Sacred Geometry, Ley-Lines & Places in Alignment – Part 22 The Ellora Caves to Indore, India

In the last post, I tracked the alignment from the Palk Strait, located between Sri Lanka and India; to Vellore, in the northeastern part of the Indian State of Tamil Nadu; and ended up at Hyderabad, the capital and largest city of Telengana State on the Deccan Plateau.

Next on the alignment we come to the Ellora Caves, located in the Aurangabad District of Maharastra, India.

A UNESCO World Heritage Site, it is one of the largest rock-cut, monastery-temple cave complexes in the world, featuring Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain monuments and artwork, and we are told dating to the time-period of 600 – 1000 AD.

Of the 100-or-so caves at the site, excavated from the basalt cliffs in the Charanandri Hills, thirty-four are open to the public.

The Kailasa is the largest of the rock-cut temples at the Ellora Caves.

Carved from a rock-cliff face, it is considered one of the most remarkable cave temples in the world because of its size, architecture, and sculptural treatments.

Let me be clear: It is the world’s largest monolithic structure, meaning carved-out from the rock.

The Ajanta Caves are also in the Auranabad District of Maharashra state…

…almost thirty rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments, said to date from the 2nd-century BC to about 480 AD.

…and believed to be among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, and masterpieces of Buddhist religious art.

The Ajanta Caves were said to have been re-discovered in 1819 by a British officer named John Smith.

While hunting tigers, he was said to have discovered the door to cave #10 when a local shepherd boy guided him to the location and the door.

John Smith went to a nearby village to get help gaining entrance to the temple, after which time he vandalized the wall by scratching his name and the date over a painting on the wall.

It is interesting to note that the Grand Canyon has Hindu names for some of its rock features, like the “Three Hindu Gods at the Grand Canyon…”

…as well as ones with Egyptian names, which are a part of the formation of a star map of the constellation Orion.

And there are stories from early explorers of the Grand Canyon, like the one of G. E. Kinkaid, who claimed to have found an entrance to a mysterious underground citadel…

…which led to the finding of a massive chamber from which scores of passages radiated…

…and finding, among many other similar things, an idol sitting cross-legged, with a lotus flower in each hand.

An expedition to a rock-cut vault in the Grand Canyon in 1909 by a Professor S. A. Jordan of the Smithsonian received front-page coverage in the Phoenix Gazette…

…about which the Smithsonian in short order was said to have claimed to not have knowledge of the discovery or the discoveries.

The “Grand Canyon of India…”

…is in a place called Gandikota, in the Andhra Pradesh State, along the Pennar River.

Gandikota, the center of power for various dynasties, including the Golconda Sultanate mentioned in the last post, also has a massive fort at Gandikota, built of granite, with a 20-foot, or 6-meter, high entry gate in a fort wall running around a 5-mile, or 8-kilometer, perimeter.

It has 101 bastions, each about 40-feet, or 12-meters, high.

The Belum Caves, approximately two-hours from Gandikota in Andhra Pradesh…

…are the largest and longest cave system open to the public on the Indian Subcontinent.

The Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves are found in Turpan, in the Uighur Autonomous Region of China, a complex of 77 rock-cut cave grottoes said to date from between the 5th and 14th centuries…

…that are located in what is called the Flaming Gorge…

…compared to the appearance of Arizona’s Grand Canyon.

What in the world is going on here?

I believe there is something very important that we have not been told about the universality of the spiritual beliefs, practices, and building technology of the ancient worldwide advanced civilization.

Examples of places in other countries with massive architecture cut directly out of rock include the eleven monolithc churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia.

Here are three of them…

…the roof of the mausoleum of Theodoric outside of Ravenna in Italy is described as a single, 230-ton, or 209-metric-tonne type of limestone…

…which for some reason no longer has its beautiful double-stone-staircase, and other features it used to have that look like they have been filled in…

…the ancient site of Petra in Jordan…

…and the Lycian rock-cut Dalyan temples in the province of Antalya in southern Turkey.

Just a short distance from the Ellora Cave-Temple Complex in Khuldabad…

…is the Tomb of Aurangzeb, considered the last of the strong Mughal Emperors, and who died in 1707. Aurangzeb means “Ornament of the Throne” in Persian.

A Persian name for the ruler of the Mughal Empire of the Indian subcontinent?

His burial site is located on at the complex of the dargah, or shrine, of Sheikh Zainuddin, a Sufi saint of the Dahkan, also known as Deccan, of India, and the spiritual and religious teacher of Aurangzeb.

