German Entrepreneurs and Settlements in the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys in the 19th-century, or How Zionism Took Over America and the World

I have noticed a recurring pattern coming up in my research, which is that of finding German entrepreneurs and settlements dating from the 19th-century whenever I have researched cities situated along the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.

This has piqued my interest and I am going to look specifically for historical German influences found in cities specifically along these two rivers.

While some of what I will include in this two-part video series is from previous research, much will be from new research.

What we are told is that in the decade from 1845 to 1855, more than a million Germans fled to the United States to escape economic hardship…

…and that altogether over 7 1/2-million immigrants came the United States between 1820 to 1870, primarily from Ireland and China.

Many of the German immigrants were said to have had enough money to journey to the midwest in search of farmland and work, unlike the Irish and Chinese who typically ended up in large cities on the coast in low-paying, menial jobs.

The Germans sought to escape the political unrest caused by riots, rebellion, and the Revolutions of 1848.

The Revolutions of 1848 were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe that year.

The Revolutions had the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states, and was the most widespread revolutionary wave in Europe’s history, with 50 countries being affected.

The most important of these revolutions were in France, the Netherlands, Italy, the Austrian Empire, and the states of the German Confederation that would make up the German Empire in the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries

There are some things I would like to point out about the Mississippi River and Nile River before I jump into the subject matter I have chosen to investigate in this post.

I have drawn a red line on this world map to demonstrate that there is a straight, west-to-east, linear relationship between the location of the Mississippi River Delta, and that of the Nile River Delta.

The Mississippi River, also known as the “Father of Waters,” flows southward 2,320 miles, or 3,730 kilometers…

…from its source at Lake Itasca in Minnesota, not far from Lake Superior, and the Great Lakes Region of North America…

…to the Mississippi Delta in southeastern Louisiana.

The Nile River, also known as the “Father of African Rivers,” and along with its major tributary, the White Nile, is 4,130 miles, or 6,650 kilometers, long.

The source of the White Nile is Lake Victoria, in what is called the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa.

The source of the Blue Nile is Lake Tana, a sacred lake in Ethiopia, and it joins the White Nile to become the Nile at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.

From Khartoum, the Nile flows northward to the Nile Delta.

Here is a side-by-side comparison of the Mississippi River and the Nile River…

…as well as what the Mississippi River Delta and the Nile River Delta look like together in person.

This is an aerial view of the Mississippi Delta, which is on the southeastern coast of Louisiana, showing many geometric and straight channels…

…and the same type of straight, geometric channels are also found in the Nile Delta.

I am going to first look at the Mississippi River Valley…

…with a starting point of New Orleans, located a short-distance northwest of the Mississippi River delta region…

…and what I found out was that there was a substantial German contribution to the New Orleans economy in the 19th-century…

…where apparently before the American Civil War, New Orleans was the largest German colony below the Mason-Dixon line.

The Mason-Dixon Line was a line of demarcation between the northern states and southern states surveyed in 1760s, before the Civil War.

Let me be clear right from the start.

This work will expose evidence of a Hidden Hand…

…of a small number of related, elitist family bloodlines, hiding in different nationalities and religions, along with other allies, to carry out their plans for complete power and control over the world.

We are told that German immigrants started arriving in New Orleans from the time it was founded in 1718.

It is interesting for me to note that 1717 is the exact mid-point year between 1492 and 1942, boundary years for what I believe was a 3D-timeloop that was created by negative beings to hijack the original positive timeline Humanity was on.

Everything was grafted on to the existing infrastructure on the planet, and falsely attributed in the new historical narrative.  The world history we have been taught is filled with war and violence, death and destruction, which was not our original evolutionary path.

There are 450 years in between 1492 and 1942, and halfway, at 225 years is 1717.

In that same year, the Premier Grand Lodge of England – the first Free-Mason Grand Lodge – was founded in London on June 24th, 1717.

This star-city depiction of New Orleans was circa 1763.

We are told that the construction of St. Mary’s Assumption Church was completed in 1860 for the expanding number of German Catholics settling in the Lower Garden section of the city…

…and apparently St. Alphonsus, not far from St. Mary’s Assumption Church, was completed in 1857 for the burgeoning Irish Catholic immigrant population, in New Orleans Lower Garden section as well.

There was an explosion of parentless children in the 19th-century, and New Orleans was no exception to this occurrence.

In addition to the German Protestant Orphanage, established in 1867, and the German Evangelical Lutheran Bethlehem Orphanage, established in the 1880s, there was a whole host of orphanages and houses of refuge in New Orleans:

…with countless children of all ages institionalized in palatial residences…why all of the kids??

Along with the explosion of parentless children in the 19th-century, there was the systematic introduction of hard liquor and beer into the adult population occurring at the same time, starting as early as 1830 with the establishment of Teacher’s Scotch Whiskey in Scotland.

I already know we will come to many examples in this post of the development of breweries and distilleries in the 19th-century….starting in New Orleans, at one time the biggest, beer-brewing city in the South.

The Jackson Brewery in New Orleans, known by the shortened version of Jax, was established in 1890 by Lawrence Fabacher, and in business until the 1970s, after which time it was converted into a shopping mall.

The Dixie Brewery was established in 1907 by Valentine Merz, and is still business as a brewery as of 2019, though the original building was severely damaged in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina, and never re-opened.

…and the Falstaff Brewery, operating in New Orleans between 1936 and 1978…

…and the building was later repurposed for apartment living-space.

There’s a lot more of all things German to find in New Orleans, so I will just mention a few more before I go up the Mississippi River to find more examples.

Kolb’s Restaurant was established by Conrad Kolb in 1899, and closed its doors in 1994…

…the Jung Hotel on Canal Street was said to have been constructed between 1927 and 1928..

…and the Hotel Grunewald, a 504-room hotel, said to have been built by German immigrant Louis Grunewald in 1893 and now known as The Roosevelt New Orleans of the Waldorf-Astoria hotel chain.

There is much more here to find, but I have a lot of ground yet to cover, so I am going to move on from New Orleans.

Immediately after leaving New Orleans, I stumbled upon the German Coast in my research, a region of early Louisiana German settlement along the Mississippi River comprised of the present-day Acadiana, or French Louisiana, parishes of St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and St. James.

German immigrants were settled along this Mississippi River region in 1718 by John Law and the Company of the Indies.

I am going to digress from the German focus of this post for a moment because I believe this information about John Law and the Company of the Indies is a signifcant finding.

John Law was a Scottish gambler-turned-economist & banker who served as Controller-General of Finances for his friend, Phillipe II, the Duke of Orleans, regent for the juvenile Louis XV of France.

After escaping prison and execution in London for killing an opponent in a duel in 1694, he fled to the European continent and travelled for ten years.

He continued to make good money from gambling and made acquaintances that were useful to him later, like the Duke of Orleans.

While he was in the Netherlands, he studied the Amsterdam Exchange Bank and the Dutch East India Company, also known as the VOC.

The Dutch East India Company was the world’s most valuable company of all-time, worth $7.9-trillion as a stand-alone company.

Law was intrigued by these things working together: bankers accepting shares as collateral for loans, and conversely, borrowing to buy new shares, in an interaction between the stock market and lenders that produced a new kind of economy.

With these ideas, Law devised a system based on paper-money, and within which he was convinced that in order for an economy to work well, credit was necessary.

In his book, Money and Trade Considered, he used terms like money supply, inflation, and the relationship between money and labor, as well as taxation being applied across all socioeconomic levels.

His proposals were rejected by the Scottish Parliament, but the Duke of Orleans was prepared to give it a go.

In 1716, John Law set-up a public bank in France known as the General Private Bank, issuing paper money against deposits of gold and silver.

It met with success, and in 1717, the French government approved Law’s proposal to merge a number of existing businesses under the name Company of the Indies, which was also known as the Mississippi Company, comprising a vast area of eight states which at that time belonged to France, and Law became the Company’s Chief Director in 1718.

The Mississippi Company acquired important monopolies in the tobacco trade, exclusive trading rights in Louisiana, the Mississippi River Valley, China, East India, and South America.

The General Private Bank became the Royal Bank in 1718, which meant that the bank-notes were guaranteed by the king.

The key to the Bank Royale agreement was that France’s National Debt would be paid by the revenues coming from the opening of the Mississippi Valley.

The Mississippi Company boomed on paper, however it only took 2 years for the the bubble to burst in 1720.

What does all of this have to do with the today?

I am seeing the underpinnings of everything.

For one thing, all of this certainly sounds like the genesis of the financial and economic system under which the world has been operating for quite some time.

For another, it illustrates one of the mechanism by which the New World Order was created from the Old World Order, the Earth’s original ancient, advanced civilization and control of the financial system and resources was undertaken, as well as everything everything else, in this New World.

It is interesting to note that the original Ouachita National Bank opened in Monroe, Louisiana, in 1906.

Before closing in 1933, the Ouachita National Bank printed six different types of national currency, and moved twice, during that 27-year-period.

Monroe was the ancient Imperial Seat of the Washitaw Empire, in an area known as Washitaw Proper.

Known as the Mound Builders of Mu and the Ancient Ones, the Washitaw Mu’urs were formally recognized by the United Nations in 1993 as the “Oldest Indigenous Civilization on Earth.”

Watson Brake is an archeological site in Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, dated to 5,400 years ago, and is the oldest earthwork mound complex in North America, acknowledged to be older than the Egyptian Pyramids and Stonehenge in England.

It is located on private land, so is not available for public viewing.

Stonehenge, which has an earthwork very similar to Watson Brake around its perimeter, according to what we are told, dates from starting at 3,100 BC, about 5,100 years ago.

The next place I am going to look at in the Mississippi River Valley is Baton Rouge, the capital of Louisiana.

The modern history of Baton Rouge dates to 1721, and it became the state capital in 1849.

On another side-note, it is interesting to note that the old Louisiana State Capitol building, called a castle, was said to have been constructed by 1847 and 1852…

…and since 1990, serves as the “Museum of Political History.”

It was replaced as the State Capitol Building by this one, with its construction said to have been completed in 1931, which would have been during the Great Depression.

