingdom’s territory to British rule, and the last king was imprisoned.

At this time, Ceylon became British Protectorate until its independence in 1948.

The Kandyan Convention was signed in the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic.

Also known simply as the Temple of the Tooth…

…which houses the tooth of the Buddha, venerated as the Buddha’s only surviving relic.

It is believed that whoever holds the relic, holds the governance of the country.

Another example of what happened is with regards to the northern African country of Tunisia, which was the historical location of Carthage, the capital of the ancient and powerful Carthaginian Empire, which was in the same location as its modern capital, Tunis.

At the beginning of the 1800s, Tunisia was described as a quasi-autonomous province of the Ottoman Empire.

Its trade increased dramatically with Europe in the 1800s, with the arrival of western merchants wanting to establish business in the country.

Then, the Bey of Tunis from 1855 to 1859, Muhammad, was forced by the British and French to sign the 1857 Fundamental Pact, which increased freedoms for non-Tunisians.

Then, we are told, in 1861, Tunisia enacted the first constitution in what was called the Arab world, but a move toward a modernizing republic was said to have been hampered by a poor economy and political unrest.

Regardless of the new Constitution, when the Tunisian government couldn’t manage the loans made by foreigners to the government, it declared bankruptcy in 1869.

Then Britain and France cooperated between 1871 and 1878 to prevent Italy from acquiring Tunisia as a colony having investment, and subsequently Britain supported the French interest in Tunisia in exchange for dominion over Cyprus.

Using the pretext of a Tunisian invasion into Algeria, the French invaded Tunisia starting in 1881 with an army of 36,000, which quickly advanced to Tunis, entering by way of places like Sousse on the coast…

…and subsequently occupying Tunis.

Then, the French forced the new Bey, Muhammad III as-Sadiq, to make terms in the form of the 1881 Treaty of Bardo, which gave France control of Tunisian governance and making it a de facto French Protectorate.

The French progressively assumed more of the important administrative positions, and by 1884 they supervised all Tunisian government bureaus dealing with finance, post, education, telegraph, public works, and agriculture.

On March 20th, 1956, Tunisia achieved its independence from France with the establishment of a Constitutional Monarchy…

…with the last Bey of Tunis, Muhammed VIII al-Amin Bey, as the King of Tunisia.

This State of Affairs didn’t last long, as the Prime Minister, Habib Bourguiba, abolished the monarchy in 1957, and proclaimed the Republic of Tunisia the same year, and served as its President for the next thirty-one years.

At the same time the constitutional monarchy of Tunisia was abolished, the Beylik of Tunis was terminated as well, described as a largely autonomous Beylik of the Ottoman Empire.


Another method by which the original civilization’s true history was obscured was by way of historical place name changes.

Here are several examples, of which there are many more, of this practice.

The following were all empires unified within the ancient Moorish civilization, with its roots going back in the far distant past to the time of Mu, also known Lemuria.

Also known as the Barbary Coast and the Maghreb, Barbaria was the name given to a vast region stretching across Northern Africa, to the Canary Islands.

The people who live in that part of northern Africa became known as Berbers instead of Barbars.

What was the historical Tartarian Empire included present-day Korea, Japan, Mongolia, Tibet, and other modern Central Asian countries…

…and a chunk of it became known as Manchuria in northeast Asia in the mid-1800s.

The borders of today’s country of Bangladesh were the major portion of the historic region of Bengal, an ancient civilization said to date back at least 4,000 years.

Mughal Bengal was described as a “Paradise of Nations,” and its inhabitants living standards were among the highest in the world at one time…

…and for comparison, a typical photo of the poverty found in Bangladesh today.

Persia historically was part of the vast Persian Empire, which in more ancient times, as we are told, included all of the following present-day countries: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Egypt, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan.

On the Nowruz, or New Year, of 1935, the Shah of Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi asked foreign delegates to use the term Iran in formal correspondence.

This also changed the usage of the country’s national identity from Persian to Iranian.

