Shapers of the New Narrative – Part 4 Computers and Video Games & the Like

I am going to be taking a close look at computers and video games, and related subjects and devices in this fourth and last part of the “Shapers of the New Narrative” series.

In the first part of the “Shapers of the New Narrative” series, I focused on the subjects of dime westerns, wild west shows, and western movies.

The second part of this series was about the role played by such things as penny candy; dime museums; circuses; nickelodeons & the early movie industry; and daredevils…

…and I looked into the origins of radio and television in the third-part of this series.

Where is all of this leading to?

Are these random events unfolding, or is there an outcome-based, long-term plan driving everything that has been happening in our lives?

In Part 2 this series, I touched on the relationship between the development of penny arcades in the early 1900s and the coin-operated interactive entertainment industry of today, which had long-established and well-developed manufacturing and distribution channels around the world.

Existing computer technology had become cheap enough to incorporate into mass market entertainment products, and in 1972, Magnavox released the world’s first home video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey…

…and while there were other less well-known video arcade games released around 1972, the first block-buster video arcade game was “Space Invaders” in 1978, responsible for starting what is called the “Golden Age of Video Arcade Games.”

Also happening along with “Space Invaders” in 1978 was the release the album called “The Man-Machine” by the German band Kraftwerk.

These are the lyrics to its title song:

Man Machine
Pseudo-human being
Man Machine
Superhuman being

The man machine, machine
Machine, machine, machine
Machine, machine, machine (machine)
The man machine, machine
Machine, machine, machine
Machine, machine, machine (machine)

The other albums of Kraftwerk, a German electronic music band characterized by a “robot-pop-style” from that same time period included:

Autobahn, which was released in 1974…

…Trans-Europa Express, released in 1977…

…and Computer World was released in 1981.

Is this life imitating art, or art imitating life, since 1981 was the same year that IBM released the original 5150 IBM PC in the United States, on August 12th, the first of the IBM PC, which had a substantial influence on the personal computer market.

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I am going to go back into the history of computers here before I go forward in time.

The Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) machine was introduced in 1945 by John W. Mauchly and J. Prosper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania, and was the world’s first substantial computer.

Shortly after the introduction of ENIAC, William Shockley, John Bardeen, and William Brattain of Bell Labs invented the transistor in 1947, which subsequently replaced vacuum tubes in electronic devices…

…and in 1958, Jack St. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments manufactured the first integrated circuit.

These two improvements in the computer field marked the beginning of the computer revolution.

Hewlett-Packard introduced the 9100A in 1968.

It was an early programmable calculator.

Microcomputers came onto the mass market in the 1970s as personal computers.

Microcomputers were small, relatively inexpensive computers with a microprocesser as its central processing unit (CPU).

The Altair 8800 microcomputer was released in 1974 by a company called Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry System (MITS)…

…and the Apple II microcomputer was released in 1977 by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs.

This was Apple’s first launch of a computer aimed for household use, and was one of the first, highly successful microprocessors.

The first computer virus, called the Elk Cloner, which infected Apple II computers via floppy disk, was found on January 30th of 1982. It was written by Rich Skrenta, who was 15-years-old at the time.

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Skrenta is currently a computer programmer and Silicon Valley entrepreneur.

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Just for point-of-reference, the AIDS virus came onto the world scene for the first time on June 5th of 1981, at which time the first cases of AIDS were recognized by the CDC just seven-months prior to the first computer virus.

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January 1st of 1983 marked the beginning of the true internet when ARPANET, or the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, migrated to TCP/IP, the Internet Protocol Suite.

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On March 8th of 1983, IBM released the Personal Computer XT, model 5160, similar to the model 5150 except that it had a hard-drive built-in and extra expansion slots.

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Apple placed the Macintosh personal computer for sale in the United States on January 24th, after introducing it in the “1984” commercial during the Super Bowl 18 on January 22nd.

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Cisco Systems was founded in California on December 10th, an American multinational conglomerate that develops, manufactures, and sells networking hardware, software, telecommunications equipment, and other high-tech services and products.

The internet Domain Name System was created on January 1st, and the first mobile phone network was launched in the UK by Vodaphone in 1985

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The first Nintendo home video game console in the U. S. is released on October 18th as the Nintendo Entertainment System.

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On November 20th, Microsoft Corporation released the first version of the Windows operating software, which was Windows 1.0.

Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in April of 1975 in order to develop and sell BASIC Interpreters, which allowed users to enter and run programs in the BASIC language, for the Altair 8800.

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In January of 1986, the first PC virus, called “Brain,” started to quickly spread globally. It was developed by two brothers in Pakistan, allegedly to protect their medical software from illegal copying, and was supposed to only target copyright infringment.

On June 23rd, LISTSERV was released, the first email list management software developed by Eric Thomas.

Microsoft released Windows 2.0 on December 9th, of 1987…

…and in 1989, Tim Berners Lee produced the proposal document that would become the blueprint for the World Wide Web on March 13th.

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On January 1st of 1990, two internet companies began selling internet service to commercial customers in the United States and the Netherlands.

One was PSInet, which was founded on December 5th of 1989.

PSInet was based in Ashburn in northern Virginia.

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What else has its base in northern Virginia?

Well, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Headquarters in Langley, Virginia, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is based in Arlington.

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The roots of EUnet, the other internet company that was selling internet connectivity to commercial users, go back to 1982 and the European UNIX Network.

FNET was the French branch of EUnet.

Starting in 1988, EUnet played a decisive role in Europe’s adoption of the internet protocol suite known as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), of which versions of it were known as the Department of Defense Model because the development of its networking method was funded by the U. S. Department of Defense through DARPA.

Once TCP/IP was in place, EUnet was able to connect with FNET and CERN’s TCP/IP connections, and a connection to the U. S. was also established.

On January 1st of 1990, EUnet started selling internet access to non-academic customers in The Netherlands.

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On January 22nd of 1990, Robert Tappan Morris was convicted of releasing the Morris Worm, one of the first computer internet worms.

I found some interesting things when looking up information on Mr. Morris.

He developed his computer worm when he was a graduate student at Cornell University, though he released the worm from MIT.

The Morris Worm was designed to exploit existing vulnerabilities within target systems in order to gain entry, and was programmed to copy itself 14% of the time

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He was the first person convicted under the “Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) in the United State vs. Morris, and received a sentence of three-years probation, 400-hours of community service, and a fine of $10,500, and additionally the costs of his supervision.

After he completed his the terms of his sentence, he completed his Ph.D at Harvard 1999 and was appointed Assistant Professor at MIT.

In 1995, he co-founded Viaweb with Paul Graham, a company that made software for building online stores, and which, three-years later, sold for $49-million to Yahoo.

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He also co-founded Y Combinator with Paul Graham, Jessica Livingston and Trevor Blackwell in 2005.

Y Combinator is an American seed money start-up accelerator that was used to launch such companies as Stripe, Airbnb, DoorDash, Coinbase, Dropbox, Twitch, and Reddit, to name a few.

Not bad for a convicted criminal!

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In South Africa, on February 2nd, South African President F. W. de Clerk announced the unbanning of the African National Congress and promised to release Nelson Mandela, which happened several days later on February 11th, from prison near Cape Town.

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This is a great place to mention what is called “The Mandela Effect.”

The Mandela Effect is typically defined as occurring when a large mass of people believe an event it occurred when it did not, with most sources of information referring to it as a “collective false memory.”

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This effect gets its name from many people having memories that Nelson Mandela died when he was in prison in the 1980s, instead of dying in 2013 in our historical narrative, after having been released from prison in 1990 after serving 27 years, and serving as President of South Africa from 1994-99.

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Tim Berners-Lee began his work on the World Wide Web, while working at CERN, on October 1st of 1990, 19-months after his beginning outline of it in 1989, and by November 12th, he and Belgian computer scientist Robert Cailliau, had submitted the first formal proposal to build the first “hypertext project” called the “WorldWideWeb.”

By December of 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working web, and the first website.

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The World Wide Web was invented by someone working at CERN?

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I have to ask before I go on to 1991 is whether or not there is a connection between CERN, the Internet, and the Mandela Effect?

I am curious because EUnet showed up on January 1st of 1990 selling internet access to commercial interests after having been instrumental in connecting with FNET and CERN’s TCP/IP connections, as well as to the United States, once TCP/IP was in place around this time; on February 2nd, Nelson Mandela was freed from prison in South Africa; and by the end of the year, Tim Berners-Lee, who worked at CERN, had built all the tools necessary for a working worldwide web, and the first website.

Were all of these occurrences in the same year just coincidental, or was there either a planned aspect, or residual time-altering effect, resulting from this?

I do not know the answer to this.

I am just asking the question because this is a very interesting finding for me.

I have heard in the past (and I do not remember when, or where) that CERN had something to do with the Mandela Effect.

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On August 6th of 1991, Tim Berners-Lee announced the World Wide Web project and software on the alt.hypertext news group…

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…and the first website “” was created.

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The Test Engineer for the SEMA group used a PC to send the world’s first text message via the Vodaphone network on December 3rd of 1992 to the phone of a colleague.

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On December 10th of 1993, id Software’s Doom was released, becoming a landmark title in first-person shooter video games for MS-DOS.

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Players assumed the role of a space marine, named Doomguy, fighting his way through hordes of invading demons from hell.

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On March 14th of 1994, Apple released Power Macintosh, ten-years after the release of the first Macintosh computer.

It was the first Macintosh to use the new PowerPC Microprocessors, a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) Instruction Set Architecture (ISA), created by the 1991 Apple – IBM – Motorola Alliance.

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On the same day of March 14th of 1994, the Linux Kernel version 1.0.0 was released after two-years of development by Finnish software engineer Linus Torvalds.

A kernel is a computer program that has complete control over everything in the system, and is in the core of the operating system.

The Linux Kernel software is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) that anyone is freely-licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any way.

It is deployed on a wide-variety of computing systems, such as embedded devices, mobile devices, personal computers, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers.

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Jeff Bezos founded Amazon on July 5th, which started out as an on-line bookstore, when he was on a cross-country road trip from New York City to Seattle.

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Bezos was named the wealthiest man in modern history when his net-worth increased to $150-billion in 2018,and he was the world’s first centribillionaire on the “Forbes Wealth Index,” in which he has a net-worth of 1-billion units in any given currency.

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The release of the IBM Simon Smartphone took place on August 16th of 1994, and was the first commercially available smartphone and distributed by BellSouth Cellular Corporation.

It was a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), or hand-held PC that functioned as a personal information manager, and had a battery that lasted only an hour.

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World Wide Web Consortium founded and led by Tim Berners Lee became the main international standards organization for the WWW on October 1st.

It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lab, with funding from the European Commission and DARPA.

The consortium is comprised of member organizations that maintain full-time staff to work together in the development of World Wide Web standards.

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Also on November 7th, the WXYC student radio station at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill provided the world’s first internet radio broadcast.

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The initial release of the Netscape Navigator 1.0 web-browser by Netscape Communications Corporation was on December 15th.

It was the world’s first commercially-developed web browser.

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Established in 1985, the funding for the National Science Foundation Network, or NSFNET, was stopped by the U. S. Government on April 30th, making the internet totally privatized.

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The NSFNET backbone service was no longer central, but still remained central to the infrastructure of the expanding internet.

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On September 3rd, eBay, the multinational e-commerce corporation, was founded as AuctionWeb in California by French-born, Iranian-American computer programmer Pierre Omidyar, and it soon became the first online auction site allowing person-to-person transactions…

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…and on September 9th, SONY entered the video game market with the release of Playstation.

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Interestingly, Sony, the name of a multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan…

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…was also the acronym for Standard Oil of New York, founded by John D. Rockefeller in 1870.

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On January 3rd of 1996, Motorola introduced the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular phone, the first clam-shell mobile phone.

The Nintendo 64 game console was released in 1996…

…and its Super Mario 64 was the first Super Mario game to feature 3D-gameplay.

The Tamagotchi was also created in Japan in 1996.

A hand-held digital pet/video game, it was one of the biggest fads of the late 1990s and early 2000s, and is still available for purchase today.

The premise of the video game is that it is up to the player to raise the egg of the Tamagotchi, a small alien species. into an adult creature.