The German community in Baton Rouge was said to have its origins in Pennsylvania German settlers, the name given to immigrants from modern-day Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland.

These particular German settlers came from Bayou Manchac after flooding in the 1780s…

…in search of higher ground to live along a line bluffs south of Baton Rouge, and came to be known locally as “Dutch Highlanders.”

We are told Baton Rouge’s historic Highland Road was established as a supply road for the indigo and cotton plantations of the early settlers.

Today, Highland Road is where you find luxury homes and high-end real estate in Baton Rouge.

Highland Road is known as the “Miracle Mile” between Louisiana State University…

…where there are two mounds believed to be more than 5,000 years old, and along with Watson Brake, considered to be part of the oldest mound system in North America.

…and the Country Club of Louisiana.

One of my first a-ha’s in my awareness of the advanced ancient civilization that was hidden in the landscape all around us was the realization that golf courses were a cover-up of mound-sites – just carve out the top of a mound, and voila, you have a bunker…

… and the existence of two acknowledged ancient mound sites at Louisiana State University across town from the Country Club of Louisiana just underscores that belief for me.

The next place we come to in the Lower Mississippi Valley is Natchez in Mississippi…

…named for the Natchez people, a matrilineal kinship society who inhabited the region historically before the arrival of Europeans.

One of the largest mounds in North America is Emerald Mound, located on the Natchez Trace Parkway near Stanton, Mississippi, and served as one of the main ceremonial centers for the Natchez people prior to European contact.

The Natchez Bluffs and Under-the-Hill Historic District is bounded roughly by South Canal Street, Broadway, and the Mississippi River.

There are some interesting things to point out in this location.

Fort Rosalie was nearby on South Canal Street.

If there was once a canal here, there is not one any longer.

No longer standing, Fort Rosalie was said to have been built in 1716 when it was part of the French Colonial Empire.

Fort Rosalie was situated close to the main ceremonial center known as the Grand Village of the Natchez.

The Natchez Bluffs running alongside of the Mississippi River most definitely don’t even look close to a natural feature…

…yet there is nothing I can find to say that it was man-made.

This is Natchez’ Under-the-Hill District, with its mud-flooded appearance.

Did I find a historical German presence in Natchez?

I most certainly did.

While there had been some early arrivals in the late 1700s, the German-Jewish community in Natchez started to organize in the 1840s, many of whom opened retail stores in the Under-the-Hill District.

Interesting there would be a cotton boll in the Star of David picture here.

Apparently, according to an 1858 survey, 8-out-of-12 Jewish businesses in Natchez traded in clothing or dry-goods, merchants like Aaron Beekman.

After the Civil War, the Natchez Jewish community continued to grow in size and prominence.

It is interesting to note there was a Monsanto Chemical Company connection to Natchez.

The Monsanto brothers Benjamin and Jacob were from a Sephardic Jewish slave-trading family originating in Spain, ended up coming to live in Natchez.

Benjamin Monsanto, a slave-holder-and-seller, purchased the cotton-producing Glenfield Plantation in 1787.

A Natchez Monsanto descendent by the name of Olga Mendez Monsanto married John Francis Queeny, who founded the Monsanto Chemical Company in St. Louis in 1901 and named it after his wife’s family.

“Monsanto” means sacred or holy mountain in Spanish and Portuguese.

The first product the Monsanto Chemical Company manufactured was saccharine, which Queeny sold to the Meyer Brothers Drug Company in St. Louis.

Monsanto was acquired by the German multinational Bayer Pharmaceutics and Life Sciences Company after gaining United States and EU regulatory approvals on June 7th of 2018 for $66-billion in cash, and Monsanto’s name is no longer used.

Natchez is considered to have the greatest concentration of splendid antebellum mansions in the United States.

The Longwood Mansion, also known as “Nutt’s Folly,” is the largest octagonal house in the United States at 30,000-square-feet, or almost 2,800-square-meters, and six floors.

Said to have been built by local cotton-planter Haller Nutt, who was said to have wanted something unusual for his family home and was intrigued by octagonal homes.

He decided to build it in 1860 to replace his first home and started construction shortly after.

Estimates of as many as one million bricks were made for this house.

Then the Civil War started and construction was halted after only the first floor was completed.

The family moved in with the intention that they would return to complete the house after the war was over.

Work halted in 1861 with only nine rooms on the basement floor completed.

Haller died at the age of only 48 from pneumonia.

His wife was Julia was left to raise their eleven children in poverty in the lower level of the home.

After the last child who lived here passed away, the home was sold to Kelly MacAdams in 1968 for $200,000.

She repaired the home for two years, leaving the upper levels unfinished to show what war can do.

She gave the home to a local association, the Pilgrimage Garden Club, with the agreement that the home would never be finished.

The colonnaded onion dome of Longwood Mansion…

…reminds me of the one at the Colt Armory in Hartford, Connecticut…

…and the one at the Pena National Palace in Sintra, Portugal.

Something tells me the Master Builder ancestors of the enslaved people working the plantations for the wealthy land-owners were the ones that built all of the splendid mansions….

The next place I am going to look at is Vicksburg in Mississippi, the county seat of Warren County, and located roughly half-way between Memphis and New Orleans at the confluence of the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers.

We are told French colonists were the first Europeans to settle the area, which was part of the historical territory of the Natchez people, and it was the French who built Fort St. Pierre in 1719…

…on high-bluffs at Redwood on the Yazoo River.

Perhaps Vicksburg is best-known for the Vicksburg Campaign and Siege during the American Civil War, which took place between 1862 and 1863, and at the end of which the Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant captured the Confederate stronghold of the port of Vicksburg and divided the Confederacy.

Along with the Battle of Gettysburg in July of 1863, it was considered a turning-point in the American Civil War.

We are told that after the Vicksburg National Military Park was established in 1899, the nation’s leading architects and sculptors were commissioned to honor the soldiers and sailors from their respective states that fought in the Vicksburg campaign, leading it to be called the “Art Park of the World” with more than 1,400 monuments found throughout the park.

Like the Mississippi Memorial…

…the Michigan Memorial…

…and the Illinois State Memorial.

The Vicksburg National Military Park also hosts the USS Cairo, one of seven river ironclads named after towns along the Upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.

The Shirley House is said to be the only-surviving wartime structure inside the Vicksburg National Military Park.

This is a wartime picture of the Shirley House circa 1863, with what is described as the camp of the 45th Illinois Infantry behind it.

But there are things going on in this photo that don’t make sense to me.

Why all the digging and entrances?

Apparently during the Siege of Vicksburg, the people of the city dug caves into the sides of hills to get out of harm’s way from the hail of iron that was coming their way from Union forces.

A possible explanation…but is it plausible?

This photo was notated as Union soldiers on the lawn of the Warren County Courthouse after the siege.

It was said to have been constructed between 1858 and 1860.

Interesting to note the contrast between the size of the soldiers and that of the courthouse.

Considered to be Vicksburg’s most historic structure, a museum is operated within the old courthouse today.

The mud-flooded-looking Washington Hotel in Vicksburg was said to have been used as a military hospital during the Civil War.

There was a castle in Vicksburg which was said to have been built in the 1850s, including a moat, but it was destroyed by the Union Army and the site turned into an artillery battery.

I just wanted to set the stage of what the historical narrative tells about Vicksburg.

This is what I found about Vicksburg’s German Jewish community, dating to early in the city’s history.

Back when I was doing research about Monroe in Louisiana, I found Joseph Biedenharn, a German-American businessman from Vicksburg, whose parents immigrated to the United States following the Revolutions of 1848.

Joseph was a candy-maker, the first bottler of coca-cola, and the first to develop an independent network of franchise bottlers to distribute the drink.

This was his original company building in Vicksburg.

He moved his manufacturing and coca-cola bottling operations to Monroe, Louisiana, from Vicksburg, Mississippi in 1913.

The same soft drink that dissolves stuff, like teeth…


…unclogs drains…

…and contains Monsanto’s artificial sweeteners in the diet version.

Along with his son, Malcolm and other investors, Joseph Biedenharn bought a crop-dusting business in 1925, added eighteen planes to the fleet, and moved the company headquarters from Macon, Georgia, to Monroe.

Crop-dusting involves the spraying of crops with pesticides and fertilizers, like you know, other Monsanto products!

Also, it is interesting to note that Biedenharn’s crop-dusting business was the origin of Delta Airlines, which was incorporated in December of 1928.

Delta’s headquarters moved from Monroe to Atlanta in 1941.

The next place we come to is Memphis, a city situated on the Chickasaw Bluffs of the Mississippi River…

…in land historically inhabited by the Chickasaw people, one of the five civilized tribes, along with the Cherokee, Seminole, Creek and Choctaw.

The majority of people in the Five Civilized Tribes were removed to Indian Territory in the 1830s, now the State of Oklahoma, after President Andrew Jackson signed into law the Indian Removal Act in 1830, giving him the authority to grant them lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for their ancestral lands.

As a matter of fact, Andrew Jackson, before he was President, along with John Overton and James Winchester, were credited with the founding of Memphis on May 22nd of 1819, and named after the ancient capital of Egypt on the Nile River.

Downtown Memphis is situated on what is called Chickasaw Bluff #4.

This feature in the river across from it caught my attention, so I searched around for what it was called.

I found out that it is called Mud Island River Park…

…at the tip of Mud Island, which is actually a peninsula and not an island.

The Mud Island River Park is accessible by ferry, car, foot and monorail suspension railway.

Mud Island has, among other things, a 5,000-seat amphitheater…

…and a hydraulic scale model of the Lower Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois to New Orleans, Louisiana.

The Memphis Pyramid is nearby…

…with a 1991 construction date given, and it was utilized as sports’ arena, church and entertainment venue until…

…it was converted into a Bass Pro Shops Superstore, which opened in 2015.

I had already encountered the German-Jewish department stores established in Memphis in previous research.

Many customers perceived Goldsmith’s Department Store on Main Street as Memphis’ Greatest Store.

With its beginnings at its Beale Street location, in 1870 the German immigrant Goldsmith brothers, Isaac and Jacob, started doing business in Memphis.