As a matter of fact, Khuldabad is popular as the “Valley of Saints” because several Sufi saints resided there in the 14th-century.

Who were the Sufis?

They were mystics, and practitioners of the inward dimension of Islam.

Sufism emphasizes personal experience with the Divine, and concentrating one’s energy on spiritual development rather than focusing on the teachings of human religious scholars.

For example, followers of the Persian Sufi Mystic Rumi, from the Greater Khorasan…

…established the Mevlevi Order in Konya, Turkey, otherwise known as Whirling Dervishes,  who practice a spinning dance used to connect with the Divine.

Okay, this information about the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb having a Persian name and being a Sufi Muslim…

…and Rumi being a Persian from the Greater Khorasan is really nudging at my consciousness to bring in another stream of information.

Some of what I am about to share is based on things I have learned in tracking this alignment, and some of it is based on things I remember learning at some point in my life.

I am going to surf the synchronicities here because that is all I am able to do.

The validity of this information is gone from the official historical narrative about whether or not I am correct going in this direction.

I can’t definitively prove what I am going to say, but I can bring forward something that wants to come out in a meaningful way.

Earlier in this series, I tracked this alignment through Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey.

I found the alignment running through a region historically called “the Greater Khorasan,” forming the northeast province of what is called Iran today, Persia historically, and comprising the present territories of northeastern Iran, parts of Afghanistan, and much of Central Asia.

Khorasan is said to mean something along the lines of “Land of the Sun,” or “Where the Sun Arrives from” in Persian.

Then, when I arrived in Turkey, known historically as Anatolia, I found out that Anatolia also means something along the lines of “Rising Sun” in ancient Greek.

Also, the “Land of the Rising Sun” is a popular nickname for the country of Japan.

So what this tells me is that the whole concept of the sun always rising on the empires of the ancient advanced civilization was embedded in language and collective awareness.

In similar fashion, we learned that the “Sun never set on the British Empire.”

We are told that between the 18th- and 20th-centuries, Britain acquired more and more territories, making it the largest empire in history.

When I saw the Persian name of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, I vaguely recollected something about the Aryans. It rang the bell of a distant memory.

In looking up definitions of Aryan, here is what I am finding:

The Aryans brought Hindu religious thought to India;

The term was used by the Indo-Aryan people of the Vedic period in Ancient India as a religious label for themselves;

The Iranian people used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures, the religious texts of Zoroastrianism, and the word “Aryan” forms the source of the country name Iran;

The definition of an Aryan, described by the Nazi Germans as a member of the Master Race, was not Jewish and had nordic features.

What exactly was the Nazi obsession with creating a Master Race all about?

Was this actually a desire to re-create the original Master Race?

Giant human beings who, among many other things, were capable of carving massive infrastructure right out of rock like it was no big deal?

When I was tracking this alignment through the modern country of Turkey, in the ancient region of Lake Van, I learned about the Kingdom of Urartu…

…which was historically part of Armenia.

Which brings me to the question: Who were the People of Ar?

Mt. Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah’s Ark, was located in the historical Armenia, though now is within the boundaries of modern Turkey.

The Sumerians called Ararat “Arrata,” and they tell of this land of their ancestors in the Armenian Highlands in their epic poem of Gilgamesh.

Compare the boat pictured here with the Sumerian Gilgamesh with an ancient Egyptian boat…

…a boat on Lake Chad in Africa…

…and a boat on Lake Titicaca in Peru.

As a matter of fact, Arrata is said to be now recognized as the world’s most ancient, known civilization, dating back to 22,000 BCE, developing in the steppes north of the Black Sea, in modern Ukraine and believed to spread out from there to India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Western China, and across Europe.

This is the Vorontsov Palace in Alupka, on the Black Sea’s Crimean Peninsula, which was historically part of the Ukraine, on the left, in comparison with the Jama Masyid Mosque in Delhi, India, on the right.

I found out that ancient India was known as Bharata Varsha at one time…or does the term Bharata Varsha refer to the entire earth?

Let’s take a look at Bavaria, a state in Germany, at the Linderhof Castle, the smallest of three castles said to have been built by mad King Ludwig II, constructed between 1863 and 1886.

This is the Peacock Throne found inside the Linderhof Palace.

…and Moorish architecture is found in this amazing room inside the main Linderhof Palace…

…and this building located on the grounds of the Linderhof Palace complex.