The Pokemon media franchise was also created in Japan in 1996.

It was managed by the Pokemon Company, which was founded by the Japanese companies of Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures, and came to Nintendo’s Game Boy system in 1996.

It is centered on fictional creatures called Pokemon, and their human trainers catch them and train them to battle other Pokemon for sport, and there are currently 901 Pokemon species.

Google was founded on September 4th of 1998 by Stanford University Ph.D students Larry Page and Sergey Brin, with a specialization in internet-related services and products.

The personal fortune of Bill Gates made him the wealthiest man in the world in 1999 due to the increased value of Microsoft stock .

The Japanese Company Sega introduced the Dreamcast game console in 1999.

It was the first in the sixth-generation of game consoles, released shortly before Sony’s Play Station 2, Nintendo’s GameCube, and Microsoft’s XBox, though it had a short life-span of only three-years in the video game world.

It is interesting to note that in April of 2000, Microsoft was ruled to have violated anti-trust laws in the case of United States v. Microsoft Corp.

Then, on September 6th of 2001, the U. S. Department of Justice announced that it would go for a lesser antitrust penalty and not break-up Microsoft.

Hmmmm. That was just a few days before 9-11, and all hell broke loose!

Was that jusa coincidence…or not….

Apple iTunes launched on January 1st of 2001…

…and launched the iPod in October of the same year.

We are told that a group of Harvard college students including Mark Zuckerberg established Facebook on February 4th of 2004.

Initially for Harvard students, it first expanded to other North American university students, and since 2006, to anyone over 13.

As of October 28th of 2021, Meta became the parent company of Facebook, Instagram, and WhatsApp, among others.

Meta Platforms, Inc, is one of the world’s most valuable companies and, along with Microsoft, Apple, Google, and Amazon, is considered one of the “Big Tech” companies.

It is interesting to note that Lifelog, a project of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), was cancelled on the same day of February 4th of 2004 that Facebook was founded.

The Lifelog project was basically designed to track everything a person does, and the given reason for its cancellation was over privacy concerns.

Another coincidence?

YouTube, an on-line video-sharing and social media platform, was launched in February of 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim. It has been owned by Google since October of 2006.

The first YouTube video, “Me at the Zoo,” was uploaded in April of 2005.

I could go on and on with the history part, but I am sure you already get the idea from what I have shared thus far.

There are a couple of more things I would like bring forward for your consideration.

One is quantum computing, which utilizes the properties of quantum states. While the development of quantum computers started in 1980, the world’s first company to actually sell computers that exploit quantum effects in their operation was D-Wave Systems starting in 1999.

One of their earliest customers Google/NASA.

In 2015, the D-Wave 2X Quantum Computer was installed at the Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab at the NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California’s Silicon Valley…

…and Google AI was announced in 2017 as a division of Google dedicated to artificial intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence is defined as intelligence demonstrated by machines as opposed to the natural intelligence of living beings.

And then there’s Neuralink.

Neuralink is a neurotechnology company that develops implantable brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that was founded in July of 2016 by Elon Musk and a group of what are described as group of experts in neuroscience, biochemistry and robotics.

Neuralink announced in April of 2017 that in the short-term the plan was to treat serious brain diseases, but in the long-term, it’s goal was “human enhancement,” which is another term for “transhumanism.”

The offices of Neuralink and the artificial intelligence research laboratory OpenAI are co-located at the PioneerBuilding in San Francisco.

Why have the Big Tech companies gone out of their way to give us so many opportunities to live in a virtual, cartoon-like world and take us away from connecting to real-life and the real world?

Why is a tech guy involved in this stuff to begin with?

I think what we are seeing is an existential threat to Humanity as we know it that is the result of an outcome-based, long-term plan driving everything that has been happening in our lives to this day.

I am not trying to scare you if you don’t know these things already.

I want to make you aware of a real threat to all of us that has been in the makings for years without our knowledge or consent.

And to say that while it certainly appears that the personal computer and internet were developed with them being control mechanisms in mind, their development has been the single biggest factor in Humanity’s Awakening and connecting us to each other all over the world. Long story short, the Controllers lost control of the narrative!

Lastly, the owners of the UnGuru Private Membership Association have worked incredibly hard for a number years to make this new platform a viable reality with the purpose of things like educating and empowering people with life-skills and information to take control of their lives in a vetted, safe, and private space. UnGuru is absolutely not a “gotcha” or a gimmick. It has been designed to be a “low-dose and high-vibe” platform where we can help and support one another in today’s world.

Please check out for more information.

It may not be for you, but it is there as a resource if you are interested in what UnGuru has to offer.

Evidence for Plane vs. Planet and Other Findings of Interest

I am going to share the evidence that I have found in my research ways of the ways that our perception of plane vs. planet has been manipulated, and other findings of interest, in this post.

One viewer suggested I do this for a “Short & Sweet,” and another wanted to know my views specifically about this subject.

I have already done most of the research that follows, and does not take me long to put together when that is the case, so I can get it out more quickly compared to brand new research, which takes a lot more time to produce.

A lot of what I have discovered about this subject was primarily in my research of cities and places in long-distance alignments, based on and emanating from my finding of the North American Star Tetrahedron in 2016, which is where my original research on this subject began almost six years ago.

My own journey into researching the whole of this started with the data points I have on spreadsheets in the form of cities and places in alignment with each other, and for which I have come to believe Earth’s original ancient civilization was laid out according to Sacred Geometry, also aligning Heaven and Earth.

It is helpful to define some terms used to described how the Earth has been measured and mapped in the present-day, and in the past.

The study of geodesy is defined as the science of accurately measuring and understanding the Earth’s shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

A  geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used for locating places on the Earth.

A geographic coordinate system enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters and symbols.

The coordinates are such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, which would derive from the North-South lines of latitude, and the horizontal position, from the East-West lines of longitude.

Longitude fixes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a North-South zero-line of longitude called the Prime Meridian, given as an angular measurement that ranges from 0-degrees at the Prime Meridian to +180-degrees westward and -180-degrees eastward.

Sir George Biddell Airy, an English mathematician and astronomer, was the seventh Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.

He established the new prime meridian of the Earth in 1851, a geographical reference line, at the Royal Observatory of Greenwich in London, and by 1884, over two-thirds of all ships and tonnage used it as the reference meridian on their charts and maps.

In October of 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by twenty-five countries, in order to determine the Prime Meridian for international use after worldwide pressure had been applied to establish a prime meridian for worldwide navigation purposes and to unify local times for railway time-tables, with Sir George Airy’s Greenwich Meridian already being the favored one for use.

Twenty-two of the twenty-five countries in attendance voted to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich as the zero-reference line.

Interesting to note, the International Meridian Conference was held right before the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck-organized Berlin Conference, which was convened in November of 1884 and lasted until February of 1885, during which almost all of Africa was carved up between the European powers.

The Prime Meridian of the Earth previous to the Royal Observatory of Greenwich was the great pyramid of Giza, located at the exact center of the Earth’s landmass.

Carl Munck deciphers a shared mathematical code in his book “The Code,” related to the Great Pyramid, in the dimensions of the architecture of sacred sites all over the Earth, one which encodes longitude & latitude of each that cross-reference other sites. 

He shows that this pyramid code is clearly sophisticated and intentional, and perfectly aligned over long-distances.

I just recently learned about the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and its Transcontinental Levelling program that started in 1887, in the research for my last “Short & Sweet” post.

The National Geodetic Survey was the first civilian scientific agency, established in 1807 by President Thomas Jefferson as the “Survey of the Coast,” with a stated mission to survey the U. S. Coastline and create a survey network, establish coastal water depths, and nautical charts to help increase maritime safety.

This was a sketch of the New York Harbor showing the first field work of the “Survey of the Coast” in 1816 and 1817.

Today the survey network first established in the early 19th-century is called the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) for surveying and engineering projects requiring precise spatial information and has been administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the U. S. Department of Commerce since 1970.

 The National Geodetic Survey started a trans-continental levelling program in 1887, with levelling defined as “…a high order of accuracy usually extended over large areas to furnish accurate vertical control…for all surveying and mapping operations.”

They utilized “horizontal datum,” benchmarks made typical of brass, bronze, or an aluminum disk set in concrete or rock assigned precise latitude and longitude measurements within the survey network.

I know there is a lot more to unpack here, but I find this very interesting in light of what horizontal and vertical mean and the implications in relationship to the shape of the Earth’s surface.

Daylight Savings Time apparently was first proposed by George Hudson, an astronomer and entomologist (studier of insects) from New Zealand.

In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a 2-hour daylight-saving shift because he wanted more daylight hours in the summer to pursue his collecting of insects.

The other person who was credited with independently coming up with the Daylight Savings Time concept was English builder and outdoorsman William Willett, who apparently wanted things like more daylight in which to play golf, proposed the idea to Parliament in 1908, though the bill failed to pass after multiple attempts until 1916.

Also of interest to note, the Global Positioning System (GPS) was developed by the United States Department of Defense and launched for military use in 1973 and became fully operational in 1995.

Civilian use was allowed starting in the 1980s.

It was based on ground-based radio-navigation systems that were developed in the early 1940s, like LORAN and Decca Navigator.

For point of information, this is the image found on the NASA Space Place – Science for Kids – about “How does GPS work?” and typical of the visual imagery that is available to us on this subject.

Now onto the subject of early maps and globes.

in earlier maps, ley-lines were depicted on land and sea, a like on the Catalan Atlas of the Majorcan Cartographic School, considered the most important map of the Medieval period in the Catalan language, dated to 1375.

Here’s a map of Africa’s Gold Coast showing ley-lines as well…

…and another early map was the Cantino Planisphere, said to have been completed by an anonymous Portuguese cartographer some time before 1502.

A planisphere is defined as a map formed by the projection of a sphere or part of a sphere on a plane.

What we are told is that in cartography, the science of map-making, a map projection is the way of flattening the globe’s surface into a plane in order to make it into a map, which requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane.

It would seem that the Earth’s ley-lines started to disappear from maps in the 1500s, when Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish geographer, cartographer and cosmographer, published a world map in 1569 that is considered to be the first where sailing courses on the sphere were mapped to the plane map, allowing for a “correction of the chart to be more useful for sailors.”

His 1569 map showed the depiction of straight ley-lines in the seas, but not on land and sea as were present on the flat projections of the Cantino Planisphere and the Catalan Atlas.

Here is a close-up section of the 1569 map showing the depiction of straight ley-lines in the seas but not on land and sea as were present on the flat projections of the Cantino Planisphere, the Catalan Atlas, and the African Gold Coast map.

Not only that, Mercator was also a globe-maker, like this one from 1541.

Ptolemy’s “Geography” was an atlas and treatise of geography from 150 AD said to compile the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire, and a revision of the now-lost atlas of Marinus of Tyre, a Phoenician cartographer and mathematician who was said to have founded mathematical geography, and who introduced improvements to the construction of maps and developed a system of nautical charts.

This is the cover of Mercator’s 1578 publication of “Tabulae Geographicae,” along with the globe, and Ptolemy said to depicted on the left, and Marinus of Tyre on the right.

Notice the difference between the lines on the globe at the top of the engraving, and the globe at the bottom, and while Ptolemy is pointing down to the globe at the bottom…

…he is holding up a geometric shape in his right hand that looks like the lines on the globe at the top on the left, which looks remarkably like the shape the sacred hoops formed in the Native American Hoop Dance on the right.

We are told the first globe in existence was called the Erdapfel, which translates from the German as “potato,” a terrestrial globe said to have been produced by Martin Behaim, a German textile merchant and cartographer, between 1490 and 1492.

This engraving of him was said to have been done in 1886.

It was a laminated linen ball, constructed in two-halves, reinforced with wood…

…and overlaid by a map painted by Georg Glockendon, pasted on a layer of parchment around the globe.

The German-English geographer and cartographer, Ernst Georg Ravenstein, who was born in Germany in 1834 but spent most of his adult life in England, wrote a book about Martin Behaim and his Erdapfel in 1908.

Only 13-years after Mercator was said to have published his world map in 1569, the Gregorian Calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in October of 1582, for the given reason of correcting the Julian calendar on stopping the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes, and included the addition of leap years. 