This was the Goldsmith Brothers store on Main Street starting in 1895, and became a true “department store” in 1902, when they arranged merchandise by departments, among the first in the South to do so.

The Kress Department store in Memphis was the first opened in 1896 in what was to become a nationwide chain of five-and-dime stores, and moved to this new location on Main Street, said to have been designed by E. J. T. Hoffman and built in 1927.

In 1980, the Kress Store became McCrory’s and the store finally closed in 1994.

We are told that due to being conscious of the historical significance of the building, the structure was restored and is now a museum.

Elias Lowenstein immigrated to Memphis from Germany in 1854, where he opened Lowenstein’s Department Store, prominent in Memphis for 125-years.

He was a leader in the Memphis Jewish community and contributed liberally, we are told, to rebuilding the city of Memphis after the disastrous yellow fever epidemic in 1878, the worst American outbreak of yellow fever occurring in the Mississippi River Valley that year.

The outbreak originated in New Orleans in the spring and summer of that year, and spread up the Mississippi River and inland.

Yellow fever was so named because of the yellow-ish hue of the skin and eyes it causes, affecting multiple organ systems and causing internal bleeding.

What we are told is that in July of 1878, an outbreak of yellow fever was reported in Vicksburg, so Memphis officials stopped travel to the city from the safe.

However, a man from a quarantined steamboat slipped away and went to Kate Bionda’s restaurant in Memphis on August 4th.

He was hospitalized and quarantined the next day and died, and Kate Bionda became Memphis’ first death from yellow fever on August 13th, and from there the yellow-fever infections spread quickly throughout Memphis.

We are told unequivocally mosquitoes were the carriers of yellow fever.

Elias Lowenstein was said to have built his mansion in 1891, called one of the most important Victorian Romanesque mansions in Memphis, and one of the finest of its style in the South.

This is an illustration of the original Lowenstein’s Department Store in Memphis, said to have been built in 1886, with its classic mud flood feature of the slanted pavement from the ground-level windows in front of the building, to the not-ground-level windows with the slant of the pavement, and showing dirt -covered streets as well.

The original Lowenstein’s Department Store building, vacated by the Lowensteins in the 1920s, was first taken over by a furniture company who eventually moved out in 1980, and the building sat vacant for 30-years. It was saved from demolition and today houses apartment and retail space.

New Madrid is next, the seat of New Madrid County on the Missouri side of the Mississippi River’s Kentucky Bend…

…and best-known for the New Madrid Earthquakes, three of which in the winter of 1811 and 1812 were estimated to be the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States, that the USGS estimated were between 7 and 8 on the Richter Scale.

The first large one took place on December 16th of 1811; the second one on January 23rd of 1812; and the third large one on February 7th of 1812.

Descriptions of what happened during the first one included rolling ground; uprooted trees; huge chasms opening up and swallowing whatever was above; the Mississippi River flowing backwards; and general pandemonium from frightened people.

The series of earthquakes in the New Madrid region dramatically affected the landscape, causing bank failures along the Mississippi River; destroyed entire communities; caused landslides along the Chickasaw Bluffs in Tennessee and Kentucky; large tracts of land subsided on the Mississippi flood plain; and liquified subsurface sediment spread over a large area at great distances.

Liquefaction was described as widespread and severe.

Sand blows, described as large sandy deposits resulting from an eruption of water and sand to the ground surface, formed over an area of 4,015-square-miles, or 10,400-square-kilometers.

Well, this would certainly explain the mud-flooded appearance of places I have found along the Mississippi River as that is what the liquefaction of earth results in.

This is a photograph of soil liquefaction that occurred during the 7.5 magnitude earthquake that occurred on September 28th of 2018 on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia.

St. Francis Sunken Lands Wildlife Management Area in northeastern Arkansas today sank during the New Madrid earthquakes, turning once fertile and abundant landscape into a swamp.

It is interesting to note that after all of this devastation, it took three-years to get federal action on disaster relief for the region with the onset of the War of 1812.

Congress finally approved $50,000 for the New Madrid Relief Act on February 17th of 1815, making it the nation’s first disaster relief of its kind.

The Act provided that anyone who lost land due to the earthquake was eligible to receive between 160 and 640 “like acres” of land elsewhere in Missouri.

What we are told ended up happening was land agents arriving in the area to buy up the acreage and conned many New Madrid residents, offering them pennies on the dollar, and speculators subsequently claimed the new lands, and that of the 516 certificates issued by Congress, only 20 went to New Madrid residents, with most being held by people in St. Louis.

In the years following, the fertile flood-plain land was developed for growing cotton.

Today, New Madrid is the second-leading producer of cotton in the State of Missouri, and the percentage of organic farming in New Madrid County indicates none.

One more thing before leaving New Madrid.

This signage about the New Madrid earthquakes explaining that the city was destroyed and very few people died because the population was sparse.

This is the New Madrid County Courthouse today, said to have been built in 1915 and 1919 in Classical Greek Revival style.

The next place we come to on the Mississippi River is St. Louis, the second largest city in Missouri after Kansas City.

Prior to European settlement, St. Louis was a hub of the original Mississippean Civilization, with Cahokia Mounds in the area being a major regional center.

For purposes of comparison, this is a photo of a tree- and soil-covered mound at Teotihuacan, outside of Mexico City, that was taken in 1832.

Mexico City - Teotihuacan 1832

These next two photos were taken of Teotihuacan in 1905, a few years prior to the beginning of the first major excavations of the site.

Here’s a comparison on the left of Monk’s Mound at Cahokia on the left and the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan on the right with all of the ground cover removed, with similar stairways and directional orientation.

There were numerous major earthworks inside the St. Louis City boundaries, which was nicknamed “The Mound City,” that were mostly destroyed during the city’s development.

These photos document the destruction what was called “Big Mound” in St. Louis in 1869.

In an 1819 land survey, Army engineers counted twenty-five mounds from Biddle Street north to Mound Street, east of Broadway, and north of LaClede’s Landing.

In another comparison with Teotihuacan, there was an extensive pyramid-temple complex there.

I am going to give one example in St. Louis of German-Jewish business practices because it is a comprehensive example of what has taken place here.

The Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company is headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri. This is a post card of it from the 1930s.

Today the company employs over 30,000 people, and operates twelve breweries in the United States.

It was founded as the Bavarian Brewery in 1852 by George Schneider, but financial problems forced him to sell the brewery to various owners during the late 1850s, one of which Eberhard Anheuser, a prosperous soap and candle-maker.

The name of the brewery became E. Anheuser & Company in 1860.

A wholesaler who had immigrated from Germany to St. Louis in 1857, Adolphus Busch, became Eberhard Anheuser’s son-in-law in 1861.

He was the twenty-first of twenty-two children in a family that did well financially selling winery and brewery supplies in Mainz-Kastel in Wiesbaden, in Germany’s State of Hesse.

After serving in the Union Army during the American Civil War for six months, Adolphus Busch returned to St. Louis and began working for the brewery.

Soon he became a partner, and served as company secretary until his father-in-law died in 1880, at which time he became president of the business.

During the 1870s, Adolphus Busch had toured Europe to study changes in brewing methods at the time. In particular he was interested in the pilsner beer of the town of Budweis, located in what is now the Czech Republic.

In 1876, he introduced Budweiser…

…and 1876 was the same year he introduced refrigerated railroad cars to transport beer.

By 1877, the company owned a fleet of 40 refrigerated railroad cars.

Expanding the company’s distribution range led to increased demand for their products, and the company expanded its facilities in St. Louis during the 1870s.

Busch implemented pasteurization in 1878 as a way to keep beer fresh for a longer period of time.

He established the St. Louis Refrigerator Car Company in 1878, and by 1888, the company owned 850 cars.

In addition to refrigeration and pasteurization, Busch adopted vertical integration as a business practice, in which he bought all the components of his business, from bottling factories to ice-manufacturing plants to buying the rights from Rudolf Diesel to manufacture all diesel engines in America.

This illustration was of the Bevo Bottling Facility in St. Louis.

Vertical integration is where the supply chain of a company is owned by the company. It secures the supplies need by the company to produce its product, and the market needed to sell it. It is also a way to consolidate control over production and increase profits for the company. It was a common practice during this era.

He also founded the Manufacturers Railway Company in 1887, which operated until 2011.

Adolphus Busch died in 1913.

A text-book case of how to accumlate immense wealth, his net worth $60 million in US dollars at the time of his death.

The Busch Entertainment Corporation, which was founded in 1959, became SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment in 2009 with its sale to the Blackstone Group, an American multinational private equity, asset management, and financial services firm based in New York City.

Now, I am going to take a look at the Ohio River Valley Basin, starting at Cairo, Illinois.

The city of Cairo, Illinois, was located at the southernmost point in Illinois, at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.

I say was because today, Cairo is empty and deserted, and considered a ghost town.

In its heyday, Cairo was an important city along the steamboat routes and railway lines. 

Here is a comparison of the appearance of the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers on the top left with the confluences of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers near St. Louis in the top middle; the Blue Nile and White Nile near Khartoum, in the African country of Sudan on the top right; the Raccoon and Des Moines Rivers near Des Moines, Iowa, on the bottom left; and at the Six Rivers National Forest in Eureka, California on the bottom right.

Is nature responsible for the striking similarities, or are we looking at something else here?

Fort Defiance was situated right where the two waterways come together.

It has Illinois State Park status, and in lieu of an actual fort, it displays historic signage, with no fort in sight.

It was said to have been constructed under the direction of Union General Ulysses S. Grant in order to gain strategic access to the rivers.

Southern Illinois where Cairo is referred to as “Little Egypt.”

It is geographically near Thebes, Makanda, and Carbondale in Illinois and is just down the Mississippi River from St. Louis, Missouri.

Like Cairo, Thebes was said to have been named for the Egyptian city of the same name, and is perhaps best-known for the Thebes Bridge, a five-span cantilever truss railroad bridge said to have been built for the Union Pacific Railroad and opened for use in 1905.