At one time, Euboea, a large island in the Aegean Sea, off the eastern coast of what is now called Greece, was known by another name…Negroponte…

…and part of what was then known as the Kingdom, or Realm, of the Morea, which was the official name of the Peloponnese Peninsula of southern Greece until the 19th-century.

There are other pieces to the puzzle that are important to mention in this post before I conclude it.

The main foundational piece for the Catholic Church’s claims for dominion over all of Humanity was the Unam Sanctum papal bull, which are told was issued by Pope Boniface VIII in 1302. 

At the end of it, he writes “Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.”

On December 22, 1216, the Dominican Order was founded by Pope Honorious III via his papal bull called the Religiosam Vitam and gave universal recognition to the order.

Papal Bull Religiosam Vitam.jpg

This occurred during the Albigensian or Cathar Crusade in Southern France, and the Dominicans were founded to preach the gospel and oppose the Cathar heresy, and/or any form of what was deemed heresy, which is defined as “the formal denial of the orthodox beliefs of the church, and the adherence to correct or accepted creeds in religion.”

The peaceful gnostic Cathars were brutally massacred in the Albigensian Crusade in southern France and Spain that lasted from 1209 to 1229, as the Cathars were tagged as a heretical sect.

It is interesting to note that the small country of Andorra is located between these two countries in the southern part of the Pyrenees Mountains…

…all of which was part of the historical Catalonia…

…and has been ruled since 1272 to the present-day as a diarchy, a co-principality of unelected Heads-of-State, by whoever is the Catholic Bishop of Urguelle, and whoever is the President of France.

Catalonia was partitioned as a result of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees, ending the Franco-Spanish War which took place between 1635 and 1659, during which time Catalonia revolted.

The Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia to France.

Then in 1714, King Philip V of Spain imposed a unifying administration across Spain via the Nueva Planta decrees…

…which like the other realms of the Crown of Aragon, suppressed the Catalan institutions and rights, as a result of the War of Spanish Succession, when Catalonia changed its loyalty from Philip V to his rival Archduke Charles, whose English allies promised to uphold Catalan charters and institutions.

What is the driving force behind the brutal animosity towards the people of this region, and the desire to control it in perpetuity?

I think there is a very important secret hidden here about the people who live in this region, that surfaces in their oral traditions…and sometimes in literature.

The Inquisition started in the 1200s in France, during the same period of time as the Cathar Albigensian Crusade.

The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the Catholic Church with a stated aim of combating heresy, and under the leadership of the Dominican order.

The Spanish Inquisition was established by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1478 to maintain Catholic orthodoxy. Called the Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, it is particularly known in history for its brutality and torture.

Spanish Inquisition

So we are taught that all of this is normal and matter of fact in history in school, like there is nothing out of the ordinary or wrong about the Inquisition…which was, by its very nature, violating basic Human Rights and dignity, including torture in the name of Christianity just for having dissenting views.

The lovely Office of the Inquisition is even still in existence to this day…only now it is called the “Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.”

The powers that were didn’t rewrite history from scratch – they rewrote the historical narrative to fit their agenda. And from the new official historical reset year of 1851, we have been immersed in learning their version of history from a very young age.

And it sure looks like to me that the identity of the true Israelites was replaced with a false identity and hidden away, and, as we have seen, many were relegated to an existence of slavery, degradation and marginalization, if they weren’t killed.

This subjugation allowed for the identity of the Israelites to be co-opted by the Khazarian Jews and Zionists.

The Rothschilds purchased Jerusalem in 1829, and subsequently acquired considerable land in Palestine in the 1800s and early 1900s.

The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued by the British government in 1917, during World War I, announcing support for the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Palestine…

…which was at that time, a region of the Ottoman Empire, an empire which was partitioned at the end of World War I, losing its Middle East holdings, which were divided between the Allied Forces, with Palestine going to the British.

See how that worked?

In the third, and last, part of this series, I will be taking a close look at how the sea voyages of the “Ages of Discovery” tie into the creation of the New World from the Old World.