It took 300 years to implement the calendar in the west, and nowadays used in non-western countries for civil purposes.

The Mayan calendar was involved with the harmonization and synchronization of Human Beings and the development of Human Consciousness with natural cycles of time.

The Mayan calendar consisted of several cycles, or counts, of different lengths.

The 260-day count, or Tzolkin, was combined with a 365-day solar year known as the Haab’, to form a synchronized cycle lasting for 52 Haab’, called the Calendar Round, still in use today by many Mayan groups in the highlands of Guatemala.

Mayan Calendar

The Tzolkin calendar combines twenty day-names and symbols, with thirteen day numbers, which represent different-sounding tones, to produce 260 unique days.

The Mayan Long Count calendar was used to track longer periods of time.

The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day-year, with three seasons of 120-days each, and 5-6 epagomenal days, also known as an intercalary month, transitional days that were treated as outside of the year proper to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases in common years and leap years.

Chronology is the next subject I would like to address.

Chronology is defined as: 1) the arrangement of events or dates in the order of their occurrence; 2) a document displaying an arrangement of events in order of their occurrence; 3) the study of historical records to establish the dates of past events.

In 1583, just one year after the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, Joseph Justus Scaliger published the “Opus de Emendatione Temporum” or “Work on the Amendment of Time.”

Scaliger was said to revolutionize perceived ideas of ancient chronology to show that ancient history was not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians, and the Jews.

In this work, we are told Scaliger investigated ancient systems of determining epochs, calendars and computations of time.

We are told the publication of his “Work on the Amendment of Time” placed him at the head of all the living representatives of ancient learning.

Scaliger synchronized all of ancient history in his two major works, De Emendatione Temporum (1583) and Thesaurus Temporum (1606). Much of modern historical datings and chronology of the ancient world ultimately derived from these two works.

Interestingly, when I was looking for information on Scaliger’s Thesaurus Temporum, I found the “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” a Latin translation of a 5th- or early 6th-century Greek chronicle composed in Alexandria, Egypt.

The “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” was said to be a variation of the Alexandrian World Chronicle, an anonymous Greek Chronicle compiled in Alexandria, said to have covered recorded history from Creation until the year 392 AD. 

We are told “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” translates to “Excerpts in Bad Latin.”

Scaliger was said to have taken the first scholarly interest in the “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” and first named the chronicle “Barbarus Scaligeri.”

The chronicle contains two main sections: (a) the history of the world from the creation to Cleopatra and (b) a list of kings or rulers from Assyria to the consuls of Rome, including the Ptolemaic dynasty, a list entitled “high priests and kings of the Jews” and an entry for Macedonian kings. 

Here is the problem I have with this translation of “Excerpta Latini Barbari.”

Barbaria, or Barbary, was the name given to a vast region stretching from the Nile River Delta, across Northern Africa, which would have included Alexandria, Egypt, and the location of ancient Carthage in present-day Tunis, Tunisia, to the Canary Islands.

The coast of North Africa is still called the Barbary Coast to this day.

What if “Excerpta Latini Barbari” translates to something along the lines of Excerpts from Barbarian Latin?”

Yet we are taught that “barbarian” means a person from an alien land, culture, or group believed to be inferior, uncivilized, or violent.

I believe that Barbaria was one of the many empires of the original Moorish civilization, with its origins in ancient Mu, also known as Lemuria, as was Tartaria, or Tartary, in Asia, the name of much of which was changed to Manchuria in the mid-1850s.

In a similar fashion to “barbarian,” the word “tartarus” or “tartary” has come down to us meaning a deep abyss in hades that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked.

Anatoly Fomenko is a Russian mathematician who has proposed a new chronology, along with Russian mathematician Gleb Novosky and Bulgarian mathematician Yordan Tabov, in which they argue that events of antiquity generally attributed to the civilizations of the Roman Empire, Ancient Greece and Ancient Egypt, actually occurred during the Middle Ages, more than a thousand years later.

The concept is most fully explained in “History: Fiction or Science?” originally published in Russian.

The theory further proposes that world history prior to 1600 AD has been widely falsified to suit the interests of a number of different conspirators including the Vatican, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Russian House of Romanov.

Academic interest in the theory stems mainly from its popularity which has compelled historians and other scientists to argue against its methods and proposed world history.

Some of the central concepts of new chronology asserted by Fomenko and colleagues are:

Up to the 17th-century, historians and translators often “assigned” different dates and locations to different accounts of the same historical events, creating multiple “phantom copies” of these events.

This chronology was largely manufactured by Joseph Justus Scaliger in Opus Novum de emendatione temporum (1583) and Thesaurum temporum (1606), and represents a vast array of dates produced without any justification whatsoever, containing the repeating sequences of dates with shifts equal to multiples of the major cabbalistic numbers 333 and 360.

Fomenko’s methods included the statistical correlation of texts, dynasties, and astronomical evidence.

The Jesuit Dionysius Petavius completed this chronology in De Doctrina Temporum, 1627 (v.1) and 1632 (v.2).

Also known as Denis Petau, I can’t find any information about the contents of his chronology in an internet search.

I can only find copies of it on-line, not a summary of what is in it.

There are many, many reasons I am skeptical of the truthfulness of the historical narrative we have been taught.

And how did the new historical narrative get inside our heads, anyway?

The following screenshots are from a page entitled “The Origin of Compulsory Education” on Foster Gamble’s Thrive website. As I recall, it was from his movie “Thrive” that I first learned that the Rockefellers were the originators of the American Educational System.

When John D. Rockefeller established the General Education Board, it says the interest was in organizing children, and creating reliable, predictable, and obedient citizens, and not in producing critical thinkers.

Massachussetts passed the First Mandatory Attendance Law in 1852, which lines up with what I believe was the official kick-off of the new historical timeline, which I believe was the 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition in London.

What I have shared in this post reflects what I have found so far in the course of several years of research that provides evidence supporting that we live on a plane versus planet, and many other ways in which our perception of place, time, and space has been manipulated.

I am very happy to share my findings and evidence with you for what sure appears to have happened here with regards to shifting our whole perception of everything about the world we live in.

My primary motivation and passion in doing this work is to bring back awareness of the Earth’s lost advanced worldwide civilization (the Old World Order) and to bring forth awareness that the New World Order is a real thing, how it came to be that way, and how we got to the point where we are today facing down the very grave threat to our existence that has been carefully and methodically planned for quite some time.

What is our future?

Sure looks uncertain right now, but I am putting my energy into the Great Awakening and into the belief that good triumphes over evil, and that they will not get away with what they have done to Humanity, the Creator, the Earth, and the Universe.

Short & Sweet #14 – Places and Topics Suggested by Viewers

In this installment of Short & Sweet, among other things, I am going to be following interesting leads I received from viewers about places like Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Palmetto Bluff in South Carolina; and several in the Chicago area.

CZ sent me several Google Earth screenshots of Harrisburg, the State Capital of Pennsylvania.

Harrisburg is situated on the east bank of the Susquehanna River, only 107-miles, or 172-kilometers, west of Philadelphia.

Like with any place, there is so much information to choose from as far as where to look in Harrisburg that I am going to focus solely on what CZ sent me about the Capitol District.

The land that became Harrisburg had been purchased by an English trader named John Harris Sr. in 1719; John Harris Jr. made plans to lay-out a town on his father’s land; and the land was surveyed by William Maclay, John Harris Sr’s son-in-law.

The city of Harrisburg became incorporated in 1791; named the Pennsylvania State Capital in October of 1812.

The current State Capitol Building was said to have been designed by architect Joel Miller Huston, and built between 1902 and 1906 in the Beaux-Arts style of architecture.

The interior of the Pennsylvania State Capitol is described as having decorative Renaissance themes throughout the building.

It is part of what is called the Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex.

On the East side of the Capitol building is what is referred to as the East Wing, described as a 1987 extension of the Capitol building.

Flanking the East Wing are the North and South Office buildings,

The North Office building was said to have been built in Indiana limestone starting in 1927…

…and the South Office building in Indiana limestone starting in 1919.

We are told the oldest building of the complex is the Ryan Office building, with a construction completion date of 1894.

East of the North and South Office buildings, across Commonwealth Avenue, there are a pair of buildings situated across from each other at either end of the “Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Memorial Grove.”

I will be touching more on the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Memorial Bridge that you can see the pylons of in the background momentarily.

The Forum building is on the south-side of the Memorial Grove, was said to have been built out of grey limestone, and featuring 22 bronze doors, between 1929 and 1931 in the style of an open-air Greek amphitheater, complete with a star map of the night sky depicting the zodiac and other constellations with over 1,000 stars on the ceiling…

…and on the north-side of the Memorial Grove is the Pennsylvania Treasury Building, said to have been a project of the New Deal Era Public Works Administration during the Great Depression built between 1937 and 1940.

The eastern-most portion of the Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex is the “Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Memorial Bridge,”or the “State Street Bridge,” which connects the complex to neighborhoods across the railroad tracks that run east of North 7th Street.

It is a 1,312-foot, or 400-meter, deck-arch bridge said to have been constructed between 1925 and 1930.

The State Museum of Pennyslvania is directly adjacent to the Pennsylvania State Capitol Complex…

…run by the state through the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission to “preserve and interpret the region’s history and culture,” and includes a multi-media planetarium, and four-floors of exhibits covering Pennsylvania history from prehistoric times through today.

There’s more here to find just in this part of downtown Harrisburg, but I am going to stop at one more location in Harrisburg a couple of blocks north before I head out to other points on this journey.

CZ sent me screenshots of the Scottish Rite Cathedral and Masonic Temple of Harrisburg…

…with a tall obelisk on its grounds.

The 1,192-seat Theater and Ballroom at the Scottish Rite Cathedral is a popular community event venue.

And this seems to be the extent of what I am able to find out about it!

Next, on to a location shared by a viewer from South Carolina’s Lowcountry region.

7S sent me photos and video clips of “The Ruins,” a site he visited in South Carolina at the Palmetto Bluff Resort.

“The Ruins” located here are said to be remnants of the “Wilson Mansion,” described as a former getaway for wealthy northerners at the end of the “Gilded Age.”

They are located on property previously owned by a New York financier by the name of Richard T. Wilson, Jr, who was said to have built a four-story mansion with 72-rooms here in 1902, as a “home away from home” until it burned down in 1926.

Wilson’s in-laws included members of the Vanderbilt, Whitney, and Astor families, who were among the prominent guests that were entertained at Palmetto Bluff.

Compare the appearance of “The Ruins” at Palmetto Bluff Resort in South Carolina on the left with “The Ruins” at Holliday Park in Indianapolis on the right.

According to the sign about “The Ruins” at Holliday Park, the preserved statues and Indiana limestone columns of the St. Paul Building, which was razed in New York City in 1958, were offered as the prize in a national design contest for their use…

…and they came back to Indiana when local artist Elmer Taflinger submitted the winning bid, and over the course of the next 20-years, worked with the city to construct his vision for “The Ruins” in Holliday Park, which was finally completed and dedicated in 1978.

The following video is a compilation of footage 7S sent me when he visited there.

When he is taking close-up shots of the columns laying around, we are seeing a type of building material historically used in the coastal southeast called “Tabby,” comprised of lime, water, sand, oyster shells, and ash.

Now onto the Chicago area.

LH sent me Google Earth screenshots of several places around Chicago.

One was the Baha’i House of Worship in Wilmette, Illinois, located on the shore of Lake Michigan…

…and said to have been built between 1912 and 1953, and the second oldest Baha’i Temple ever constructed, and the oldest one still standing.

It was said to have been designed by French-Canadian architect Louis Bourgeois, who was said to have received feedback during a trip to Haifa in Israel in 1920 from the son of the founder of the Baha’i Faith.

Interesting how close in sound the name of architect Louis Bourgeois is to Louise Bourgeois, which was the name of the designer of the “Maman” sculptures, giant spiders that are found all over the world as discussed in previous “Short & Sweets.”

A small group of Baha’i in downtown Chicago were said to have first discussed the idea of a Baha’i Temple in the area in 1903, which was during the time that world’s first Baha’i House of Worship was being built in what is now Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, between 1902 and 1908.

It was said to have been used as a House of Worship for only 20-years before it was turned over to Soviet authorities, and then destroyed after that in what we are told was one of the deadliest earthquake’s in modern history.