The Peacock Throne of the Mughal Emperor was a famous jewelled throne…

…located in the Hall of Private Audiences…

…at the Red Fort, in Delhi, India, the main residence of the Mughal Emperors.

…and now the Mughal Peacock Throne is on display at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey, not in India.

Where else can I find “ars?”

Tartary, or Tartaria, a historical region in northern and Central Asia…

…the Barbary Coast, or Barbaria, the name given to a vast region stretching from the Nile River Delta, across Northern Africa, to the Canary Islands…

…Gandhara, an ancient Buddhist Kingdom primarily in what is now Pakistan, and part of the Kushan Empire…


…Arizona in the United States, with its flag on the top, compared with the flag of Tibet on the bottom, both looking very much like a sunrays in the background…

…and Kumari Kandam, a lost continent in the Indian Ocean that had an ancient Tamil civilization, to name just a few.

Who were the People of Ar?

Originally, Humanity as a collective was taught the knowledge of who we really are as spiritual beings and living holograms of the Universe; how to reconnect with Higher Self by raising kundalini energy from the base of the spine up to the third-eye and crown chakras…and lived at a much, much higher level of consciousness and full potential in human form…

…before the Earth’s people and grid system was deliberately hijacked by dark beings with a negative agenda, who definitely don’t want us to wake up to our true history and who we really are.

Here’s the thing. By Universal Law, we have to give our consent for what they have done here, and the only way they can accomplish this consent is by outright lies, deception and duplicity because if people knew the true agenda of these controllers, the majority of Humanity would never, ever, ever accept anything that has taken place here.

They wanted to rule over it all, take all wealth for themselves, and control the destiny of Humanity for their own benefit, not ours. And more and more people are waking up to this every day ~ we do not consent…and we never consented!

Back to India.

The next place I want to take a look at on the alignment is Indore, the largest and most populated city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

We are told Indore was founded in the 16th-century as a trading hub between Delhi and the Deccan region of India.

It was ruled as a princely state by the Holkar Dynasty until they acceded to the Union of Indian in 1947.

The first Holkar of the Dynasty was Malhar Rao Holkar, who ruled from 1731 to 1766.

This is the Chhatri, the definition of which is funerary monument, for him that was said to have been built by his daughter-in-law, Ahilyabai Holkar…

…who became Queen in the Holkar Dynasty after the death of her husband, Malhar Rao Holkar’s son, Khanderao Holkar.

Now compare the similarities between Malhar Rao Holkar’s Chhatri on the left with the building we saw previously on the grounds of the Linderhof Palace in Bavaria, Germany, on the right.

The Rajwada Palace in Indore was a royal residence of the Holkars…

…as was the Lal Bagh Palace.

The Lal Bagh brought to mind the Schaezlerpalais in the city of Augsburg, in Bavaria, Germany, which I remember visiting when I was stationed there in the Army in the mid- 1980s.

The Mahatma Gandhi Town Hall in Indore was said to have been built in 1904, named King Edward Hall, and renamed to honor Gandhi in 1948.

The Kanch Mandir in Indore is a Jain temple, said to have been built starting in 1903.

Meaning “Temple of Glass,” the inside is entirely covered by glass panels and mosaics, including the floor, columns, walls, and ceilings.

One side-note before ending this post.

The capital of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh is Bhopal, which is 107-miles, or 172-kilometers, from Indore.

Bhopal was the location of the world’s worst industrial disaster in December of 1984, when the Union Carbide pesticide plant there leaked highly toxic methyl isocyanate gas, which made its way into the surrounding areas.

The official death toll at the time was 2,259, and this major gas leak caused over half-a-million injuries, with on-going effects over time.

One last point of information about Bhopal.

About ten years ago, archaeologists found the remains of twenty-one temples near Bhopal, in the village of Ashapuri, believed to date back 1,300-years .

These people were remarkably prolific builders.

In the next post, I am picking up the alignment in Jodhpur, India.

It will be the last post of this particular series on “Sacred Geometry, Ley-Lines & Places in Alignment.”

Sacred Geometry, Ley-Lines & Places in Alignment – Part 21 the Palk Strait to Hyderabad, India

In the last post, I tracked the alignment from Adam’s Peak, a conical mountain in Sri Lanka that is revered by Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity for the “Sri Pada,” or “Sacred Footprint”, a major pilgrimage site, and one of the twelve primary nodal points on the earth’s grid system; through Kandy, the last capital of the ancient kings’ era of Sri Lanka; to Sigirya, an ancient rock fortress in Sri Lanka’s Central Province that is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and considered one of the best-preserved examples of urban planning in the world; to Jaffna, the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, and part of a region historically called Naga Nadu.