Creating the New World from the Old World – Part 1 Trading Companies, Wars, Partitions, Conferences & Treaties

European colonialism intentionally created divides over almost the entire landmass of the earth, creating new countries from lands that were taken, as well as divisions and discords between peoples that originally existed in harmony worldwide.

It also diagrams the means by which power and control were consolidated worldwide, mostly starting out as “trading” companies that ended up being very powerful in their respective regions, and after gaining complete control, transferring power and control of the regions to their respective European empires.

This is the first part of a three-part series in which I will be providing numerous examples to illustrate how creating the New World from the Old World was accomplished.

Others means by which power and control were consolidated included partitions, wars, treaties, and conferences.

I will be providing these examples I have found in travelling the cities and places that are in alignment with each other around the Earth, and in many cases what happened involved all of these means.

I will start with trading companies.

The British East India Company held a monopoly granted to it by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1600 between South Africa’s Cape of Good Hope and Tierra del Fuego’s Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America, until 1834 when the monopoly was lost.

East Indiaman was the general name of any sailing ship operating under charter or license to any of the East India companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th- through 19th-centuries.

The British East India Company ruled over parts of the Indian Subcontinent between 1757 and 1858, commencing after the 1757 Battle of Plassey, called a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal, Mir Jafar, after which time the Nawab ceded revenues to the what was called the “Company.”

Mir Jafar was considered the first dependent Nawab of Bengal of the British East India Company, and this was considered to be the start of British Imperialism in India, and a key step in the eventual British domination of vast areas there.

The British East India Company arrived in what came to be known as Madras in 1600, making it their principal settlement, and we are told, constructed Fort St. George in 1644.

The British India Company was said to have come here in order to have a port close to the Malaccan Straits, the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and to secure its trade lines and commercial interests in the spice trade.

It is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world.

They succeeded in their securing their goals, as the British East India Company obtained the Prince of Wales Island in the Malaccan Strait.

Prince of Wales Island is known today as Penang Island, the main constituent island of the Malaysian state of Penang.

Apparently the British East India Company was able to successfully take what they named the Prince of Wales Island from the Kedah Sultanate in 1786, which became the capital of the Straits Settlements, a group of British territories in Southeast Asia established in 1826, including Melaka and Singapore.

The Kedah Sultanate was an historical Muslim dynasty located in the Malay Peninsula, said to have dated as an independent state from 1136 AD.

Its monarchy was abolished with the formation of the Malayan Union in 1909, but restored and added to the Federation of Malaya in 1963.

The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, was an administrative subdivision of British India, and established in 1652, and of which Elihu Yale became president in 1684.

Elihu Yale was a British merchant, trader, and a President of the British East India Company settlement at Fort St. George…

…who later became a benefactor of the Collegiate School in the Colony of Connecticut, which in 1718 was renamed Yale College in his honor.

At its greatest extent, the Madras Presidency included most of southern India, including the whole of the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh; parts of Odisha, Kerala, and Karnataka; and the union territory of Lakshadweep, a group of islands off India’s southwestern coast.

The Madras Presidency ended with the advent of Indian independence on August 15th of 1947.

Bareilly, in northern India, was a center of the ultimately unsuccessful Indian Rebellion of 1857.

At this time a major uprising took place in northern India, which lasted between 1857 and 1859 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

The last Mughal Emperor in India, Bahadur Shah Zafar, a devout Sufi, a mystic and practitioner of the inward dimension of Islam, was deposed by the British East India Company in 1858, and exiled to Rangoon in Burma.

Through the Government of India Act of 1858, the British Crown assumed direct control of the British East India Company-held territories in India in the form of the new British Raj…

…and in 1876, Queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of India.

King-Emperor and Queen-Empress were the titles used by the British monarchs in India between 1876 and 1948.

The tribe of Bhil Minas inhabits all three islands on Dhebar Lake near Udaipur in India.