LH also sent me a Google Screenshot of the location of the Scottish Rite Valley Chicago in Bloomingdale, Illinois.

Here we find the Scottish Rite Cathedral Headquarters Association, “telling the story of Free Masons and the Scottish Rite origins in symbolic interior and exterior spaces.”

LH aslo sent me a screenshot of the Medinah Temple on the north-side of Chicago.

It was said to have been designed by the Shriners’ architects Huehl and Schmidt, and completed in 1912.

It is described as “…a colorful Islamic-looking building replete with pointed domes and an example of Moorish Revival architecture.”


Currently the building is not being used for anything, but it originally housed an ornate auditorium with a seating-capacity of 4,200 on three-levels, and several organs.

It was the annual location for the performance of the Shrine Circus in Chicago for many years…

…and WGN-TV used the Medinah Temple for the live telecast of “The Bozo 25th Anniversary Special” on September 7th of 1986.

This just really reinforces the masonic connections between circuses and clowns that I am finding my research about the “Shapers of the New Narrative.”

I mean it’s not hard to find out things like comedian and clown Red Skelton was a Shriner when you look for it.

Next, MM sent me a link to an article about a mini-Washington Monument that is buried under a manhole near the 555-foot, or 169-meter, -high Washington Monument.

It is a Geodetic Control Point of a million control points used by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) to synchronize all of the government’s maps.

Usually metal caps or rods driven down into the ground, the mini Washington Monument was said to have been placed in the 1880s as part of a trans-continental levelling program.

How and why did a 12-foot, or 3.5-meter, -high, underground obelisk become Geodetic Control Point in the first place?

This is a screenshot from Google Earth showing the exact alignment of North-South relationships between the White House and the Jefferson Memorial, located on the southeast corner of the Tidal Basin, and the exact alignment between the Lincoln Memorial to the west, through the Washington Monument, and to Capitol building on the East side of the alignment.

Also, the subject of a trans-continental levelling program by the National Geodetic Survey starting in 1887 sounds very interesting to me, and smells like gravy.

What I get a sense of from this information are the following implications about what the actual purpose of the National Geodetic Survey and its trans-continental levelling program might have been:

  1. Were these original grid points of importance on the Earth’s original grid system
  2. Does this geodetic survey actually provide physical evidence for flat earth?
  3. Why did they call it a “levelling” program? Does this have something to do with re-setting the post-mud-flood world?

Some people don’t subscribe to idea that the mud event was actually a flood. I will make the point here to say that something definitely happened, and describe it as a mud event. It was a world-wide event that involved a whole lot of mud, however it happened.

Things like earthquakes at a high-enough magnitude will cause the surface of the Earth to liquefy.

Maybe it was an event, or series of events, that I believe were deliberately caused to create this incredible liquefaction event to take place for unimaginably great depths and distances.

But this event is typically referred to as the “mud flood,” which is how I first came to know about it and I still see evidence for a mud event everywhere I look in my research, no matter what actually caused the effects.

Interesting to note that the geodetic marker shown previously on the left reminds me of the marker I showed in my last Short & Sweet that was sent to me by KO, a viewer in Connecticut, shown on the right.

Interesting how they both show markings and years in a different font from the rest of the marker, with both making the point there is a $250 fine or imprisonment for disturbing the marker.

Hmmm. Strange.

Did someone tamper with these markers?

And if they did, who and why ?

And speaking of Washington Monuments, here are a couple more.

One is from a viewer sent me information about an obelisk next to Interstate 55 near Ridgeland, Mississippi.

She found a link from the Library of Congress explaining it’s purpose, but said some of us are only left with more questions than answers.

Called the Washington Monument Cell Phone Tower, What we are told is that this is a cellular-telephone tower whose obelisk design was felt to be more pleasing in design than the usual girders and antenna…

…in the same way that other communities hide cell phone towers in fake trees.

Another one is at Washington Monument State Park near Boonsboro, Maryland, on the Appalachian Trail.

I never went there, but I remember the signs for it because my parents used to go shopping for furniture when I was a child at a store in Middletown, Maryland, which is located near there.

It is a 40-foot, or 12-meter, -high stone tower, that was said to have been built to honor George Washington starting on July 4th of 1827, at which time the citizens of Boonsboro came together en masse, and by the end of the day, the tower was already 15-feet, or almost 5-meters, – high, on a base that was 54-feet, or 16-meters, in circumference.

Two more places I would like to show you before I sign-off on this installment of Short & Sweet.

The first is this picture of a pair of gigantic hands as a bridge support, brought to my attention by viewer BJ.

The giant hands lift up what is gold the “Golden Bridge” at the Thien Thai Garden in Viet Nam’s Ba Na Hills.

The Ba Na Hills is described as a mountain resort established by French colonists in 1919, near the city of Da Nang.

Ba Na Hills has a “fantasy-park…”

…and a “French Village” with cobbled streets.

Lastly, KH brought to my attention an historical funicular, also known as an incline railway, in Marseille, France.

We are told that it was built in 1892 to reduce the effort of scaling the hill that Notre-Dame de la Garde Catholic Basilica was built on top of between 1852 and 1864.

We are taught it was built over top of the foundations of an ancient fort on the highest natural point in Marseille…

…and that the funicular was demolished in 1974 after it was shut-down in 1969 because the advent of the automobile made it unprofitable.

I am going to end this installment of Short & Sweet here, and in my next video will again be picking up the threads on the subject of “Shapers of the New Narrative – Part 4 Computers and Video Games.”

Shapers of the New Narrative – Part 3 Early Radio and Television

This is the third-part about early radio and television of what now is going to be a four-part series focusing on how we came to the place where we are today related to the origins and development of a new culture and a new narrative about our history.

I have already looked into the role of dime westerns, old west shows, and western movies in shaping the new narrative in the first part of the series; and in the second part I looked at the role of candy, dime museums, circuses, the early movie industry, and daredevils.

In the fourth part, and probably last part, of the series, I will be looking into the rise of computers and video games.

Before I go into the main feature of Early Radio and Television, I want to pass along a piece of information concerning an individual in our historical narrative about which I had no knowledge of.

I received a comment about Father Eusebio Kino, who has been referred to as Arizona’s first rancher.

We are told that Father Kino was a Jesuit, missionary, geographer, explorer, cartographer, and astronomer, who was born in northern Italy, and spent the last 24-years of his life in modern-day Sonora in Mexico and southern Arizona in the United States…

…in what was then part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain known as the Pimeria Alta, or “Upper Pima Land.”

From the moment he arrived in Pimeria Alta, he started to lead expeditions across northern Mexico, California and Arizona, following ancient trade routes, establishing missions and making maps of the region along the way.

We are told that Father Kino was important to the economic growth of the area, teaching the natives of the area to farm and raise cattle, sheep, and goats, and this his initial mission herd of 20 imported cattle grew to 70,000.

The Kino Heritage Society in Tucson is currently working on the process of getting him canonized as a saint.

Tributes to Father Kino include, besides various towns, streets, schools, monuments and geographic features being named after him:

A statue in the U. S. Capitol Building’s Statuary Hall Collection…

…the Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza across from the Arizona State Capital building in Phoenix…

…which has a time capsule in the base placed there in 1967, and to be opened in the year 2235…

…and in 1963, Father Kino was inducted into the Hall of Great Westerners at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City.

Also, interesting to note I know of at least one language, German, where the word “kino” means “movie theater.”

Now on to the main features of this post – early radio and television as “Shapers of the New Narrative.”

James Clerk Maxwell was the Scottish mathematician and scientist credited with the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, and in 1865 published a book called “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field,” in which he demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space as waves moving at the speed of light, and his work predicted the existence of radio waves.

Maxwell was regarded as a founder of the modern field of electrical engineering.

Radio as we know it started to come into being in the late 1880s to 1920, during which time the technology of transmitting sound was developed (or recovered depending upon how you look at it).

The world’s first long-distance radio signal was sent by Gugliemo Marconi from Alum Bay near The Needles on the Isle of Wight in the year 1897.

Alum Bay sand includes extremely pure white silica, an important component for enhancing radio frequency transmission.

Marconi gets the credit for the creation of the first radio wave-based wireless telegraph system that was practical, which led him to being credited as the inventor of radio, and Marconi shared a Nobel prize in Physics in 1909 with Karl Ferdinand Braun for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy.

Karl Ferdinand Braun was a German electrical engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the development of radio and television technology, including the first Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), also in 1897 like Marconi’s first long-distance radio signal.

The Cathode Ray Tube was fundamental in developing the first fully-electronic television, of which the first demonstration of a television that employed a Cathode Ray Tube display was in 1926 in Japan at the Hamamatsu High School by Kenjiro Takayanagi.

Kenjiro Takayanagi, a Japanese electrical engineer, is referred to as the “Father of Television” for developing the world’s first all-electronic television receiver, though his research on creating a production model was halted by the United States after Japan’s loss in World War II.

He went on to play a role in the development of television at the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation and at JVC, or the Victor Company of Japan, and was involved in the development of color television and video tape recorders.

The early days of radio technology included communication by wireless telegraph, in which an operator tapped on a switch which caused the radio transmitter to produce a series of pulses of radio waves which spelled out messages in Morse Code.

Samuel F. B. Morse was an American painter and inventor of the 19th-century…

…who contributed to the development of the telegraphic code which bears his name.

The precedent before the radio for broadcasts of live drama, comedy, music and news were called “Theatrophones” which were commercially introduced in Paris in 1890 and available through the early 1930’s.

It was developed as a subscriber service in Europe that allowed people to listen to such things as opera and theater performances over the telephone lines.


Between 1900 and 1920, the first technology for transmitting sound by radio that was developed, Amplitude Modulation (AM), was used for radio broadcasts.

Crystal radios were the first widely-used type of radio receiver, and the main type used during the wireless telegraphy era.

Not needing external power, crystal radios use the power of the radio signal to produce sound using a component called a “crystal detector,” made from a piece of crystalline mineral like galena, and could be made with a few inexpensive parts.

Said to have been sold and homemade in the millions, the crystal radio was a major driving force in the introduction of radio to the public and contributed to the development of radio as an entertainment medium with the beginning of radio broadcasting in 1920.

Mass radio communication came into fashion after the sinking of the Titanic on April 15th of 1912, inspired by the work of amateur, also known as “ham,” radio operators, which used radio for the non-commercial exchange of messages, including emergency communications.

Then World War I brought big developments in radio, which took place between July 28th of 1914 and November 11th of 1918, as it was critical for wartime communications.

Developments like the introduction of the transceiver…

…and vacuum tube technology.

On August 31st of 1920, the first radio news program was broadcast on local election results in Detroit on the station 8MK, which came to be known as WWJ.

It was owned and operated by the Detroit News, the first newspaper to have a radio station.


Like MKUltra?

In the same year of 1920, on November 2nd, the first commercial radio station, KDKA, was established in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in time to broadcast the results of the 1920 Warren G. Harding-James M. Cox Presidential election race before they could read it in the newspaper.

The “Golden Age of Radio” was the time period when radio, the first electronic mass media technology, was dominant in home entertainment, beginning with the birth of commercial radio broadcasting in the early 1920s, and lasting through the 1950s, when television replaced radio as the preferred choice for scripted programming, variety, and dramatic shows.

The ability for multiple radio stations to simultaneously broadcast the same content came about with the development of radio networks, and by early 1922, AT & T announced plans for the development of the first radio network using its telephone lines to transmit content, and for the development of advertisement-supported broadcasting on the radio stations it owned, with WEAF becoming the first commercially-licensed radio station in New York City on March 2nd of 1922.

WEAF began selling time for “Toll Broadcasting,” which allowed anyone to use a licensed AT & T radio station to broadcast any message of their choosing for a fee based on time-of-day and duration, and the idea of selling blocks of times to advertisers to fund broadcasts came from here.

In 1926, AT & T decided to leave the broadcasting field, we are told, and sold its entire network organization to a group headed by the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), which in turn used the assets to form the National Broadcasting Company, and WEAF eventually became WNBC in 1946, which was on the air until October of 1988.

Long story short, RCA was founded as a patent trust in 1919 as a reorganization of the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America, and was owned in partnership by General Electric; Westinghouse; AT & T; and the United Fruit Company.