Construction of the Thebes Bridge was said to have started in 1902…

…and the bridge was said to have been designed by civil engineer Ralph Modjeski, a pre-eminent bridge designer in the United States.

The Giant City State Park is in nearby Makanda, Illinois.

The City of Makanda used the slogan “Star of Egypt” in the early 20th-century.

Makanda was once a major shipping hub for Chicago on the Illinois Central Railroad for fruits and vegetables.

The city of Carbondale in Illinois, just a short-distance north of Makanda, is the home of Southern Illinois University…

…and is in the crossing point of the paths of totality of both the 2017 and the 2024 solar eclipses.

Were Egyptians, and Hebrews for that matter, in actual fact, already long-established in America, and not imported from somewhere else?

Back to Cairo.

In the 2010 census, there were 2,831 people listed as still living here, though most of the businesses are gone and its buildings in a state of decay.

I am not finding references for historical German influences here, but that doesn’t mean there weren’t any and as we continue along the Ohio River from here, I know the influences will be there from past research.

One more thing before I leave abandoned Cairo for the next city along the river.

The English novelist Charles Dickens visited Cairo, Illinois in 1842.

Dickens created some of the world’s best known fictional characters, and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian-era.

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He was said not to have been impressed with Cairo, and that the nightmare city of Eden was based on Cairo in his novel “Martin Chuzzlewit,” which was published in serial form between 1842 and 1844.

Martin Chuzzlewit is the story of the trials and adventures of a young architect of the same name, who ends up in America from England with travelling companion Mark Tapley to seek their fortunes.

In New York, Martin purchased land “sight unseen” on a “major American river,” having been told that the place would need an architect for new building projects.

When they arrived at Eden/Cairo, what they found instead was a swampy, disease-filled settlement, virtually empty of people and buildings as previous settlers had died, and both Martin and Mark got ill from malaria while they were there.

They recover from their illnesses and return to England, where Martin ultimately reconciles with his family.

I have explored the idea in past posts that the Literature and Art of the 19th- and 20th-centuries were programming devices.

Many of these authors were required reading in secondary-school English classes, and many of their books were also turned into movies.

I think famous authors like Charles Dickens, Leo Tolstoy, Jack London, Mark Twain, and John Steinbeck were giving shape and form to the new historical narrative in our collective minds.

Was the old Cairo Custom House actually built between 1869 and 1872…

…or did someone just stick a plaque telling us what to believe?

The next place we come to is Paducah in Kentucky, at the confluence of the Ohio and Tennessee rivers.

Once upon a time it was the location of Fort Anderson, called a Union Army fortification built in 1861, the same year as Fort Defiance back in Cairo was said to have been built.

Also like Fort Defiance, it no longer stands, and the only memory of its existence is Historical Marker 828 at the place where it once stood.

Paducah was first incorporated in 1830, and its port facilities made it an important location for steamships and river commerce.

The railroad arrived in Paducah in the 1850s and that it became an important railway hub for the Illinois Central Railroad, which connected major cities both north-and-south, and east-and-west.

German-Jewish businessmen started arriving in Paducah in the 1840s, and then in greater numbers after the railroad came on the scene.

They dominated the local whiskey business as well.

In 1890, Joseph Friedman and his brother-in-law John Keiler started a distillery and wholesale whiskey business in 1890, with the distillery becoming one of the largest in the country.

Another one who got his start in the whiskey business in Paducah was Isaac Wolfe Bernheim, a German-born businessman who started the I. W. Harper brand of bourbon whiskey along with his brother in Louisville, Kentucky.

I found good examples of subliminal advertising in these ads for I. W. Harper Whiskey, which is “always a pleasure,” and “America’s Finest” and associated with patriotic symbolism.

Isaac W. Bernheim established the location for the Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest south of Louisville in 1929 on land he was said to have purchased at the bargain-basement price of $1/acre because it had been strip-mined for iron ore.

When I was looking for photographs of the Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest, I found these giant wooden trolls there that people seem to love to pose with.

I myself find the imagery they evoke to be on the very disturbing side.

Apparently they were made from recycled wood by Danish artist Thomas Dambo, and have been on the grounds since 2019.

A few more things back in Paducah before I move on.

Paducah has had major flooding three times resulting in enormous amounts of property damage and loss of life – in 1884, 1913, and 1937.

Here is one photo of the 1884 Paducah flood…

…and another that I found that is one of those creepy, staged-looking photographs with the words “stage of water” even mentioned on this one that I find from time to time…

…like the ones that I found in Nelson County Virginia on the Orange and Alexandria bridge…

…this one taken in Trenton, New Jersey sometime in the 1870s…

…and this one taken in front of the Machinery Hall in Cincinnati at the 1888 Centennial Exposition of the Ohio Valley and the Central States.

The American German National Bank of Paducah printed currency between 1872 and 1910…

…though they didn’t make that distinction on the actual currency notes.

Lastly, twenty blocks of Paducah’s downtown have been designated as a historic district, and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The next stop on the Ohio River is Evansville, the largest city in southern Indiana and a hub for everything in the region…

…as well as the seat of Vanderburgh County.

This is the Old Vanderburgh County Courthouse, said to have been built between 1888 and 1890.

The city of Evansville was said to have been founded in 1812, and incorporated in 1817.

It is interesting to note that Evansville was founded around the same time of the New Madrid earthquakes.

Evansville is not geographically distant from New Madrid, Missouri, being only 144-miles, or 232-kilometers, apart from each other.

New Madrid is best-known for the New Madrid Earthquakes, three of which in the winter of 1811 and 1812 were estimated to be the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States, that the USGS estimated were between 7 and 8 on the Richter Scale, and which created widespread devastation through the region.

The Wabash and Erie Canal was said to have been built starting in 1832…

…and its construction completed by 1853, between Toledo, Ohio, and Evansville.

…but we are told the canal was already made obsolete with the opening of the Evansville & Crawfordsville Railroad to Terre Haute was opened that same year, and only two flat barges made the entire trip.

Lumber Baron John Augustus Reitz immigrated from Germany to America to seek his fortune at the age of 21 in 1863.

He eventually found work in a sawmill in Evansville, and in 1856 opened his own sawmill with his sons on Pigeon Creek, and became one of the largest in the area.

Evansville was the largest hardwood market in the country from 1845 to 1885.

Besides the lumber industry, Reitz was involved in banking and the railroad as well, organizing the Crescent City Bank and incorporating the Evansville, Carmi and Paducah Railroad which later became the Louisville and Nashville Railroad.

So John A. Reitz was a very busy and wealthy man.

The Reitz Home in Evansville is now a Victorian House museum, and considered to be one of the finest examples of the French Second Empire-style architecture.

He was said to have built the house in 1871, with things like hand-painted ceilings, intricately-patterned hand-laid wood parquet floors, stained glass windows, and French gilt chandeliers.

John A. Reitz was said to have been a devout Roman Catholic in the biographical references I looked at, but I wanted to see if there as a possibility he was actually Jewish.

Well, I found there is a possibility when I looked up the origin of the family name.

Known for his philanthropic activities, John A. Reitz was said to have been a big contributor to the construction and maintenance of Evans Hall, a building solely dedicated to temperance.

The Temperance Movement was called a social movement against the consumption of alcohol, and typically criticized alcohol consumption and emphasized alcohol’s negative effects on people’s health, personalities, and lives, in many cases demanding the complete prohibition of it.

Interesting that there would be a building dedicated to temperance in a community with a robust beer-making industry.

Apparently by the year of 1862, there were sixteen breweries already, and the first one to have been set up was taken over by brewmaster John Hartmetz in 1877.

It eventually became a large regional brewery with a national reputation for quality with regards to its famous Sterling beer brand.

Not only was there was an alcohol industry in Evansville, there was also a cigar industry.

The Fendrich Cigar Company became the largest independent cigar factory in the world, at its peak producing 100-million cigars each year.

The Fendrich Brothers immigrated first to Baltimore in America in 1833 from a part of Germany with a history of cigar-making.

They started in the tobacco and cigar business in the 1840s, and in 1855 moved their company headquarters to Evansville.

There was a good-sized German-Jewish presence in Evansville from its beginnings as well.

There were a number of big fires in Evansville’s history.

The Main Street fire of January 3rd of 1951 blazed through the city’s central retail hub, destroying almost all of the Main Street landmarks, some of which are shown here in a photograph that was taken a few weeks before the fire.

Before I leave Evansville, I want to take a look at Angel Mounds.

The site named after the Angel family who purchased the farmland they are on starting in 1852.

This sounds just like the magnificent mound-building civilization of North America being named the Hopewell Culture in 1891, after a family who owned the land that the Hopewell Mound Group earthworks were located on in Ross County, Ohio, and not having any connection made in the name with the indigneous people of this continent.

The Angel Mounds site included six large platform mounds, five small mounds, at least one large plaza, and palisaded walls.

The moundbuilders are typically-depicted like this, wearing loin-cloths and living in thatched huts.

I counted 21 cities on my map of the Ohio River Valley at the beginning of this post, so I am going to hit the highlights from just a few more of the cities as there is so much to find here it would take me forever to finish this.

Then I will summarize and expand on my findings at the end.

Next I am going to look at the Louisville area on the border with the state of Indiana.

Founded in 1778 on the Ohio River, Louisville is one of the oldest cities west of the Appalachians, and the settlement was said to have grown as a portage site for Ohio River traffic because of the Falls of the Ohio, the only obstruction for river traffic between the upper Ohio River and the Gulf of Mexico.

The Falls of the Ohio were also where Lewis and his crew met up with Clark at what is now Clarkville, Indiana in October of 1803, across the river from Louisville, Kentucky.

…after a keelboat for their expedition was said to have been built to Lewis’ specifications near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the summer of 1803.

The earliest settlements around the Falls of the Ohio are shown here:

Louisville was the destination of the first German immigrants starting around 200 years ago, and by 1850 they represented nearly 20% of the population, said to have influenced every aspect of daily life from politics to art.

By 1854, Louisville Public Schools not only taught German, but classes were taught in English and German.