The Bhils, who speak a subgroup of the western zone of the Indo-Aryan languages, are one of the largest indigenous groups in India, as well as among the most economically deprived peoples of India.

This is interesting to note because they are among the oldest communities in India and were inhabitants of the ancient Indus River Valley civilization.

The Bhil Minas tribe was the ruling tribe before the Kachhawaha clan of Rajputs, otherwise known as the Mewar Kingdom, forced them to hide out in the Aravalli Hills, and they were named a criminal tribe by the British government in 1924 to keep them from regaining power over the Rajputs.

They were subsequently given protection as a Scheduled Tribe after the upliftment in 1949 of the Criminal Tribe Act, which had been enacted on October 12th of 1871.

The Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 criminalized entire communities by designating them as habitual criminals, and restrictions on their movements imposed, including men having to report to the police once per week.

A Scheduled Tribe is recognized by the Indian Constitution, have political representation, and yet they are legally totally or partially excluded from various types of services important for leading a healthy life, and altogether, the Scheduled Tribes of India make-up almost 10% of the population, and are considered India’s poorest people.

India was called the “Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire. and its largest, and most important, overseas possession.

Much of the British Empire was built around India, in order to provide routes to, or protection for, India.

India was prosperous and rich, in spices, silk, indigo, gold, cotton, and other products and resources.

Trade with, and eventual political dominance of large parts of India, was what provided Britain with large parts of its wealth in the 1700s through 1900s.

On March 20, 1602, Dutch East India Company was chartered to trade with India and Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly for the Dutch spice trade. 

Dutch East India Company flag

It was a megacorporation, which is defined as a massive conglomerate (usually private) holding near-monopolistic, if not monopolistic, control over multiple markets.

It was chartered to trade with Mughal India, and primarily Mughal Bengal, from where 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported.

It has often been labelled a trading or shipping company, but was in fact a proto-conglomerate, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities, such as international trade, ship-building, production and trade of East Indian spices, Indonesian coffee, Formosan (Taiwan) sugar-cane, and South African wine.

The first formally listed public company by widely issuing shares of stock and bonds to the general public in the early 1600s, it was the world’s most valuable company of all-time, with a worth of $7.9-trillion.

It is considered by many to be to have been the forerunner of modern corporations.

I have encountered the Dutch East India Company in tracking earth’s alignments in places like Tristan da Cunha by a Dutch East Indiaman ship in February of 1643, a small island favorably located on the world’s historic shipping lanes between the West and the East, and the Dutch made four more stops there in the next 25-years, making the first rough charts of the islands in 1656.

Tristan da Cunha is on an alignment that goes through Sri Lanka and India, an in the present-day is considered a constituent part of the British Overseas Territory of the South Atlantic.

The islands of Tristan da Cunha were annexed by the United Kingdom in 1816, making them a dependency of the Cape Colony in South Africa, for the stated reasons of preventing the islands’ use as a base for any attempt to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on St. Helena, and for preventing the United States from using the islands as a base for naval cruisers.

While possession was abandoned by the United Kingdom in 1817, a garrison of British marines stayed and formed the nucleus of a permanent population, which gradually grew, and was once a stopping point for lengthy sea voyages until the time of the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.

I also found the Dutch East India Company in Cape Town, South Africa, established the first European settlement in South Africa there in 1652, called the VOC Cape Colony.

In 1814, it became the British Cape Colony, as it was ceded to the British Crown by the Netherlands after the British successfully invaded and took-over everything from the Dutch starting in 1806.

South Africa is the world’s leading producer of copper, platinum, uranium, and vanadium.

I found the Dutch East India Company in other places, and will be talking about more examples in with regards to colonization in Part 2.

These were two major players of a number of so-called trading companies during that era. Others included:

The French East India Company founded in 1661 to compete with first the British, and later the Dutch East India Companies, in the East Indies, the term given to the lands of South and Southeast Asia.

It was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere, and was abolished in 1769 because it was said to have not been able to maintain itself financially.