RCA became an independent company after the partners were required to divest their ownership as part of a government antitrust suit, and became the dominant electronics and communications firm in the United States for over 50-years.

The Federal Radio Commission (FRC) was formed as an oversight body after the U. S. Congress passed the Radio Act of 1927, which increased the government’s regulatory powers over radio communication, and functioned as such…

…until it was replaced by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1934.

The capacity of radio to get information to people created the new formats like radio news; headlines; remote reporting; sidewalk interviews; panel discussions; and weather and farm reports.

News programs included things like the radio station KFUL in Galveston, Texas, doing a special broadcast in August of 1929 about the world flight of the German Airship Graf Zeppelin, said to have been the only airship to fly around the world, and which was funded by the multimillionaire newspaper publisher, William Randolph Hearst, who known in history for yellow journalism, sensationalism, and emotional human-interest stories.

A local concert orchestra would play “appropriate” music, and an announcer would give details about each of the countries being traversed.

The Vox Pop radio program, also called “Sidewalk Interviews” and “Voice of the People,” broadcast “man in the street” interviews, quizzes, and human interest features from the early 1930s to the late 1940s…

…and was turned into a board game by Milton Bradley in 1938.

A major advertising sponsor of the Vox Pop radio program was Bromo-Seltzer, an early brand of antacid that was used to relieve the pain of heartburn, upset stomach, indigestion, and had a sedative effect that helped relieve hangovers.

The product took its name from a component of the original formula called sodium bromide.

Bromides are a class of tranquilizers that were withdrawn from the U. S. market in 1975 because of their toxicity.

Most early radio sponsorships involved the selling of the naming rights to the program.

More examples of this advertising practice included:

The “A & P Gypsies,” a musical series on radio featuring gypsy folk music that began in 1924…

…the “Champion Spark Plug Hour” music program, broadcast on New York’s WJZ and WGY during the late 1920s and early 1930s…

…and the “Cliquot Club Eskimos,” a popular musical variety show that started in 1923, which featured a banjo orchestra directed by Harry Reser.

“Cliquot Club” was a popular ginger ale that was “Canada Dry’s” main rival, until the Cliquot Club Company was bought by Cott Beverage Company in 1965 and dissolved in 1980.

Country music was popular, and in 1924, the “National Barn Dance” radio program began in Chicago on the WLS radio station and was picked up by NBC Radio in 1933.

The National Barn Dance radio program had such sponsors as “Alka-Seltzer” -remember “plop-plop-fizz-fizz-oh what a relief it is…”

…another antacid and mild pain reliever available on the market, which still exists today, and has been owned by Bayer Pharmaceuticals since 1978…

…the very same company which acquired Monsanto in 2018 for $66-billion in cash.

The National Barn Dance went on-the-air in Nashville, Tennessee, in 1925, and was renamed the “Grand Ole Opry” in 1927, and NBC carried portions of the program from 1944 to 1956, and which apparently had the Prince Albert in a can cigarette and pipe tobacco as one of its early sponsors.

The Ryman Auditorium in downtown Nashville was the home of the Grand Ole Opry from 31-years.

Known as the “Mother Church of Country Music…”

…the Ryman Auditorium became the home of the “Grand Ole Opry” show from 1943 until March 15th of 1974.

This is a good place to mention Radio City Music Hall from this same era.

It was said to have been built in the late 1920’s and opened in 1932 as part of Rockefeller Center in New York City, with what was at the time the world’s largest auditorium…

…and is well-known for the “Rockettes,” the world-famous precision-dance company.

The theater was said to have been conceived of by John D. Rockefeller Jr as the cornerstone of the Rockefeller Complex he was building, and was built in partnership with the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), which planned a mass media complex called “Radio City” on the west side of Rockefeller Center.

Radio attracted top comedians from Hollywood and Vaudeville, ranging in style from burlesque acts like Abbott & Costello…

…to the understated comedy of Jack Benny…

…to the satirical southern humor of Minnie Pearl…

…to the voice characterizations of Mel Blanc, known as the “Man of a Thousand Voices,” which included Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, and Porky Pig.

Interesting to note that Mel Blanc was also a Shriner, like John Wayne and Roy Rogers, and many other famous entertainers of the day.

Other radio shows were adapted from popular comic strips, like Dick Tracy…

…Little Orphan Annie starting in 1930, based on comic strip inspired by the 1885 poem “Little Orphant Annie” by James Whitcomb Riley…

…and Popeye the Sailor.

Soap Operas also got their start in the early days of radio.

The first daytime drama-installment series, was widely regarded to be a show called “Painted Dreams,” which got its start in October of 1930 on the Chicago radio station WGN, and ran for thirteen-years, through July of 1943, and was about the relationship of Irish-American widow Mother Moynihan and her unmarried daughter.

The first nationally-broadcast daytime serial drama about three women and their families who lived in a small-town duplex was “Clara, Lu, ‘n Em,” which started on February 15th of 1932, and “Super Suds” was their first program sponsor.

As daytime serial programs were becoming popular in the 1930s, they soon became known as “soap operas” because many of them were sponsored by soap products and detergents.

That was for the moms.

For the kids, programming included a late afternoon line-up of adventural serial programs like “Bobby Benson and the B-Bar-B Riders,” about the adventures of an orphaned 12-year-old who inherited his parents’ ranch after they died…”

…and “Jack Armstrong, the All-American Boy,” created by General Mills to promote Wheaties, about a fictitious “everyboy” whom listeners would emulate.

Radio plays were presented on such programs as Orson Welle’s Mercury Theater, where the infamous Halloween broadcast on October 30th of 1938 of “The War of the Worlds,”an adaptation of H. G. Wells’ 1898 novel, was formatted to sound like a breaking-news broadcast about a hostile alien invasion, creating mass panic within the listening public, and cited as resulting in at least seven deaths.

Game shows also saw their beginnings in radio.

“Information Please” was one of the first, starting in 1938…

…and “Dr. I. Q.” in 1939 was one of the first major game show successes.

Radio was the most popular medium during World War II.

It helped entertain and inform the public, and encouraged citizens to join in the war effort.

The accessibility and availability of radio meant it fueled propaganda and could reach large numbers of people.

The World War II radio show You Can’t Do Business with Hitler with John Flynn and Virginia Moore was a series of programs that was broadcast at least once/week by more than 790 radio stations in the United States.

It was written and produced by the radio section of the Office of War Information (OWI).

Edward R. Murrow first gained prominence as a news reporter covering the nightly bombing raids of London on the radio.

By 1947, according to a C. E. Hooper Survey, which measured radio ratings during the “Golden Age of Radio,” 82-out-of-100 families were found to be radio listeners.

Television gradually superseded radio as the preferred choice for programming, variety, and dramatic shows in the 1950s.

The world’s first television stations started showing up in America in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

The first mechanical television station was W3XK, and it was operated by the Charles Jenkins Laboratories in Wheaton, Maryland, which was granted the first commercial television license in the United States.

Its first broadcast to the general public was aired on July 2nd of 1928.

The way to view television at the time was through mechanical television sets.

Mechanical television relied on a mechanical scanning device, such as a rotating device with holes in it, to scan and generate the video signal, and a similar mechanical device at the receiver to display the picture.

It would take until 1938 before the American television sets were produced and released commercially, after which time they were an instant hit.

The first television commercial was broadcast before a baseball game in New York on July 1st of 1941 on NBC for a Bulova watch, and lasted ten-seconds.

A “watch?” Like to “watch” TV?


Color television systems first began to be seriously considered after World War II, as Black & White television was considered old and it was time to do something new, even though the concepts for color television had received attention in 1904 and 1925.

The industry giants CBS and RCA engaged in a color television war at this time to be the first to market a successful color television.

In 1951, CBS came out with its version of a color television first.

It was a mechanical television, and not compatible with Black & White television sets already in use across the country.

Regardless, the FCC at first declared the CBS model to be the national standard for color television.

RCA continued to develop their own color television system that would be compatible with already existing RCA Black & White television sets.

The FCC acknowledged the RCA system was better than the CBS system in 1953, and starting at the beginning of 1954, color RCA systems were sold across America, though few people owned color television sets between 1954 and 1965.

Starting in the 1950s, television turned into the major form of communication that it still is today.

Notable dates in the history of modern television include:

The sit-com “I Love Lucy Show” was born in 1951, and became the number one show in America for four of its six seasons.

It was sponsored by Philip Morris cigarettes.

Bob Hope took his comedy from radio to television when “The Bob Hope Show,” sponsored by the Timex “watch” company this time, and it debuted in October of 1952.

By the end of 1952, there were an estimated 20-million television sets in American homes, an increase of 33% from the previous year.

NBC television launched “The Tonight Show” in 1954, with comedian Steve Allen.

In 1958, 525 cable television systems across the United States served almost a half-a-million customers, and in 1964, the FCC regulated cable television for the first time.

Four debates between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon were broadcast in 1960, and forever changed the way presidents would campaign.

Astronaut Neil Armstrong in the Apollo 11 Mission walked on the moon for the first time in 1969 as millions of viewers watched live on network television.

Ted Turner launched CNN in 1980, a channel devoted to showcasing the news 24-hours/day.

Digital satellite dishes hit the market in 1996…

…and the first DVD was introduced in 2000.

Flat screen and HD Televisions were introduced in 2005, and became affordable for the general public in 2006 to have bigger television screens displaying clearer and crisper pictures.

You get the idea. Bigger and more of is better for the buyer. Right?

But the Latin phrase “Caveat Emptor,” or in English “Let the Buyer Beware,” is well-known to us in our culture.

That being said, how big of a stretch is it to believe that the all the technology needed for radio and television was fast-tracked in order to program Humanity into, among other things, accepting a virtual reality existence as a normal life through these very powerful “programming” mechanisms from the very beginning?

The reason why is now becoming clear and is literally at our doorstep, ringing the door-bell, and waiting to be let in the house.

Choose what you want your future to be wisely.

Do you want your future to be a virtual reality world like Facebook-turned-Metaverse that has been planned for us by beings that do not have our best interests at heart, and which we have been programmed to accept for a very long time…

…or do you want to live a full-life as a true human being with a full range of emotions, experiences, blessings and gifts, and to grow as the powerful spiritual being that you are as the master of your fate and the captain of your soul?

Short & Sweet #13 – Places and Topics Suggested by Viewers

In this installment of “Short & Sweet #13,” I will be continuing to look at places people have suggested in the northeastern United States, with places that include, but are not limited to, Fall River in Massachusetts; Newport in Rhode Island; Candlewood Lake and Meriden in Connecticut; and Atlantic City in New Jersey, and I really appreciate the photos and drone footage that were sent to me for several of these places.

But first some follow-up on cemeteries based on comments and information that I received from the last Short & Sweet.

DB & DK mentioned the Crown Hill Cemetery to me, located about 3-miles, or 5-kilometers, outside of Indianapolis.

DK shared photos with me of a recent trip there for fall photos and to visit a family grave.

She said the main gates are very similar to ones in Boston that I showed in the last post.

The Crown Hill Cemetery is the largest green-space within the Indianapolis Beltway, and the third-largest private cemetery in the United States.

It was established in 1863 at Strawberry Hill, whose summit was renamed “the Crown,” with the grave of Indiana poet James Whitcomb Riley sitting right at the top of the crown.

I wonder why James Whitcomb Riley merited such a prestigious location for his final resting place for all eternity?

Let’s see what the plaque there about him tells us.

So, he is best remembered today, it says, for his poems that appeal to children and the child in all of us, such as “Little Orphant Annie,” which is not a misspelling, based on an orphan living in the Riley home in her childhood.

There are four stanzas in the poem, and in the first one, her character is introduced, and in each of the second and third stanzas, she tells young children about a bad child being snatched away by goblins as a result of misbehavior, with the underlying moral of the story in the fourth stanza, which was for kids to obey their parents or the same thing could happen to them.

Nothing weird about that right? Yeah, right!!

Oh yes, and this young girl in Riley’s poem was the very same one that the comic strip “Little Orphan Annie” was based on, which eventually led to radio, television, Broadway and Hollywood productions about her.