The alignment from Jaffna crosses the Palk Strait, located between the Jaffna District of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka and the Tamil Nadu state of India.

It connects the Bay of Bengal…

…the largest bay in the world, at 839,000-square-miles, or 2, 172,000-square-kilometers…

…with Palk Bay, to the southwest.

The chain of low islands and reefs called Adam’s Bridge, also known as Rama’s Bridge, or Ramsethu, which separates the Gulf of Mannar, known for having one of the most productive Pearl fisheries in the world, from Palk Bay.

This is a depiction I found of what this place might have looked like when it connected India and Sri Lanka location circa 1480…

…at which time supposedly a cyclone deepened the channels between the two places.

At any rate, the Pamban Bridge, a railway bridge, connects the town of Mandapam in Tamil Nadu with Pamban Island and Rameswaram to the Indian Railways, ending at the Indian side of Adam’s Bridge.

It was said to have been constructed between 1911 and 1914, which was the year World War I started.

It is over a mile-long, at 6,776-feet, or 2,065-meters.

Described as a masterpiece of engineering, it has a movable section midway that is raised to allow ship and barge traffic to pass through.

There are similar movable sections on the Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, with a swing bridge…and a vertical lift bridge. It was said to have been built in 1887.

For perspective in the historical narrative we have been taught, the Model T Ford first came into production in 1908…

…and the Wright Brothers had their first flight at Kitty Hawk in North Carolina’s Outer Banks in 1903.

So, were we actually capable of engineering feats like these based on the technology we are taught existed that at those times?.

And what in the world was going on in 1887, the year the Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge was said to have been built?

Well, for one, Buffalo Bill took his Wild West Show…

…to Great Britain for the celebration of the Jubilee Year of Queen Victoria in 1887.

Back to Palk Bay, you can take a ferry across, in the same general location as the sunken parts of Adam’s Bridge, to Talaimannar, on Sri Lanka’s Mannar Island, and catch the train on to anywhere you want to go in Sri Lanka.

The Palk Bay and Palk Strait were named for Sir Robert Palk, an officer in the British India Company that served as the Governor of Madras between 1755 and 1763…

…during the period called Company Raj period, or Company rule in India, when the British East India Company ruled over parts of the Indian Subcontinent between 1757 and 1858…

…commencing after the 1757 Battle of Plassey, called a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal, Mir Jafar, after which time the Nawab ceded revenues to the what was called the “Company.”

Mir Jafar was considered the first dependent Nawab of Bengal of the British East India Company, and this was considered to be the start of British Imperialism in India, and a key step in the eventual British domination of vast areas there.

The next place I come to tracking the alignment from Jaffna, is Vellore, a city and administrative headquarters of the Vellore District in the northeastern part of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

It is located on the banks of the dry-looking Palar River today…

…which historically flowed from the Nandi Hills, also known as Nandidurg, an ancient hilltop fortress in Karnataka State that was at one time believed to have been impregnable…

…but was successfully stormed by the Army of Charles Cornwallis in 1791, the 1st Marquess of Cornwallis in the Third Anglo-Mysore War, a conflict in South India between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore…

…and the same General Cornwallis famous for being defeated at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781, and being forced to surrender, basically ending the American Revolutionary War.

In spite of his loss and surrender to the Americans in the Revolutionary War, Cornwallis was knighted in 1786, and in the same year became the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the British Colony in India.

Nandi Hills later became a resort for British Raj officials during the hot season.

The Muthu Mandapam, or Pearl Hall, located on the banks of the Palar River…

…is the resting place of the last King of Kandy in Sri Lanka, Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe, and a place where Sri Lankans journey to in order to pay their respects to him.

He had been arrested by the British in 1815, and ended up in exile in India.

In January of 1816, he and his families were sent to Madras on the HMS Cornwallis…

…which was the same ship on which the Treaty of Nanking, or Nanjing, between the British Empire and China would be signed after China’s defeat, after the First Opium War in 1842.

The First Opium War was fought between Qing Dynasty of China and Britain between 1839 and 1842, a military engagement that started when the Chinese seized opium stocks at Canton in order to stop the opium trade, which was banned.

The British government insisted upon free trade and equality among nations and backed the merchants’ demands.