The Moses & Henry Levy brothers immigrated to America from Germany, in 1853, and opened their first Levy’s Department store in 1861, and then moved to their flagship store after it was said to have been constructed between 1888 and 1893 by prominent Louisville architects Arthur Loomis and Charles Julian Clarke.

The Levy Brothers Building still stands today, is on the National Register of Historic Places, and was renovated to have a restaurant on the first two floors, and apartment units above the restaurant.

Kunz’ The Dutchman Restaurant started out as a wholesale liquor business in 1892, and was a restaurant between 1941 and 1966.

Alcohol that is 100 proof is 50% Alcohol By Volume (ABV) and straight-up flammable.

Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the Central Nervous System, causing a decrease in motor coordination, reaction time, and cognitive function, and high doses the respiratory system slows down drastically, potentially causing a coma or death.

Founded in 1797 as Brunerstown, by 1870, seventeen-percent of the citizenry of Jeffersonville, Indiana across the river from Louisville, were foreign-born, mostly from Germany.

This is the German-American bank location in Jeffersonville today.

The Butcherville neighborhood of Louisville was so-named because it became the area for butchers and stockyards in Louisville, Kentucky because of its proximity to the Beargrass Creek where animal remains were said to have been dumped.

The Bourbon stockyards were built in 1836, and waves of German immigrants found their way to Butchertown.

The Bourbon Stockyards closed in 1996, after untold millions of animals were led to slaughter here.

The most prominent of the German meat-packers was Henry Fischer, whose Fischer Packing Company still exists today.

The Germantown neighborhood in Louisville was predominately settled by Germans in the mid-1800s as well.

The next place is Cincinnati, located on the northern side of the confluence of the Ohio and Licking Rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky.

…and it is the seat of Hamilton County, with construction of the present courthouse said to have been completed in 1915.

Cincinnati was booming in the 19th-century, when during the 1800s it was listed among the top ten cities for its population.

During that time, a significant number of German immigrants arrived in Cincinnati.

Mass immigration began in the 1830s with Cincinnati’s boom in the meatpacking and shipping industries.

Ohio farmers brought their live-stock to Cincinnati for processing and shipment to various markets

Meat-packing resulted in tremendous wealth for some, while at the same time workers received little pay for working long-hours without benefits and if they couldn’t keep up the pace, they were simply replaced.

Upton Sinclair published the book “The Jungle” in 1906, which was about the harsh conditions and exploited lives of immigrants in Chicago, depicting the working-class poverty, lack of social supports, harsh living and working conditions, health violations and unsanitary practices, and the deeply-rooted corruption of people in power.

While the book’s publication and public outcry surrounding it led to reforms in the meat-packing industry, like the Meat Inspection Act…Upton Sinclair was a socialist, and promoting socialism was another purpose of the book.

Political refugees came to Cincinnati after the 1848 Revolution in the German states.

The Revolutions had the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states, and was the most widespread revolutionary wave in Europe’s history, with approximately 50 countries being affected.

The most important of these revolutions were in the Habsburg Empire, and the states of the German Confederation that would make up the German Empire in the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries, as well as in France, the Netherlands, and Italy.

Between 1840 and 1850, the German population increased almost ten times, and thirty-percent of Cincinnati’s population was of German stock. by 1860.

It is important to note Cincinnati has the oldest Jewish community west of the Allegheny Mountains.

In 1854, Isaac Mayer Wise became the rabbi of the B’ne Yeshurun Congregation in Cincinnati, and a leader in establishing what became known as American Reform Judaism.

Formerly the Plum Street Temple, the Isaac M. Wise Temple was said to have been erected in a Byzantine-Moorish synagogue architectural style that originated in Germany during the 19th-century for his congregation in 1865, and that it was dedicated in 1866.

Among the oldest synagogue buildings still standing in the United States, in the historical narrative we are given, the year it was built in 1865 was the last year of the Civil War.

Rabbi Isaac M. Wise’s brother-in-law, a publisher named Edward Bloch followed him to Cincinnati in 1854, who helped set up the production-side of the oldest Jewish-American Newspaper in America, “The Israelite,” which was first published in 1854.

Edward Bloch then went on to found the Bloch Publishing Company in Cincinnati, at the time the largest Jewish publisher in the country.

His son Charles moved the headquarters of the company to New York City in 1901.

Rabbi Isaac M. Wise established the “Union of American Hebrew Congregations” for Reform Judaism in Cincinnati in 1873.

Cincinnati’s Over-the-Rhine neighborhood is among the most intact and largest historic districts in the United States.

The name of the neighborhood came from the mostly German immigrants who developed the area in the mid-1800s.

Amongst the districts within the Over-the-Rhein neighborhood is the Brewery District, the heart of Cincinnati’s beer-brewing industry.

It was here that the first German-owned brewery was opened in 1829.

By 1860, there were as many as 36 breweries operating in Cincinnati.

By 1889, there were 13 fewer breweries, bu they were shipping beer the world over, and by 1890, Cincinnati was named the “Beer Capital of the World.”

Some of the members of Cincinnati’s Beer Barons Hall of Fame include:

John Kauffman, who established the Kauffman Brewery in 1844…

…Friedrich and Heinrich Schmidt, who in 1852 founded the Schmidt Brothers Brewery first as the St. Louis Brewery…

…and Christian Moerlein, who established his first brewing company there in 1853, the city’s largest brewery developing into a national and international market.

From Cincinnati, I am going to end in Pittsburgh, and show you several of the cities along the way there without going into detail:

Maysville, seat of Mason County in Kentucky…

…Huntington, the seat of Cabell County in West Virginia…

…Steubenville, the seat of Jefferson County in Ohio…

…and East Liverpool in Columbiana County in Ohio, once called the “Pottery Capital of the United States” due to the large number of potteries in the city at one time, of which only three remain.

I am going to end my journey at Pittsburgh, the largest city in the Ohio River Valley.

This is a view of the “Forks of the Ohio” at present-day Pittsburgh…

…which like Fort Defiance back in Cairo, Illinois, at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers…

…has a star fort presence, in this case Fort Duquesne and Fort Pitt where the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers join to form the Ohio River.

During the mid-19th-century, Pittsburgh received a dramatic influx of German immigrants, including the parents of Henry John Heinz, the founder of the condiment-manufacturing H. J. Heinz Company .

By the time of his death in 1919, the H. J. Heinz Company owned over twenty food-processing plants, as well as seed farms and container factories.

Heinz merged with Kraft in 2015 to become the world’s fifth-largest food and beverage company.

At least one biographical reference I found said H. J. Heinz’ parents were Lutheran and he was raised Lutheran, but like with John A. Reitz back in Evansville, Heinz is also listed as an Ashkenazic Jewish family name.

The Pittsburgh Jewish Community starting in 1838, and is known in the broader American Reform Jewish community for the 1885 Pittsburgh Platform that called for Jews to adopt a modern approach to the practice of their faith, though it was never formally adopted by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

It contained eight principles, one of which was the recommendation to do away with rabbinical laws that regulate diet, priestly purity, and dress.

Two other of the principles of the “Pittsburgh Platform” I would like to bring forward mention Palestine by name.

One states: “We recognize in the Mosaic legislation a system of training the Jewish people for its mission during its national life in Palestine, and today we accept as binding only its moral laws, and maintain only such ceremonies as elevate and sanctify our lives, but reject all such as are not adapted to the views and habits of modern civilization.”

The other states: “We recognize, in the modern era of universal culture of heart and intellect, the approaching of the realization of Israel’s great Messianic hope for the establishment of the kingdom of truth, justice, and peace among all men. We consider ourselves no longer a nation, but a religious community, and therefore expect neither a return to Palestine, nor a sacrificial worship under the sons of Aaron, nor the restoration of any of the laws concerning the Jewish state.”

These two principles establish the notion of the physical location of Palestine, presumably in the Middle East, as having been the ancestral homeland of the Jews, but at that time, they considered themselves a religious community with no expectation of returning to Palestine.

Twelve years after the promulgation of the eight principles of the Pittsburgh Platform, the first World Zionist Congress was held in Basel, Switzerland in 1897, which was convened by Theodore Herzl for the small minority of Jewry in agreement with the implementation of the Zionist goals.

The Balfour Declaration was a public statement issued in November of 1917 addressed to Lord Rothschild, the leader of the British Jewish Community, from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, announcing support for “the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people.”

The Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR) declaration in its 1937 Columbus Platform of “an affirmation of the obligation of all Jewry to aid in Palestine’s upbuilding as a Jewish homeland…,” and its assertion in the 1976 Centenary Perspective that “we are bound to the newly born State of Israel by innumerable religious and ethnic ties…,” was accepted by the CCAR in the Miami Platform of 1997.

Let’s talk about Zionism now, because the Mormons are Zionists as well, and actually say there was an ancient civilization of Israelites in the Americas.

Among other things in Mormonism, Zion is a metaphor for a unified Society of Latter Day Saints, metaphorically gathered as members of the Church of Christ, and in this sense, any stake of the Church may be referred to as a “Stake of Zion.”

A stake is the name given to administrative units composed of multiple congregations in certain denominations of the Church, like the Palestine Stake of Zion, in Palestine, Illinois.

There is a city named Palestine in Illinois?

It must must have been named after the Palestine in the Middle East, right?

Or is it?

Could there have actually been a place or region called Palestine in America as well?

Then there was what Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement, believed, that the entirety of the Americas was Zion, and that the American tribes were descended from the Hebrew Tribes of Israel.

Was the founding of the Mormon Church what is defined as “Controlled Opposition?”

Controlled Opposition is a strategy in which an individual, organization, or movement is covertly controlled or influenced by a 3rd-party and the controlled entity’s true purpose is something other than its publicly stated purpose.

The controlled entity serves a role of mass deception, surveillance or political/social manipulation. The controlled party is portrayed as being in opposition to the interests of the controlling party.

So it sure looks to me like the early Mormon leaders were also involved in the creation of the new civilization and narrative, as well as Catholic orders like the Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries, the Hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church and the Royal Houses of Europe…

…and their secret activities involved with the creation of the New World Order were carried out with the involvement of the highest echelons of secret societies including the Freemasons, Odd Fellows, and Knights of Pythias, and the Skull and Bones Society.