Riley’s memorial plaque also mentioned his poem “The Raggedy Man,” about a German tramp that Riley’s father employed in his youth…

…and written, like “Little Orphant Annie,” in the Indiana dialect of the 19th-century.

Interesting that the “Raggedy Man” knew about giants and griffins and elves, though I have no idea what a “Squidgicum-Squee” would be!

Well, here’s one artist’s rendition of a rather terrifying-looking “Squidgicum-Squee!”

Was the Raggedy Man was the inspiration for Raggedy Ann?

Apparently the Raggedy Man and Little Orphant Annie both were, because the creator of Raggedy Ann, Johnny Gruelle, a family friend of Riley’s, was said to have combined the names of both characters into one when he applied for a registered trademark on the Raggedy Ann name in 1915.

Lastly, according to the plaque at his tomb, Riley was so beloved by the children of Indianapolis who used to come visit him on his front porch for lemonade, that they began donating coins to help pay for his memorial, and this tradition continues today…

…where the coins collected go to his legacy, the Riley Hospital for Children.

JG in Iowa mentioned visiting a lot of rural cemeteries with a friend last year, and among other things, found these tree-like head-stones in every graveyard.

She looked them up, and found out they came from Woodmen of the World, a fraternal organization and life insurance company.

Here’s what we are told.

Joseph Cullen Root founded the Woodmen of the World in 1890, as a secret fraternal benefit organization with a purpose of making life insurance affordable for everyone…

…and that from 1890 to 1900, every policy included a tombstone.

Alas, the cost of tombstones rose to the point that after 1900, members had to buy a rider on their insurance policy in order to receive a Woodmen tombstone.

By 1920, the costs of making these unique tombstones were so prohibitive, that they were discontinued in the 1920s.

Frequently, the tombstone had the Woodmen of the World (or WOW) motto “Dum Tacet Clamet,” or “Though silent he speaks,” inscribed on a round medallion.

Woodmen of the World still exists today, and headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska.

This is what their original headquarters building looked like, which opened in 1912.

It was the tallest building between Chicago and the West Coast before it was demolished in 1977.

…and their headquarters building today, said to have been built in 1969.

They still operate their radio station, WOAW in Omaha, which started broadcasting in 1923…

LBR said the image of the Ether Dome at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston was reminiscent of the image used on the book cover of The Saturn Myth by David Talbott.

Now onto new subjects.

NA suggested that I come to Fall River, Massachusetts, and Newport Rhode Island.

First I will look at Fall River, and express huge thanks to RR and his son for the photos and the drone footage of Fall River.

RR sent me the following pictures.

Firstly, this is the Academy Building, also known as the “Academy of Music Building” and the “Borden Block.”

RR said that 1875 was one of the coldest winters ever in Massachusetts, and questioned that it was even possible that they could have built this the way they said they did.

It was said to have been constructed in 1875 as a memorial to Nathaniel Briggs Borden by his family, and opened on January 6th of 1876 as the second-largest theater and concert hall in Massachusetts, as well as a venue for other large community events.

The building today is used for senior living apartments and retail space after being rescued from demolition plans in 1973.

RR sent photos of some of the interesting-looking gargoyle shapes found on this building.

Nathaniel Borden, the man who the Academy building was said to have been in memory of, was a businessman and politician from Fall River, who was born in 1801 and died in 1865.

In business, he was involved in textile mills, banking, and railroads.

In politics, he was a State Senator, a Representative in the U. S. Congress, and was the third Mayor of Fall River.

We are told that his father died when he was young, and his mother Amey was one of the first incorporators of the Troy Cotton and Woolen Manufactory, the second cotton mill that was established in Fall River in 1813 and built on her property. She died in 1817.

Then, at the age of 20, Nathaniel along with several others organized the Pocasset Manufacturing Company, a cotton textile mill.

The Pocasset Manufacturing Company was the origin of the Great Fall River Fire of 1928, which destroyed the mills and a large portion of the city’s business district along with it, completely wiping out five city blocks but not killing anyone.

This is a 1910 illustration of a part of Main Street which was destroyed by the fire.

RR sent this historic photo of Fall River looking north on Main Street, with the electric streetcar running, and relatively few people milling about a big city block.

The most famous Borden of Fall River was the notorious Lizzie Borden, who even though she was acquitted of the axe murders of her father and stepmother in 1892, her story is still alive and well in American Pop Culture.

…and if you ever have plans to travel to Fall River, you can always stay at the Lizzie Borden Bed and Breakfast & Museum.

RR also sent several pictures of St. Anne’s Church in Fall River that was said to have been built in the 1890s

This photo of St. Anne’s church sent by RR shows a very nice alignment with the full moon and the top of the church, smack in the middle between the church spires.

Reminds me of the perfect alignment of the sun with the top of the tower at Angkor Wat in Cambodia on the days of equinoxes and solstices every year.

He also sent photos of the building of St. Anne’s Church taken when it was said it was being built starting in the 1890s

He said the church was built with local granite and blue marble from Vermont.

Two last things from RR.

He sent me drone footage taken by his son.

The first drone footage shows the Braga Bridge, that carries Interstate 95 across the Taunton River between the towns of Fall River and Somerset, and the USS Massachusetts beside it, which is a museum today.

This second one is drone video footage of old church towers on Rock Street in Fall River. 

The next place I am going to look at is Whitman, Massachusetts, which was suggested by BA.

In the late 1930s, Whitman is the place where the chocolate chip cookie was first invented by Ruth Graves Wakefield at the Toll House Inn, which was a tourist lodge.

Whitman is located half-way between Boston and New Bedford, and travellers would be charged a toll when they historically stopped here to change horses and have a hot meal.

Ruth Graves Wakefield soon became famous for her lobster dinners and desserts at the Toll House Inn, which included the first chocolate chip cookies.

The Toll House Inn burned down in 1984, but its sign still stands today on Route 18.

Whitman’s history is deeply-rooted in the shoe-making industry, with over 20 shoe and related-factories in-town.

There are a few abandoned shoe factories left in Whitman, and some have been turned into condos, like the Bostonian Shoe Lofts.

BA mentioned that there is a beautiful park here, the Whitman Town Park, that was credited to the Olmsted Brothers for its present design in 1900.

This park has mounds…

…and a Civil War monument was added to the park, we are told, in 1908.

Now onto Newport, Rhode Island, and some other places in the smallest state in the United States.

Bellevue Avenue in Newport is known for its “Gilded Age Mansions.”

One definition that I found of “Gilded Age” is that it was a period of gross materialism and blatant political corruption in the United States from the 1870s to 1900.

Another definition is that it was an era of rapid economic growth, especially in the northern and western United States.

Perhaps the most famous of these “Gilded Age” mansions, said to have been built between 1893 and 1895 for Cornelius Vanderbilt II in Newport known as “The Breakers.”

It was said to have been patterned after a Renaissance Palace, and built with marble imported from Italy and Africa, as well as rare wood and mosaics from countries around the world.

“The Breakers” Mansion, as well as the city of Newport itself, is centrally-located on the Atlantic coast, between the eastern tip of Long Island, which is Montauk Point; Martha’s Vineyard; and Nantucket Island; and Plymouth, the landing spot of the Pilgrim’s on Massachusetts’ Cape Cod.

I can already see I am going to have to come back here on another occasion and do a deep dive.

This is a good place to insert AF’s suggestion of looking into the Provincetown Monument.

Known as the Pilgrim Monument, it is located in Provincetown, Massachusetts, and was said to have been built between 1907 and 1910 to commemorate the first landfall of the pilgrims in 1620, and the signing of the Mayflower Compact, the first governing document of the Plymouth Colony, in November of 1620 when the “Mayflower” was anchored in Provincetown Harbor.

A contest was said to have been held to design the monument, and the winning entry was a design based upon the Torre del Mangia in Siena, Italy, which was said to have been built between 1338 and 1348.

RS brought Woonsocket, Rhode Island to my attention, with the comment that Rhode Island has tons of massive polygonal masonry walls everywhere, and giant granite masonry on top of bigger and older giant block masonry.

RS lives near a bridge on South Main Street in Woonsocket, and said that it clearly wasn’t built recently, and even has a plaque stating it was “re-fixed” in the late 1800s.

I found great examples of the megalithic polygonal masonry walls in Rhode Island several years ago when I was tracking an alignment from Washington, DC, through Providence, the state capital.

Here are several photos of the megalithic polygonal masonry seen at Providence’s Waterplace Park.

CR suggested that I look at Fairhaven, Massachusetts, where there’s a high school, library, and at least a couple church’s that are amazing, and that there’s a small one of these buildings in a cemetery in New Bedford near the high school over there.

Fairhaven and New Bedford are in the same general area that I have been talking about in this region of New England’s Atlantic coast, and are located right next to each other.

…and the two cities are connected by a swing-truss bridge, which swings open to allow fishing boats in and out of the inner harbor located here.

Here’s an old postcard showing the bridge “open”…and are those streetcar tracks on the bridge?

Sure looks like it to me!

And this was the only old photo I could find about the bridge with a streetcar actually showing in it.

This is the Fairhaven High School, still in use today, which opened in 1905, and said to have been designed by architect Charles Brigham, and donated by Henry Huttleston Rogers, one of the key men in John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust.

The Millicent Library in Fairhaven was said to have been designed by Charles Brigham and donated to the town by Henry Huttleston Rogers, in memory of his youngest daughter Millicent Rogers, who died of heart failure at the age of 17.

It was dedicated in 1893.

Both New Bedford and Fairhaven were deeply connected to New England’s whaling industry in the 19th-century, as whale oil was the primary source for lighting fuel for much of that time.

This is the “Whaleman” statue on the grounds of the New Bedford Free Public Library, gifted to the city in 1913 as a tribute to the whalers that made New Bedford famous.

The next places I am going to look at are in Connecticut are Candlewood Lake and Meriden from information provided to me by KO

First, Candlewood Lake, which is a man-made lake that is the largest in Connecticut, and the largest lake within a 60-mile, or 97-km, radius of New York City.

Some of the most expensive real estate in Connecticut is found around its shores.

Candlewood Lake was formed when the Connecticut Light and Power Company’s Board of Directors approved a plan in 1926 to create the first large-scale operation of pumped storage facilities in the United States, and they created the lake by pumping it full of water from the Housatonic River.

He said there was a city named Jerusalem beneath the waters of the lake, and while there isn’t a lot of information regarding this lost town in Connecticut, there are references to it available to find.

KO mentioned there is a Babylon, New York and New Canaan, Connecticut right close by, as well as a Bethlehem and Bethany.

Just an interesting aside for those of us who remember when the Amityville Horror came out in the late 1970s…

…I happened to notice Amityville is just down the road from Babylon on New York’s Long Island.

One more place of interest to note in Connecticut is Waterbury.

It was the location of Holy Land USA, a theme park said to have been inspired by passages from the Bible.

It was opened in 1955…

…and closed in 1985.

It reminds me a lot of Cappadocia in appearance, an ancient region in Central Anatolia of Turkey.

KO also sent me some photos from Meriden, Connecticut.

In this picture of what he called a florette, an elevation applique, there which looks like there have been modifications, with what appears to be another set of numbers beneath what is seen on the surface.

He said there is a deep scratch around where whoever scratched around the outside of the area and then used a chisel to somewhat sloppily prepare the surface for a new date and elevation, which was done with another tool, and engraved in a different style of text.

Meriden is located half-way between New Haven, Connecticut and Hartford, Connecticut.

This is Meriden’s City Hall, said to have been built in 1907.

The Soldiers’ Monument in front of the City Hall was erected in 1873, we are told, to honor those from Meriden who died in the American Civil War.

The monument is described as an obelisk having a granite base and the statue of a soldier on top.

Next I am going to look at Atlantic City, New Jersey, based on EB’s suggestion and photos he sent me.

First is a photo he sent me of the old fruit and vegetable market…

…that he said is now the location of Gino’s Pizza and Grill on Atlantic and North Carolina Avenues.

He also sent me pictures of what he thinks are the oldest churches in his area in the block of Connecticut and Atlantic Avenues.

Interesting the number of empty lots showing here too.