From 1757 to 1842, the Canton System served as a means for China to control trade with the west by focusing all trade in the southern port of Canton.

To counter this, the British East India Company began to grow opium in Bengal, in present-day Bangladesh, and allowed private British merchants to sell opium to Chinese smugglers for illegal sale in China.

As a result from these events in history, opium dens, establishments where opium was sold and smoked, became prevalent in many parts of the world throughout the 19th-century.

Sounds like these events were the origins of the same drug trade that plagues the world today, a means by which to keep Humanity asleep and unconscious as much as possible, and make a ton of money in the process.

The Vellore Fort is situated in the heart of Vellore…

…said to have been built by the Vijayanagara, also called the Karnata Empire, that was based in the Deccan Plateau Region of South India.

The Vellore Fort is known for its grand ramparts, wide moat, and robust masonry.

The fort’s ownership was said to have passed from the Karnata Empire to the Bijapur Sultans, to the Marathas, to the Carnatic Nawabs, and finally to the British…

…who held the fort until India gained independence in 1947, at which time the heart-wrenching Partition of India displaced 10- to 12-million people along religious lines, and created an overwhelming refugee crisis in the newly constituted independent dominions of India and Pakistan, as well as large-scale violence and death.

The first significant rebellion against British rule erupted at Vellore Fort in 1806, known as the Vellore Mutiny, or Vellore Sepoy Mutiny.

While it only lasted one day, it was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian Sepoys against the British East India Company.

The Sepoys seized the Vellore Fort, and killed or wounded 200 British soldiers, but the mutiny was subdued by the end of the day by cavalry and artillery from another nearby British unit.

This pillar at Hazrath Makkaan Junction in Vellore commemorates the 1806 Vellore Mutiny.

The Jalakandeswarar Temple is a temple dedicated to Shiva in the Vellore Fort, and its construction was said to have been completed by a Karnata chieftain in 1550.

The temple has exquisite statues on its gopuram, or tower…

….richly carved stone pillars…

…and a stone-carved ceiling.

The Vainu Bappu Observatory in Kavalur in the Vellore District…

…is in what are called the Javadi Hills of the Eastern Ghats.

It is the biggest observatory in Asia, with observations said to have started here in 1968.

Its location 12-degrees north of the equator allows for the coverage of the northern and southern hemispheres, and it is the only major astronomical facility between Australia and South Africa for observing the southern objects.

On-going programs include the observations of stars, star clusters, novae, super novae, blazars, galaxies, solar system objects, and many others.

William Petrie was an officer in the British East India Company in Madras in the 1780s. An amateur astronomer, he was given the credit for making the first modern astronomical observations outside of Europe in Madras in 1786.

We are told his home observatory and instruments contributed to the first modern observatory outside of Europe, the Madras Observatory, shown here, said to have been built around 1792, with the first observations on the meridian being in 1793, said to have been designed by Michael Topping, the Chief Marine Surveyor of Fort St. George in Madras.

The Madras Observatory was described as having a single room that was 40-feet, or 12-meters, long and 20-feet, or 6-meters, wide, with a 15-foot, or 5-meter, high ceiling, as well as a granite pillar weighing 10-tons, or 9-metric tonnes, in the center of the room.

Seriously, a 10-ton granite Pillar?

Well, the granite pillar still exists in the present-day, with an engraving by those said to have erected it.

Could some kind of sand-blasting technology been used on an already existing pillar?

This massive granite pillar is found on the grounds of the present-day Regional Meteorological Centre in Chennai, what Madras is called today, and the original building of the Madras Observatory no longer exists…

…and where I read other stone slabs and broken pillars are found in a fenced-off section on its grounds.

Another observatory in South India is the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory…

…located in the Palani Hills, southwest of Vellore in Tamil Nadu State.

Founded in April of 1899, legend has it that the observatory’s 6-inch telescope was said to have been brought on foot by four men who climbed steep valleys and braved the attack of wild animals, carrying the telescope on their shoulders for almost three-months.

It is interesting to note that there are abandoned observatories dotting the landscape of the hills behind Kodaikanal.

In northern India, we are told that between 1724 and 1730, Jai Singh II, the Raja of Jaipur, oversaw the construction of five monumental stone observatories, called Jantar Mantars, across his domains.

The primary purpose of these observatories was for the study of space and time.

There is one in Delhi, an ancient city and the seat of the Mughal Empire.