The definition of Zionism as an international movement originally for the establishment of a Jewish national or religious community in Palestine and later for the support of modern Israel.

I think Zionism is the vehicle by which the world’s controllers, known by names such as the Illuminati, Cabal, Globalist elite, and Bilderbergers that planned and executed the corporate structure for their global take-over of the world’s finances, resources and people.

They are a small number of related, elitist family bloodlines, hidden in different nationalities and religions, to carry out their plans for world domination.

What was the origin of their Zionist template?

This is the King James Version of Psalm 76:1-2:

1In Iudah is God knowen: his name is great in Israel. 
2In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Sion. 

The word Salem or Shalom in Hebrew, means “Peace’…

…which the similar sounding word salaam in Arabic also means.

A Tabernacle was a portable sanctuary in the wilderness, and the earthly dwelling-place of God.

On the surface, we are told that “Sion” is the Greek form of “Zion;” denotes Mt. Hermon in Deuteronomy 4: 48, where Mt. Hermon referred to as Mt. Sirion…

…and a hill where King David captured a stronghold, a temple was later built, and later become synonymous with Jerusalem.

I also found a definition of “Sion” as ‘an imaginary place considered to be perfect or ideal.’

The metaphysical meaning of “Sion” is defined thus, with words describing things like high power, virtue, courage and strength:

So, what if the King James Version of Psalm 76:2 of “God’s tabernacle is in Salem, and his dwelling place in Sion” actually means something to the effect of:

“God’s portable sanctuary is in Peace, and his dwelling place in the Highest Ideals,” which could also be applied to each individual Human Being as a “portable sanctuary of peace” striving to live life in the highest manner possible.

The word Zion instead has come to be associated as a place name for Jerusalem, as well as the Jewish homeland, and is not synonymous with Sion, which is a State of Being the people of the original civilization strove for.

What if the Twelve Tribes of Israel were not from a specific location on the Earth, but an integral part of how the original worldwide civilization was laid out?

The following is a summary of some my findings regarding the creation of the world we live in today by focusing my research primarily on German entrepreneurs and settlements in the Mississippi River and Ohio River Valleys.

German-Jewish immigrants starting primarily around 1830 started arriving in cities all along these important waterways, setting up shop, monetizing all available resources through the creation of different industry sectors…

…creating the new economy and financial system…

…and generally laying the groundwork for the New World on top of the original infrastructure of the ancient Moorish Civilization that built everything, which had its origins in Mu, also known as Lemuria.

In my opinion, the infrastructure was dug out of mud flows and/or re-started in order to be able to use whatever form of infrastructure it was, like canals, railroads, and streetcars among many other things, and not built by the people who took the credit for building them.

These businessmen created jobs for which they paid immigrants, not only from Germany but other countries as well, low wages, which was in turn returned to as wealth in the form of payment for goods…

…purchased in their department stores and other shops, among many other ways of increasing wealth by payment.

It is also an interesting side-note that Child Labor Laws didn’t go into effect in the United States until 1938.

Creating an environment filled with the widespread-availability of addictive substances, establishing alcohol- and tobacco-use as socio-cultural norms, which was glamorized in glitzy advertising.

Beautiful old buildings were either intentionally modified, demolished or left abandoned to deteriorate on their own over time.

Following the Mississippi River, I found the origins of the Monsanto Chemical Company in St. Louis, from which its very first product, Saccharin, was manufactured by the company founder for the Meyer Brothers Drug Company in the same city, and the start of a whole host of poisonous products.

Monsanto was acquired by the German multinational Bayer Pharmaceutics and Life Sciences Company after gaining United States and EU regulatory approvals on June 7th of 2018, and Monsanto’s name is no longer used.

I found this picture of a cotton field in New Madrid County, the second-leading producer of cotton in Missouri, with signage displaying the “Bayer” logo.

I found Joseph Biedenharn originating in Vicksburg, Mississippi, a German-American businessman who was the first bottler of coca-cola, and the first to develop an independent network of franchise bottlers to distribute the drink.

He moved his coke-bottling business to Monroe, Louisiana, in 1913, and he along with his son and other investors, Joseph Biedenharn bought a crop-dusting business in 1925 (for spraying pesticides, which were other product-lines of Monsanto)…

…which was the genesis of Delta Airlines, incorporated in 1928.

And lastly, in following the Ohio River, I found the origins of American Reform Judiasm, which connects directly back to the formation of the Zionist movement as we know it in the 20th-century, in Cincinnati and Pittsburgh.

In conclusion, the same people that don’t want you to believe Henry Kissinger ever said this at the World Health Organization Council on Eugenics on February 5th of 2009…

…want you to believe that “The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion,” first published in Russia in 1903, describing a Jewish plan for global domination, was an anti-semitic forgery.

I want to end this by saying I personally believe the world’s elitist controllers will not get away with all that they have done, and that things are in motion to bring about their Day of Reckoning in the near future.

Who is Represented in the National Statuary Hall in the U. S. Capitol Building? – Part 4 Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas & Kentucky

So far in the National Statuary Hall, from Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, and Arkansas, there have been two journalist/politicians (Bob Bartlett & Ernest Gruening); two military hero/politicians (Joseph Wheeler/Barry Goldwater); a Jesuit missionary (Father Eusebio Kino); one lawyer/politician (James Paul Clarke); one lawyer (Uriah M. Rose); and one disability rights advocate/socialist (Helen Keller).

From California, Colorado, Connecticult and Arkansas, there was an actor/politician (Ronald Reagan); astronaut/politician (Jack Swigert); two Founding Father/Lawyer/politicians – Robert Sherman and Caesar Rodney; a merchant/politician – Jonathan Trumbull; a lawyer/politician (John M Clayton); a Woman Scientist/Public Health Doctor (Florence R. Sabin); and a Franciscan Missionary (St. Junipero Serra).

From Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, and Idaho, there were two physicians – John Gorrie and Crawford Long; two military leaders during the Civil War, Edmund Kirby Smith, who commanded the Trans-Mississippi Theater, and George L. Shoup, a Cavalry leader in Colorado, who later became Governor of Idaho and a U. S. Senator; a lawyer and politician who became Vice-President of the Confederacy, Congressman, and later Governor of the State of Georgia, Alexander H. Stephens; a lawyer and politician who had a 33-year-career in the U. S. Senate, William E. Borah; the founder and ruler of the Kingdom of Hawaii, King Kamehameha I; and a Belgian Catholic priest and missionary, who attained Sainthood for his work with the lepers of Hawaii, Father Damien.

So far the count of U. S. politicians in the National Statuary Hall is at 13-out-of-24 statues, once again over half of them, with seven of them being lawyers.

James Shields and Frances Willard represent the State of Illinois in the National Statuary Hall.

James Shields is one of the statues representing the State of Illinois.

He was an Irish-American Democratic politician and U. S. Army officer, and the only person in U. S. history to serve as Senator for three different states, and one of only two to represent more than one state.

He represented Illinois from 1849 to 1855; Minnesota from 1858 to 1859; and Missouri in 1879.

Born in Ireland in 1806, and raised there, Shields came first to North America in 1826, starting out as a purser on a merchant ship, first landing in Florida during the Second Seminole War, and then in Quebec, before going on to settle in Kaskaskia, Illinois in the early 1830s.

The village of Kaskaskia where he settled was named for the indigenous Kaskaskia people who lived here, part of the Illinois Confederation of the Great Lakes Region, and it was the location of the “Grand Village of the Illinois,” now a state historic site known as the Zimmerman site.

The French explorers Luke Joliet, a fur trader, and Father Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit Missionary, came across Kaskaskia in 1673, on their expedition to chart the Mississippi River.

What is known today as “Starved Rock State Park” is located across the Illinois River from the village of Kaskaskia.

Starved Rock was the location of what was called the Fort St. Louis du Rocher, and said to have been built on the butte by trusted men of the Sieur de la Salle during the winter of 1682 and 1683.

The fort was the center of what was called “LaSalle’s Colony,” a place LaSalle’s agents traded with the estimated 20,000 Native Americans who lived in the Starved Rock Region.

No surface remains of the fort are found at the site of the fort today.

The French were said to have built Fort Crevecoeur in 1680, near modern-day Peoria, also said to have been destroyed by members of LaSalle’s expedition, who feared it was going to be destroyed in the on-going French and Indian Wars, which took place between 1609 and 1701.

Subsequently, the French were said to have built Fort St. Louis du Pimiteoui, also known as Old Fort Peoria, in the same area.

Apparently…there were A LOT of historical forts in this region.

Were they built by who we are told, or were they star forts built by the indigenous people?

Back to James Shields.

While still in Ireland, he was educated at St. Patrick’s Pontifical University in Maynooth, Ireland, where he studied military science, French, and fencing.

Pontifical Universities were established or approved directly by the Holy See in Rome.

After Shields arrived in Kaskaskia, Illinois, he studied law and began to practice in 1832, and by 1836, he was serving as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives, and he was elected State Auditor in 1839.

Abraham Lincoln denounced Shields as State Auditor in an inflammatory letter that was published in a local newspaper, that came to a head on September 22nd of 1842, when the two men almost fought in a duel.

There were reported interventions by others at the duel site, and the two men were said to part on good terms and subsequently become good friends.

Shields was appointed as an Illinois Supreme Court Justice in February of 1845 to take the place of Stephen Douglas.

He resigned to become Commissioner of the U. S. General Land Office, during which time he surveyed land in Iowa he wanted to become a colony for Irish immigrants.

He resigned from that position in order to become a Brigadier-General following the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846.

He commanded the 3rd Brigade during the Battles of Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo, where he was severely wounded and spent nine-weeks recovering, and returned to fight for one-day, in both the Battles of Contreras and Churrobusco, and then once-again wounded in the Battle of Chapultepec, where he was again wounded resulting in a fractured arm, and he was forced to remain recovering through the end of the war.

After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, Shields was promoted to the rank of Major-General, and received two honorary swords from South Carolina and Illinois.