EB also sent me screenshots of old hotels in Atlantic City that were three- and four-blocks-long that were Moorish castles, like the Marlborough-Blenheim Hotel, which was said to have been built between 1902 and 1906, and demolished in October of 1978…

…the Traymore Hotel, said to have opened in its most recent form in 1906 and demolished in 1972…

…and the Windsor Hotel, about which I can’t find any information to speak of, but presumably long gone like the others.

The last image I am going to leave you with of Atlantic City is an old postcard showing the Atlantic City and Shore Railroad crossing a two-mile, or 3-kilometer, -long trestle bridge in Great Egg Harbor Bay, and was a type of streetcar system in New Jersey called an interurban that served Somers Point and several other cities between Atlantic City and Ocean City in the years between 1907 and 1948.

In my next post, I will be doing the research for Part III of the “Shapers of the New Narrative” series, this time about the role of early radio and television.

…and then return to my next installment of “Short & Sweet” after that.

Shapers of the New Narrative – Part 2 Bread and Circuses

This is the second part of what is now going to be a 3-part series because there is alway more to find out about how we came to the place where we are now in time related to how the new narrative was shaped.

I have chosen the title for this part of the series based on the remarks attributed in our historical narrative to the first-century Roman poet Juvenal, who said in one of his poems a phrase that is commonly interpreted as: “Two things only the people anxiously desire: bread and circuses.”

The phrase “bread and circuses” has come down to us as meaning the cultural and political practice of providing “superficial appeasement” to people in the form of cheap food and entertainment to keep them happy, and diverting their emotional energy into the absurd and the trivial and the spectacle in order to keep them distracted for the purpose of maintaining power and control over the masses.

I will be demonstrating the relevance of this control mechanism being practiced on us in more modern times through looking into the origins of things like penny candy; dime museums; circuses; some notable events in the founding of the movie industry; and those death-defying stunt performers, and will be looking at these in the context of the United States.

Here are some of the things that I found out about the history of penny candy.

As with everything else, there is much, much more to find out about this subject, so that if I followed every lead, I would never get finished!

Hard stick Candy as we know it has at least been around since 1837, when it at was at the Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association (MCMA) that year in Boston, Massachusetts.

Is it just a coincidence that the MCMA logo is pretty much identical to the “Arm and Hammer” logo?

At any rate, stick candy became a popular type of hard candy for both children and adults in the United States by the 1860s, and their nostalgia effect is memorialized in this 1909 poem, “The Land of Candy” attributed to Kentucky poet Madison Julius Cawein.

The first place they came to me, why.
Was a wood that reached the sky;
Forest of stick candy. My!
How the little boy made it fly!
Why, the tree trunks were as great,
Big around as our gate
Are the sycamores; the whole
Striped like a barber’s pole.

This brings to mind the game, “Candyland,” which I distinctly remember playing as a child.

This classic board game was first published in December of 1949 by the Milton Bradley Company, and was suitable for young children because there was no reading or strategy involved, and only minimal counting skills.

All you have to do to play the game is follow the directions.

To this day, this popular board game still sells an estimated 1-million copies per year.

Stick candy is made by mixing things like granulated sugar and sometimes corn syrup with water and a small amount of Cream of Tartar,though white vinegar can be used in place of Cream of Tartar.

The chemical name for Cream of Tartar is potassium bitartrate, and in addition to its uses in cooking, when it is combined with other substances like lemon juice, vinegar, and hydrogen peroxide, it is used as a cleaning agent.

A recipe for candy canes, typically a type of peppermint-flavored stick candy, was published in 1844, and the first ones made in 1847.

In 1874, “The Nursery,” a 19th-century magazine “for the Youngest Readers,” made note of candy canes in connection with Christmas…

…and in 1882, an edition of a similar kind of magazine entitled “Babyland,” called “the Babies Own Magazine,” mentioned candy canes being hung on Christmas trees.

In 1957, Father Gregory Keller, a priest of the Diocese of Little Rock in Arkansas, patented his “Keller Machine,” which automated the process of bending candy cane sticks.

Father Keller was the brother-in-law of Robert McCormack, who began making candy canes for local children in 1919 in his Famous Candy Company, and became one of the world’s leading candy cane producers, and the company he started became known as “Bobs Candies.”

Today’s Cotton Candy was first created in 1897…

…by a dentist, named William Morrison, who developed the cotton candy machine…

…and a confectioner named John C. Wharton, and together they created a product they called “Fairy Floss” by heating sugar through a screen that made its debut at the 1904 World’s Fair in St. Louis…

…where it won an award for “Novelty of Invention.”

It received the name “cotton candy” from yet another dentist, Josef Lascaux, who marketed his version of the same treat starting in 1921, and named it after the cotton of his home state of Louisiana and sold it to his dental patients, and which apparently had saccharine in it, according to this reference to it that I found.

Here are some interesting points of information related to the artificial sweetener saccharin that I came across in past reserach.

Saccharin was the first product produced by the Monsanto Chemical Company, starting in 1901.

Monsanto was acquired by the German multinational Bayer Pharmaceutics and Life Sciences Company after gaining United States and EU regulatory approvals on June 7th of 2018 for $66-billion in cash, and Monsanto’s name is no longer used.

Around the same time that cotton candy was first made, the Tootsie Roll entered the scene as the first penny candy that was individually wrapped and sold, starting in 1896.

An Austrian immigrant by the name of Leo Hirshfield invented the candy, which we are told was named after his daughter Clara, who was nicknamed “Tootsie.”

Hirshfield’s first invention was Bromangelon Jelly Powder.

It was the first instant, flavored gelatin powder, and initially came in four flavors – lemon, orange, raspberry, and strawberry.

It was also the first commercially-successful gelatin dessert powder, and was eventually driven off the market by Jell-O.

The invention of Bromangelon Jelly Powder set the stage for both Tootsie Rolls and Jell-O.

Interesting to note is that there are two different possible meanings attributed to the name.

One was what the manufacturer, the Stern and Saalberg Company, said it was, which was “Angel’s Food.

And the other is what the break-down of the Greek etymology is said to mean, which is “a foul spirit,” with bromos meaning stench and “angellus,” a messenger, angel, or spirit.

Or the possibility that it has no meaning at all.

The ingredients of Tootsie Rolls, at least today, are as follows: sugar; corn syrup; palm oil; condensed skim milk; cocoa; whey; soy lecithin; and artificial and natural flavors.

The sugar and corn syrup alone have a bad effect on the body, spiking insulin and sending the body on a roller coaster ride.

All of the sugar and other additives there were introduced into our diets from all of this candy brings the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes to mind, which is an impairment in the way the body regulates and uses sugar (or glucose) as a fuel, and affects a lot of people, who either have it, or are at risk to develop it as a health condition.

Tootsie Rolls represented a break-through in the candy industry, a chocolate-flavored caramel and taffy but not any one of the three; they didn’t stick together in the bulk containers at the store; didn’t melt and they stayed fresh.

From that modest start, Tootsie Roll Industries has brought us Charms Blow Pops; Mason Dots; Andes; Sugar Daddy; Charleston Chew; Dubble Bubble; Razzles; Caramel Apple Pops; Junior Mints; Cella’s Chocolate Covered Cherries; and Nik-L-Nip, and sold all over in places like: grocery stores; warehouse and membership stores like Sam’s Club and Costco; vending machines; dollar stores; drug stores and convenience stores.

Makes me wonder if we would even need dentists, and doctors for that matter, if we did not have all this junk food at our disposal!

Next I will be looking into historical Dime Museums.

Dime museums were most popular in the United States at the end of the 19th-century and beginning of the 20th-century as institutions which provided cheap entertainment for working-class people, and reached their peak in popularity in the time-period between 1890 and 1920, declining in popularity with the rise of Vaudeville and the film industry.

Phineas T. Barnum purchased Scudder’s Dime Museum in 1841, and turned it into Barnum’s American Museum.

Known more commonly as P. T. Barnum, he was a showman, businessman, and politician.

From its opening at a location in what is now the Financial District of Manhattan in 1841, Barnum’s American Museum was known for its strange attractions and performances.

The attractions were a combination of zoo, museum, lecture hall, wax museum, theater, and freak show.

Apparently it became a central location in the development of American popular culture.

Barnum’s American Museum was filled with things like dioramas; scientific instruments; modern appliances; a flea circus; the “feejee” mermaid; Siamese twins, and other human curiosities…

…which included Charles Sherwood Stratton, better known as “General Tom Thumb,” who was 2-feet, 11-inches, or 89-cm-tall at his full-grown height as an adult.

Stratton was taken under Barnum’s wing as a child, and he started performing for him as an entertainer starting at the age of 5, and this continued throughout his life.

His considerable talent as a performer changed the public perception of “human curiosities” that were part of the freak shows of the era, into something more positive that was previously deemed dishonorable.

On July 13th of 1865, the building which housed Barnum’s American Museum caught fire and burned to the ground.

Apparently there were not any human deaths, but a number of the live animal exhibits, including two whales imported from the coast of Labrador, were burned alive.

This was the second of five major fires connected to P. T. Barnum.

The first major fire associated with P. T. Barnum was the mansion he was said to have had built as his residence in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1848, and named “Iranistan.”

It was said to have been set on fire by workmen in 1857 when Barnum had been away for several months.

We are told Barnum had hired architect Leopold Eidlitz to design Iranistan as his own version of the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, said to have been constructed in England between 1787 and 1815.

The architecture of these places looks distinctly like Moorish architecture, though instead of the Brighton Pavilion being called Moorish, it is called Indo-Saracenic Revival-style instead.

The third fire involved the second Barnum’s American Museum that he started after the first one burned down, this time in 1868, at which time a faulty chimney flue was said to have burned down this building as well.

The fourth fire associated with P. T. Barnum was what was called the “Hippotheatron” in New York, which was said to have taken place in 1872 shortly after Barnum purchased it for winter quarters for his travelling show; and a combined circus building and a smaller version, including a menagerie, of his American Museum.

And the last fire that was associated P. T. Barnum took place in 1887 at his winter quarters in Bridgeport, Connecticut, which caused the mass destruction of property and of many animals.

And was P. T. Barnum a Freemason?

I could find no reference to Barnum himself being a Freemason.

I did find two interesting freemasonic connections to him though.

One was a reference to his magnificent “Iranistan” residence and the masonic presence in Bridgeport, Connecticut, in an article in an 1851 issue of “The Freemason’s Monthly Magazine…”

…and the other was General Tom Thumb.

Charles Sherwood Stratton became a Master Mason in the same lodge in Bridgeport mentioned in the referenced 1851 Freemasonry Magazine article, St. John’s Lodge No. 3, and he received the Commandery degrees of Masonic Knight Templar in the Hamilton Commandery No. 5 in Bridgeport in 1863.

He was buried with masonic honors in Bridgeport’s Mountain Grove Cemetery when he died of a stroke at the age of 45 in 1883.

Other famous dime museums included:

Kimball’s Boston Museum opened in 1841, the same year P. T. Barnum opened his first one in New York.

Moses Kimball was known as the “Barnum of Boston,” and had exactly the same kind of exhibits as his contemporary in the Dime Museum business…

…including the “Feejee Mermaid” – it was owned by Kimball who in turn leased it to Barnum.

By the way, the original “Feejee Mermaid” is still on display to this day at Harvard’s Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology.

Hagar & Campbell’s Dime Museum opened in Philadelphia in September of 1883, and billed itself as an “…exhibition intended expressly to please the ladies and Children…”

…and had such attractions as the Living Skeleton; Barnum’s original Aztecs; the “Che-mah Chinese Dwarf;” and the “White Moor.

Peale’s Museum in Baltimore, which was first opened by Charles Willson Peale in 1814…

…exhibited the skeleton of a mastodon, along with other natural history exhibits…

…and the artwork of the Peale family of painters.

And apparently Charles Willson Peale was a freemason.

Dime Museums were not only established in large cities, but were even found in smaller communities, like Harper’s Ferry in West Virginia…

…and Harper’s Ferry has a wax museum that opened in 1963 to tell the story of John Brown and his infamous 1859 raid on the federal armory in Harper’s Ferry.

Oh yeah, I almost forgot to include the most famous example in recent history of this venue of all -Ripley’s Believe It or Not!

This is the Ripley’s Believe It or Not! Museum that is located in Niagara Falls in Ontario, Canada.