The Swedish South Company was founded in 1626 to support trade between Sweden and its colony New Sweden.

The company established a settlement at Fort Christina, named after Queen Christina of Sweden, and is present-day Wilmington, Delaware.

Said to have been built in 1638, the first Swedish settlement in North America, and the principal settlement of the New Sweden Colony.

The activities of the Swedish South Company were finally dissolved in 1680, after New Sweden was annexed by New Netherland in 1655.

The Hudson Bay Company was granted a permanent charter by King Charles II of England on May 2nd, 1670, conferred two things on a group of French explorers:  1)  A trading monopoly with London merchants over the lucrative North American fur trade; and 2)  Gave them effective control over the vast region surrounding the Hudson Bay in Canada.

Hudson Bay Company

It is still in operation today as a Canadian retail business group operating department stores in several countries.

The British Northwest Company, a fur-trading business based out of Montreal in Quebec from 1779 to 1821, built their inland headquarters at Grand Portage in Minnesota in 1785, and was active there until 1802.

Grand Portage, along with Fort Niagara, Fort Detroit, and Michilimackinac in the Straits of Mackinac in Michigan, were the four main fur-trading centers of the British Empire in North America.

The Royal Company of the Philippines was established by the royal decree of King Charles III of Spain, and had a monopoly on the trading industry between Spain and the Philippines, and to exploit the natural resources of the islands.

It also opened a large access to goods from the Orient that were imported into the Philippines.

The next subject I would like to introduce is that of “Partition,” and what that actually looked like in real life.

Partition is defined as a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.

Here are some examples I encountered, all of them along the same alignment I was tracking.

Another one of three presidencies of British India within the British Empire was the Bengal Presidency, which was formed following the dissolution of Mughal Bengal in 1757.

The Bengal Presidency was the economic, cultural, and educational hub of the British Raj, and its governor was concurrently the Viceroy of India for many years.

In 1905, Bengal Proper was partitioned, separating largely Muslim areas eastern areas from largely western Hindu areas.

In 1912, British India was reorganized and the Bengal Presidency was reunited with a single Bengali-speaking province.

Could this first partitioning of Bengal have been a human- and social-engineering project, and a practice run for the 1947 Boundary partition of India, where Bengal – primarily in the form of Bangladesh – and India, into West Pakistan and East Pakistan?

The 1947 Boundary Partition divided what was British India into two independent dominion states – the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. Today they are called the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

It involved the division of two provinces – Punjab and Bengal – based on district-wise non-Muslim or Muslim majorities, and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj.

The Partition of India in 1947 divided British India into the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan along religious lines, displacing 10 – 12 million people and creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions, as well as large-scale violence. This created the conditions for suspicion and hostility between these two countries into the present-day.

After India gained independence in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan, the world’s richest man of his time, declared his intention to remain independent rather than become part of the Indian Union.

The Hyderabad State Congress began to agitate against him, with the support of the Indian National Congress and Communist Party of India, and in 1948, the Indian Army invaded Hyderabad, and he ended up surrendering to the Indian Union, signing a instrument of Accession which made him a Princely Governor of Hyderabad until October 31st of 1956.

Then on November 1st of 1956, Hyderabad was split into three parts, and merged into neighboring states. Eventually, the Telengana State, of which Hyderabad is the capital, was formed on June 2nd of 2014.

The Pashtuns are the primary inhabitants of a region in Pakistan and in Afghanistan, in a region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between two countries since the Durand Line border between the two countries was formed in 1893 after the second Anglo-Afghan War.

The name sake of the line, Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, was a British Diplomat and Civil Servant of the British Raj. We are told that together with the Afghan Emir, Abdur Rahman Khan, it was established to “fix the limit of their respective spheres of influence and improve diplomatic relations and trade.”

Well, that certainly sounds good…but what was really going on here?

The Durand Line cuts through the Pashtunistan and Balochistan regions, politically dividing ethnic Pashtuns and Baloch, who live on both sides of the border.