He returned to his law practice in Illinois, though soon tapped by President James Polk, and confirmed by the Senate, to be the Governor of the Oregon Territory on August 14th of 1848, which was created on the same day.

He declined the offer in order to run for the Senate in the State of Illinois.

Shields won the election in 1848, but the resulted was voided because he had not been a naturalized citizen for the nine-years required by the U. S. Constitution.

He won a special election held by the Illinois Governor after the 9-years had passed, with his first term starting in October of 1849.

After being defeated for his Senate seat in Illinois in 1855 by Lyman Trumbull, Shields moved to Minnesota, where he had been awarded lands in return for his military service.

He arranged for Irish immigrants to move from the East Coast to Rice and LeSueur counties.

He founded Shieldsville in Rice County and was involved in the early settlement of Faribault in Rice County as well.

When Minnesota became a state in 1858, Shields became a compromise candidate for the U. S. Senate along with Henry Mower Rice, and the two drew straws to determine who would serve the longer and shorter terms.

Shields drew the short straw, and only served as Minnesota’s U. S. Senator from May 11th of 1858 to March 3rd of 1859.

During the American Civil War, Shields was appointed as Brigadier General of Volunteers for California, which was where he was living at the time having moved there from Minnesota.

He subsequently commanded the 2nd Division of the V Corps, Army of the Potomac, during the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862.

The Shenandoah Valley Campaign was chalked up as a victory for Confederate forces under the leadership of Major General Stonewall Jackson, whose troops prevented three Union Armies from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond between March and May of 1862.

Though Shields was wounded as a result of the battle, his troops inflicted Stonewall Jackson’s only tactical defeat of the campaign at the Battle of Kernstown on March 22nd of 1862, for which he was promoted to Major General.

His promotion was subsequently withdrawn and rejected, however, and Shields resigned from the Army.

James Shields moved to San Francisco in 1863, and served as the State Railroad Commissioner until 1866.

In 1866, Shields settled in Carrollton, Missouri, where he lived for the rest of his life.

He lost his election to Congress for the State of Missouri in 1868, but in 1879, he was elected to the fill a vacant Senate seat, where he served only three-months before resigning on March 3rd of 1879. This made him the only person to have served as senator from three different states.

He died unexpectedly only three-months later, on June 1st of 1879, in Ottumwa, Iowa, while on a lecture tour, at which time he complained of chest pains before his death.

James Shields was buried in an unmarked grave in Carrollton for 30-years in St. Mary’s Cemetery, until the local government and Congress funded a granite and bronze monument in his honor.

Frances Willard is the other historical figure representing Illinois.

Frances Willard was an American educator, temperance reformer, and women’s suffragist.

She was born in 1839 in Churchville, New York, near Rochester, to Josiah Flint Willard, a farmer, naturalist and legislator, and businessman, and Mary Willard.

The family moved to Oberlin, Ohio, in 1841, where her parents took classes at Oberlin College.

Oberlin College was established in 1833, and is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States, and the second-oldest in the world.

Then in 1846, the family moved to Janesville, Wisconsin, for the given reason of her father Josiah’s health.

There, Frances and her sister Mary were said to have attended the Milwaukee Normal School, where their mother’s sister taught.

The Willard Family moved to Evanston, Illinois, in 1858, where Josiah Willard became a banker.

Frances and her sister Mary attended the North Western Female College there.

Their brother Oliver attended seminary at the Garrett Biblical Institute in Evanston.

After Frances Willard graduated from the North Western Female College, she worked at the Pittsburgh Female College…

…and also at the Genessee Wesleyan Seminary in New York, which later became Syracuse University.

Then in 1871, she was appointed as President of the newly-founded Evanston College for Ladies, and in 1873, she was named as the first Dean of Women when the same school became the Woman’s College of Northwestern University.

This position didn’t last long for her over confrontations in 1874 with the University’ President, Charles Henry Fowler, who had been her fiance.

After this happened, she focused her career energies into the Women’s Temperance Movement, and she was involved in the founding of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), also in 1874, and was elected the first Corresponding Secretary.

The WCTU was among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform, playing an influential role in the Temperance Movement, supporting the 18th Amendment to the Constitution that established Prohibition, and influential in other social reform issues of the Progressive Era.

She was elected President of the National WCTU in 1879, and held this post until her death in 1898.

Frances Willard was also editor of the organization’s weekly newspaper, “The Union Signal” from 1892 to 1898.

Willard argued for the right for women to vote, based on “Home Protection,” as President of the WCTU, as a part of which she argued that having the right to vote gave women a means of protection in and outside of the home against violent acts caused by intoxicated men.

Frances Willard founded the World WCTU in 1888 and became its first President in 1893.

After 1893, Willard became a committed Christian Socialist, having been influenced by the Fabian Society in Great Britain.

The Fabian Society was a British Socialist organization whose purpose was to advance the principles of Democratic Socialism rather than by revolutionary overthrow.

Christian Socialism was established as a religious and social philosophy that blended Christianity and socialism, advocating for left-wing politics and socialist economics from a Biblical perspective.

Frances Willard died in her sleep from influenza on February 17th of 1898 where she was staying at the Empire Hotel in New York City just prior to leaving for a European tour…

…and was buried in the Rose Hill Cemetery in Chicago, Illinois.

She bequeathed her home in Evanston to the WCTU, and it became her museum and the headquarters for the organization in 1900.

The State of Indiana is represented by Oliver P. Morton and Lew Wallace in the National Statuary Hall.

Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton, better known as Oliver P. Morton, was a Republican Party politician from Indiana.

He was the 14th-Governor of Indiana during the American Civil War, making significant contributions to the war effort, and he was a close ally of President Abraham Lincoln’s.

He also served as a senator from Indiana for a period of time during the Reconstruction Era after the Civil War.

Oliver P. Morton was born in Wayne County Indiana, on the border with Ohio, in August of 1823 to James Throck and Sarah Morton.

His mother died when he was three-years-old, and he went to live with his mother’s parents in Ohio.

As a young man, he rejoined his family in Centerville, Indiana, where he was apprenticed to a hatmaker for four years.

He quit the hat-making business to enroll in Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he studied law for two-years.

After briefly attending Cincinnati College, Morton returned to Centerville in 1845, and was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1846.

Morton campaigned and was elected to serve as a Circuit Court Judge in 1852, but resigned after a year because he preferred to practice law.

By 1854, however, Morton was active in Indiana politics.

That same year, the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, which allowed settlers of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether or not slavery would be allowed within.

It also produced a violent uprising known as “Bleeding Kansas” when pro-slavery and anti-slavery activists flooded into the new territories seeking to sway the vote.

Master Mason John Brown…

…was very involved in what happened in “Bleeding Kansas.”

Ultimately the cause of eleven states to secede from the Union in 1860 was said to have been in support of states’ rights in the context of slavery to support the South’s agricultural economy, and the federal government not overturning abolitionist policies in the North and in new territories.

In 1856, Morton became a member of the Resolutions Committee of the Republican Party on the national level of the preliminary national convention for the new political party in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania…

…and was a delegate to the 1856 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia.

Morton lost his first election as a Republican for Governor in 1856 to Democrat Ashbel Willard (apparently no relation to Frances), a popular state senator.

In 1858, the name of “Republican” had been officially adopted by the “People’s Party” and in 1860, Indiana Republicans nominated Morton, known as a Radical Republican for his anti-slavery position, for the office of Lieutenant Governor, with the more Conservative choice Henry Lane for the party’s candidate as Governor.

Lane and Morton won the state’s general election and Republicans gained control of the state legislature.

The day after the election, the General Assembly chose Lane to fill a U. S. Senate seat. He resigned, and Morton became the 14th Governor of the State of Indiana on January 18th of 1861.

Morton, who was Governor of Indiana form 1861 to 1867, was a strong supporter of the Union, during the Civil War, advocating for the use of force to preserve it as opposed to compromise, and staunchly supported President Abraham Lincoln’s conduct during the war.

As Governor, Morton went to great lengths to make sure that Indiana contributed as much as possible to the war effort.

Morton attended the “Loyal War Governors” conference in Altoona, Pennsylvania in 1862, which gave Lincoln the needed support for the “Emancipation Proclamation.”

Once Emancipation became an issue in 1862, Indiana Republicans suffered defeats in the mid-term elections, and Democrats gained the majority in the State Legislature, leading to many conflicts between the State Legislature and Governor Morton over the next few years.

Even though the Democrats fiercely opposed Morton, he still managed to win reelection in 1864, and the Republicans managed to retake control of both houses of the General Assembly.

Morton was partially crippled by a stroke in October of 1865, and during the time he was recovering, his Lt. Governor, Conrad Baker, served as Acting Governor.

Morton returned to the governorship in March of 1866, though needing assistance to walk.

In 1867, Morton was elected by the General Assembly to serve as a U. S. Senator, and he resigned as Governor. He s was elected to a second-term, but died before the end of it.

In his first term, he quickly became a leader in the Senate, becoming a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee and chair of the Committee of Privileges and Elections.

This was during the time of Reconstruction and Morton supported the Radical Republican program for re-making the former Confederate states, supporting such things as legislation to void the southern states’ constitutions, and to require elections for representatives to state constitutional conventions that would be charged with writing new ones.

Morton died on November 1st of 1877, after having a second stroke on August 6th of 1877.

His remains laid in-state at the Indiana State Capitol building and his funeral held at the Roberts Park Methodist Church in Indianapolis, after which he was buried at Crown Hill Cemetery.

The other statue for Indiana is represented by Lew Wallace.

Lew Wallace was a lawyer; Union General during the Civil War; Governor of the New Mexico Territory; politician from Indiana; and author, best known to the general public for writing “Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ” in 1880.

Lew Wallace was born in April of 1827 in Brookville, Indiana.

Wallace’s father David was a graduate of West Point, and after he left the military in 1822, he moved to Brookville where he became a lawyer and entered politics, serving in the Indiana General Assembly, later becoming the State’s Lieutenant Governor, Governor and a member of Congress.