This is the only one I am personally familiar with, as a I well remember the “Ripley’s Believe It or Not” strip in the Sunday comics section of the Washington Post from my childhood, and is in print today, holding the title of the “World’s Longest Running Syndicated Cartoon, which runs in newspapers around the world in many different languages.

Robert Ripley was an American cartoonist, entrepreneur and amateur anthropologist who created the world-famous newspaper series; television show and radio show which featured odd facts from around the world, starting in the 1920s until his death in 1949.

My great uncle and great aunt went to the Believe It or Not! Redwood tree house on the left for their honeymoon back in the early 1940s, when they were both in the Navy during World War II, which is how I knew to look for it.

My grandfather’s brother, my great-Uncle Carl, spent the entirety of the War in the Pacific during World War II as a bombadier in the belly of a navy plane…and survived.

He died in his early 90s in 2008, and my Aunt Margie followed him in 2018.

They were the main reason my husband and I moved to Alaska.

They were both hardy souls who lived in Delta Junction, Alaska from 1964 until their deaths.

I was quite close to them.

And no, I am not the girl on the left. My aunt Margie was a schoolteacher who spent extra time with her students, especially those who really needed it.

And yes, my aunt and uncle could run circles around my husband and I when we moved there in 1994, when I was 30 going on 31.

I can’t find any reference to Robert Ripley being a freemason, but it is interesting to note that his final resting place is the Oddfellows Lawn Cemetery in Santa Rosa, California, and I do believe at this point that the Oddfellows and Freemasons had similar agendas.

Now on to the American Circus.

The Golden Age of the American Circus began in 1870, and ended around 1950.

For almost a century, the circus was the most popular entertainment in America.

At its peak, the day the circus came to town was a reason to close schools and businesses and watch the circus performers parade down main street.

There were acts like trapeze artists, and tight-rope walkers…

…equestrians and lion-tamers….

…and elephant tricks and clowns.

The modern American circus as we know it really got underway in 1869, when Dan Castello took his circus – including two elephants and two camels – from Omaha, Nebraska, to California on the new transcontinental railroad just weeks after its completion.

P. T. Barnum entered the circus business in 1871, when he staged a 100-wagon “Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan, and Circus,” and the following year, his travelling circus started to travel by railroad, and was when it was billed as “The Greatest Show on Earth.”

In 1880, once rivals P. T. Barnum and James A. Bailey joined forces to become the Barnum and Bailey Circus.

Barnum and Bailey’s Circus grew to accommodate three-rings; two stages; an outer track for horse races; and seating capacity for 10,000 people.

In 1897, the Barnum and Bailey Circus, by now a gigantic three-ring circus, travelled by ship to Europe for a 5-year tour, around the same time that the United States was becoming an industrial powerhouse and exporter of mass culture.

We are told that in Germany, the Kaiser’s army followed the circus to learn its efficient methods for moving thousands of people, animals, and supplies.

The Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circuses merged in 1919, and operated until 2017, and return in 2023 is in the works.

Next, I would like to focus on Marcus Loew since he was involved in everything, from Penny Arcades; to Nickelodeons and Vaudeville; to trolley parks; to theater chains; and to a major Hollywood movie studio.

Marcus Loew was an American business magnate who was born in 1870 and died in 1927.

He was a pioneer of the motion picture industry, founding Loew’s Theaters in 1904, the oldest theater chain operating in the United States until it merged with AMC Theaters in 2006, and he was the founder Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios in 1924.

A poor young man made good, he was born into a poor Jewish family in New York City.

His parents were immigrants from Austria and Germany. He had to work from a young age and had little formal education.

We are told he was able to save enough money from menial jobs to buy into the penny arcade business as his first business investment.

Interesting side-note that the birth of the viable interactive entertainment industry in 1972 resulted from a coin-operated entertainment business with well-developed manufacturing and distribution channels around the world, and computer technology that had become cheap enough to incorporate into mass market entertainment products.

Magnavox released the world’s first home video game console, the Magnovox Odyssey, in 1972…

…and while there were other less well-known video arcade games released around 1972, the first block-buster video arcade game was “Space Invaders” in 1978, responsible for starting what is called the “Golden Age of Video Arcade Games.”

Thus, there was a direct connection through time between the early penny arcade games and today’s video arcade games.

Not long after buying into the penny arcade business, Loew purchased a nickelodeon in partnership with Adolph Zukor.

A Nickelodeon was a type of indoor exhibition space dedicated to showing projected motion pictures.

Many Nickelodeon’s were set-up in converted storefronts, and charged a nickel for admission.

They flourished between 1905 and 1915, and featured short films and illustrated songs.

Loew’s first nickelodeon partner, Adolph Zukor, was one of the founders of Paramount Pictures, which was formed in 1912.

Marcus Loew formed the People’s Vaudeville Company in 1904, which showcased one-reel films and live variety shows.

Vaudeville was a type of entertainment popular chiefly in the United States early in the 20th-century, featuring a mix of specialty acts such as burlesque comedy, song, and dance.

Burlesque is a style in literature and drama that mocks or imitates a subject by representing it in an ironic or ludicrous way.

In 1910, Marcus Loew expanded to become Loew’s Consolidated Enterprises with Adolph Zukor, Joseph Schenk, and Nicholas Schenk.

In addition to theaters, Marcus Loew and the Schenk brothers expanded the Fort George Amusement Park in Upper Manhattan.

Fort George was located at the end of the Third Avenue Trolley Line, and was said to have been developed as a trolley park around 1894.

Joseph and Nicholas Schenk were said to have been Russian immigrants who opened a beer hall at Fort George Amusement Park in 1905, and they formed a partnership with Marcus Loew to expand rides and vaudeville shows there. The red arrows are pointing to the masonry banks of the Harlem River.

This trolley park suffered extensive damage from a fire in 1913, reportedly from arson. It was not rebuilt, and in 1914, many of the remaining amusements were destroyed, with a few concessionaires still able to hold onto their stands for awhile longer.

By 1913, Marcus Loew operated a large number of theaters in diverse places. Not only in New York, but New Jersey, Washington, D. C., Boston, and Philadelphia.

I first came across Marcus Loew in Jersey City, New Jersey, in the form of the Landmark Loew’s Jersey Theater, said to have opened in 1929. A fully-preserved theater, it is as lavish on the outside…

…as it is on the inside.

Preservationists succeeded in saving the building from demolition after it closed in 1986.

It is used for special events, and is the primary venue of the annual Golden Door Film Festival since 2011.

Here’s the thing.

Most of the historic Loew’s theaters did not survive very long.

Like Loew’s Theater on the far eastern end of Canal Street in Manhattan, said to date from 1927…

…had the fate of abandonment. 

It was only in operation as one of Loew’s Theaters until the 1960s. 

It became an “indie” film theater until it closed for good by 1980 and was abandoned. An “indie” is a feature film or short film produced outside of a major film studio.

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, also known as MGM, was founded in 1924, when Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and Louis B. Mayer Pictures.

It was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood from the end of the silent film era in the late 1920s to the 1950s, and was one of the first studios to experiment filming in technicolor.

Besides having big name stars of the day for more sophisticated feature films, like Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Spencer Tracy, and Clark Gable, MGM Studios also released the shorts and features produced by the Hal Roach Company, like Laurel and Hardy…

…and Our Gang, a series of short films following a group of poor neighborhood children and their adventures.

I remember watching re-runs of “Our Gang” and “Little Rascals” a lot as a kid in the 1960s and 1970s when I stayed home from church on Sundays, when it was the only thing to watch on television besides televangelists.

So instead of movie studios using the powerful medium of film for the upliftment and improvement of Humanity, generations of adults and children had their brains filled with things like slapstick and burlesque-style comedy.

My last area of focus for this post is the subject of daredevil stuntmen.

Sam Patch was the first American daredevil.

Nicknamed among other things the “Jersey Jumper,” he got his start in the jumping business in New Jersey, where he jumped from such places as bridges, factory walls, and ships’ masts.

Then, on October 17th of 1829, he successfully jumped from a raised platform into the Niagara River near the base of the Niagara Falls.

Buoyed by his success, his next stunt was to jump into the Genesee River at High Falls in Rochester, New York, on November 6th of 1829, and this jump was successful as well.

Unfortunately for Sam, his luck ran out, and he did not survive his second jump into the Genessee River at High Falls, and was killed by his famed leaping act.

Harry Houdini was the most famous death-defying daredevil of his era.

A Hungarian-born immigrant by the name of Eric Weisz, Harry Houdini who was a magician particularly well-known for his escape acts.

His career started in Dime Museums in the 1890s, where he performed your typical magician- and card-tricks, something which he was good at but not great.

So he began experimenting with escape acts.

He became known as Handcuff Harry Houdini for his expertise in escaping from handcuffs…lots of handcuffs…and he was soon booked on the Orpheum Vaudeville circuit.

Within months of this happening, he was performing at the top Vaudeville houses in the country.

In 1900, he went to Europe for a tour, and stayed in London for six-months performing his act at the Alhambra Theater after he was said to successfully escape from Scotland Yard’s handcuffs in a demonstration with them.

The Alhambra Theater opened in London in 1854…

…and was demolished in 1936.

Houdini’s reputation and fame continued to grow, as he toured Europe and the United States, as in particular, he challenged local police to restrain him with handcuffs and shackles, and lock him in their jails.

He eventually graduated, if you will, to escaping from strait-jackets while hanging upside-down from a great height in sight of street audiences…

…to escaping from locked, water-filled milk cans.

In the end, it wasn’t Harry Houdini’s proclivity for escaping from the most restrictive circumstances that could be devised for him that killed him.

What we are told is that his legendary life was cut short by peritonitis secondary to a ruptured appendix, when he was punched in the gut by an inquisitive student.

There are many more examples.

Our history is packed with dozens of death-defying daredevils, out-doing themselves with ever more outlandish stunts, and keeping the eyes on the ground glued upwards.

Distraction, distraction, distraction?!

I am going to end “Shapers of the New Narrative – Part 2 Bread and Circuses” here, and in the next part of this series will be taking a look into “Shapers of the New Narrative – Part 3 Early Radio and Television Shows.”

Before I do that, however, I will be working on the research for “Short & Sweet #13,” and in addition to places in New England, that include, but are not limited to, Fall River in Massachusetts; Newport in Rhode Island; Candlewood Lake and Meriden in Connecticut; and Atlantic City in New Jersey (and many thanks to everyone who has sent photos of several of these places for me), I am going to do some follow-up on cemeteries based on comments and information I received from you all.

Short & Sweet #12 – Places & Topics Suggested by Viewers

In this installment of Short & Sweet, my research is focused around some places that were suggested by commenters in Boston, Massachusetts, that brought in a great deal of the information that I look for when following the trail of hidden history.

LS recommended that I look into a cemetery called the Forest Hills Cemetery, which is in the Forest Hills section of the Jamaica Plain neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.

Already, I see a lot to break-down here.

We are told the cemetery itself was established as a public municipal cemetery in 1848 for the town of Roxbury, until the town was annexed to Boston in 1868 and the cemetery privatized.

Seeing the term “public municipal cemetery” sparked my immediate interest, so I looked into that to see what I could find out.

Here is what we are told.

Also known as the “Rural Cemetery Movement,” these were said to have been a style of cemetery that became popular in the mid-19th-century in both the United States and Europe due to the overcrowding and health concerns of urban cemeteries.

They were typically built, we are told, around 5-miles, or 8-kilometers, outside the city in order to both be: 1) separate from the cities; and 2) close enough for visitors.

Not only that, the “Rural Cemeteries” were beautifully landscaped, containing elaborate memorials and mausoleums, and were places that the general public could go for outdoor recreation around art and sculptures, which previously had only been available to the wealthy.

Their popularity decreased, however, towards the end of the 19th-century due to: 1) the high cost of maintenance; 2) the development of true public parks; and 3) the perceived disorderliness of appearance due to independent ownership of family burial plots and different grave markers.

I find the “Rural Cemetery Movement” cropping up in history in the early- mid-19th-century, and ending, for all-intents-and-purposes at the end of the 19th-century to be particularly noteworthy, since the research I have done on what the official narrative tells us points right to this same time-period as being when the New World Order history reset really got underway, starting in earnest in 1830, and officially kicked off at the Crystal Exposition in London in 1851.