It is interesting to note that the Jantar Mantar in what is now called New Delhi is surrounded by the government buildings of India, in a rather geometric-looking configuration…

…which the British were said to have built New Delhi between 1911 and 1931, after the laying of the foundation stone laid by Emperor George V of India, a title used by British Monarchs from 1876 to 1948…

…during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, an Indian imperial-style mass-assembly organized by the British at Coronation Park to mark his accession as Emperor of India.

Other Jantar Mantars are in Jaipur, a collection of nineteen architectural instruments forming the largest stone observatory in the world…

…including the world’s largest stone sundial…

…in Varanasi, India, a major religious center in India, and considered the holiest city of Hinduism and Jainism…

…in the holy city of Ujjain, with thirteen architectural astronomy instruments…

…and the Jantar Mantar of Mathura, an ancient city believed to be the homeland and birthplace of Krishna.

Vedic astronomy has ancient roots in India…

…going back thousands of years.

Yet they want us to believe the British East India Company brought the science of astronomy to India?

One more place I would like to take a look at before leaving Tamil Nadu State is its capital in modern-times, Chennai, known historically as Madras.

The British East India Company arrived in what came to be known as Madras in 1600, making it their principal settlement, and we are told, constructed Fort St. George in 1644.

…which serves today as the Secretariat and Legislative Assembly of the Tamil Nadu Government.

The British India Company was said to have come here in order to have a port close to the Malaccan Straits, the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and to secure its trade lines and commercial interests in the spice trade.

It is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world.

They must have succeeded in their securing their goals, because the British East India Company officer I mentioned previously, who was said to have made the first astronomical observations outside of Europe, William Petrie, was also the Governor of Prince of Wales Island in the Malaccan Strait between 1812 to 1816.

Prince of Wales Island is known as Penang Island, the main constituent island of the Malaysian state of Penang.

Apparently the British East India Company was able to take Penang from the Kedah Sultanate, and keep it.

St. Mary’s Church at Fort St. George is said to the oldest Anglican church in India, built between 1678 and 1680…

…and Elihu Yale, a British merchant, trader, and a President of the British East India Company settlement at Fort St. George, was married at St. Mary’s Church.

Elihu Yale later became a benefactor of the Collegiate School in the Colony of Connecticut, which in 1718 was renamed Yale College in his honor.

I have found the same style of architecture at universities and colleges around the world, including, but not limited to, Korea University in Seoul, Korea…

…the University of Sydney, in Australia…

…and Eton College, in Windsor, England.

The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, was an administrative subdivision of British India, and established in 1652, and of which Elihu Yale became president in 1684.

At its greatest extent, the Madras Presidency included most of southern India, including the whole of the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh; parts of Odisha, Kerala, and Karnataka; and the union territory of Lakshadweep, a group of islands off India’s southwestern coast.

The Madras Presidency ended with the advent of Indian independence on August 15th of 1947.

We come to Hyderabad next on the alignment, the capital and largest city of India’s Telengana State on the Deccan Plateau.

The Deccan Plateau bounded by the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats…

…and it is important to the note that ghats in India are also a series of steps leading down to water, like the Harishchandra Ghat in Varanasi.

This is a screenshot from a YouTube video I watched several years ago entitled “The Eastern Ghats in Journey through India”…

…showing this part of the subcontinent of India looking like Monument Valley, in Arizona near the border with Utah in the American Southwest. 

Hyderabad occupies 241-square-miles, or 625-square-kilometers along the Musi River.

This is a view of the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad showing masonry banks on the Musi River.

The Salar Jung Museum is described as having the largest collection of antiques belonging to a single person, said to have been sourced from Nawab Mir Yusuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III, former prime minister of the 7th Nizam, the title of the ruler of what was then the princely state of Hyderabad.

One of the most popular attractions at the museum is what is described as a 19th-century musical clock.

It has a bearded man that comes out from the enclosure exactly three minutes before every hour.

On completion of each hour, the bearded man on the left side strikes the bell as per the number of the hour, and a bearded man on the right side who strikes every second.

The Palace owned by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Falaknuma Palace, was said to have been built in 1893, and converted into a 5-star hotel in 2010.

There are 60-rooms and 22-halls inside the Falaknuma Palace…

…as well as a large collection of the Nizam of Hyderabad’s treasures, including furniture, paintings, statues, books and manuscripts.

The official residence of the Nizams of Hyderabad was the Chowmahalla Palace, said to have been built starting in 1750.