After moving to Covington, Indiana in 1832, Lew’s mother Esther died from tuberculosis in 1834.

His father remarried in 1836, to Zerelda Gray Sanders Wallace, who later became a prominent suffragist and temperance advocate.

In 1837, when he was 10, the family moved to Indianapolis when his father became Governo

By 1846, at the start of the Mexican-American War, Lew Wallace was studying law at his father’s law office, but he left there in order to become a 2nd Lieutenant for the Marion Volunteers on June 19th of 1846, a local militia group that he was already a part of, until he departed that service in the military, after not seeing combat, on June 15th of 1847, and returned to Indiana to pursue law.

Wallace was admitted to the Bar in February of 1849, and he established a law practice in Covington, Indiana.

In 1851, he was elected the prosecuting attorney of Indiana’s 1st Congressional District.

From 1849 to 1853, his law office was in the Fountain County Clerk’s Building, said to have been built in 1842, and known today as the Lew Wallace Law Office.

He resigned from that position in 1853 to move to Crawfordsville, Indiana, where he continued to practice law and was elected to a two-year term in the Indiana Senate in 1856.

The General Lew Wallace Study & Museum in Crawfordsville, a National Historic Landmark, contains his personal mementoes and houses the Ben Hur Museum as well.

Wallace organized an independent Militia called the Crawfordsville Guards, later called the Montgomery Guards, which would later form the core of the 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, his first military command during the Civil War.

Wallace adopted the Zouave uniform and training style of the elite units of the French Army in Algeria for the unit.

Wallace began his full-time military career shortly after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, which took place on April 12th of 1861, considered the beginning of the Civil War.

His 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment was mustered into the Union Army two-weeks later, on April 25th of 1861, and he received a commission as a Colonel the next day.

On June 5th of 1861, his regiment won a minor battle at Romney, West Virginia, near Cumberland, Maryland, leading to the Confederate evacuation of Harper’s Ferry on June 18th.

Wallace was promoted to Brigadier General in September of 1861, and given command of a brigade.

On February 4th and 5th of 1862, Union troops made their way towards the Confederate Fort Henry on the Tennessee River in western Tennessee.

Wallace’s brigade was ordered to occupy Fort Heiman, called an uncompleted Confederate fort across the river from Fort Henry.

They watched from Fort Heiman as Union troops attacked Fort Henry on February 6th, resulting in a Union Victory and the Confederate surrender of Fort Henry.

Wallace was left in command of Fort Henry as another general moved troops overland towards Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.

Then on February 13th, Wallace received the order to move out towards the Cumberland River, and his brigades took positions in the center of the Union Line, facing Fort Donelson.

Wallace’s decisions in the battlefield led to checking the Confederate assault and stabilizing the Union defensive line.

He was promoted to Major General, and became the youngest Major General in the Union Army.

Wallace was the 3rd Division Commander under General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Shiloh, which took place on April 6th of 1862.

There was controversy surrounding Wallace’s actions in the field concerning whether or not he followed General Grant’s orders that led to a significant setback in his military career, even though overall Shiloh was considered a Union victory because Confederate forces ended up retreating, and ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi.

Wallace’s most notable service during the Civil War was said to have been the Battle of Monocacy, which took place on July 9th of 1864 near Frederick, Maryland, in which even though they were defeated by Confederate troops, Wallace’s men were able to delay a Confederate march towards Washington, DC, for a day giving the city time to organize its defenses and force the Confederates to retreat to Virginia.

Among other duties after the Civil War ended, Wallace was appointed to the military commission that investigated the Lincoln assassination conspirators that began in May of 1865, and ended on June 30th of 1865 after finding all eight conspirators guilty.

In 1867, Wallace returned to Indiana to practice law, but it no longer appealed to him, so he turned to politics.

He lost two Congressional elections, in 1868 and 1870, but as a reward for supporting the candidacy of President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, Wallace was appointed Governor of the New Mexico Territory, a position in which he served from August of 1878 to March of 1881.

From May 19th of 1881 to March 4th of 1885, Wallace served as the U. S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire (now Turkey) in Constantinople (now Istanbul).

As an author, Lew Wallace was best known for writing “Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ” in 1880…

…which was turned into an award-winning movie in 1959 starring Charlton Heston as the wealthy Jewish Prince, Ben-Hur.

Wallace returned to Crawfordsville, Indiana, from the Ottoman Empire.

Among other pursuits, he was given the credit for building the Blacheme in 1895, a 7-story apartment building in Indianapolis.

He lived in Crawfordsville until his death in February of 1905, where he was buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery there.

Norman Borlaug and Samuel J. Kirkwood represent the State of Iowa in the National Statuary Hall.

Norman Borlaug was an American Agriculturalist who led initiatives around the world that lead to significant increases in agricultural production, known as “The Green Revolution.”

Norman Borlaug was born in March of 1914 on his Norwegian great-grandparents’ farm in the Norwegian-American community of Saude, Iowa, in Chickasaw County.

Borlaug worked on the family farm west of Protivin, Iowa, from the ages of 7 to 19, raising things like corn, oats and livestock.

He attended the one-room New Oregon #8 rural school in Howard County, Iowa, through the 8th-grade, a building that is owned by the Norman Borlaug Heritage Foundation as part of his legacy.

For the remainder of his secondary-education he attended Cresco High School, excelling in athletics.

He received his higher education at the University of Minnesota, where he received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Forestry in 1937, a Master of Science degree in 1940, and a Ph.D in plant pathology and genetics in 1942.

Borlaug was employed as a microbiologist by DuPont in Wilmington, Delaware, between 1942 and 1944, where it was planned he would lead research in agricultural bacteriocides, fungicides and preservatives.

With the entry of the U. S. into World War II after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th of 1941, his lab instead was converted to conduct research for the U. S. Military, like the development of glue that resisted corrosion in the warm salt water of the Pacific; camouflage; canteen disinfectants; DDT to control Malaria; and insulation for small electronics.

The Mexican President Avila Camacho, elected in 1940, wanted to augment Mexico’s industrialization and economic growth, and the U. S. Vice-President Henry Wallace, who saw this as beneficial to the interests of the United States, persuaded the Rockefeller Foundation to work with the Mexican government in agricultural development.

They in turn contacted leading agronomists who proposed the Office of Special Studies within the Mexican Government to be directed by the Rockefeller Foundation, and staffed by Mexican and American scientists focusing on soil development; maize and wheat production and plant pathology.

Borlaug was tapped to be the head of the newly established Cooperative Wheat Research and Production Program in Mexico, a position which he took over as a geneticist and plant pathologist after he finished his wartime service with DuPont in 1944.

In 1964, he was made the Director of the International Wheat Improvement Program at El Batan on the outskirts of Mexico City, as part of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research’s International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (or CIMMYT), the funding for which was provided by the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, and the Mexican Government.

Interesting to note that Borlaug felt that pesticides, like DDT, had more benefits than drawbacks, and advocated for their continued use.

Borlaug retired as Director of the CIMMYT in 1979, though stayed on as a Senior Consultant and continued to be involved in research in plant research.

He started teaching and doing research at Texas A & M University in 1984, and was the holder of the Eugene Butler Endowed Chair in Agricultural Biotechnology, for which he advocated the use of as he had for the use of pesticides, in spite of heavy criticism.

Norman Borlaug died at the age of 95 in September of 2009 in Dallas.

There is a memorial to him outside of the city of Obregon, at CIMMYT’s Experiment Station in Mexico’s Sonora State, where there are miles and miles of cultivated land, where tractors plow the land, airplanes spray pesticides on the crops; mechanical harvesters reap the wheat; trucks carry the crops to town from where they are shipped around the world.

Among other awards in recognition for his achievements, Borlaug received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970; the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977; and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2006.

It is interesting to note that the old Des Moines Public Library Building has been the Norman E. Borlaug/World Food Prize Hall of Laureates for the World Food Prize since 1973, an international award recognizing the achievements of individuals who have advanced human development by improving the quality, quantity, or availability of food in the world.

The old Des Moines Public Library Building was said to have been constructed in 1903, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.

The World Food Prize is awarded here in October of every year and the World Food Prize Foundation is endowed by the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is also interesting to note that in Norman Borlaug’s home state of Iowa, Power Pollen is located in Ankeny.

Power Pollen’s mission statement is to preserve and enhance crop productivity by enabling superior pollination systems.

Well, that sounds great, but when I was looking for information on Power Pollen, I encountered the information that in 2021, Power Pollen announced a commercial license agreement with Bayer Pharmaceuticals designed to help corn seed production.

And what’s wrong with that picture?

Monsanto was acquired by the German multinational Bayer Pharmaceutics and Life Sciences Company after gaining United States and EU regulatory approvals on June 7th of 2018 for $66-billion in cash, and Monsanto’s name is no longer used.

Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa’s other statue, was Iowa’s Civil War Governor, and he also served as a U. S. Senator and as the U. S. Secretary of the Interior.

Samuel J. Kirkwood was born in 1813 in Harford County, Maryland, which is located in the middle between, the cities of Washington, DC; Baltimore, Maryland; and Wilmington, Delaware and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

In 1835, Kirkwood moved to Ohio with his father, where he practiced law and was involved in politics.

Kirkwood moved to Iowa in 1855, near Iowa City, and got involved in the milling business with the Clark family, who he married into as well.

Kirkwood took an interest in the newly-founded Republican Party, and he delivered a speech at the founding meeting of the Iowa Republican Party in February of 1856.

Kirkwood was elected in 1856 to the Iowa Senate as a Republican, where he served until 1859.

Kirkwood was nominated for Governor in 1859, and defeated Augustus C. Dodge, who like Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas, participated in a series of debates, during which slavery was the main issue.

Kirkwood spoke in opposition to slavery, and Dodge was in favor of popular sovereignty, where the people in the territories decided.

Kirkwood was elected as Governor, and during his first year in office, John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry in West Virginia took place on October 16th of 1859, and further polarized the nation over slavery.

There was a federal arsenal located there, and while the plan was to raid the arsenal and instigate a major slave rebellion in the South, he had no rations or escape route.

In 36-hours, troops under the command of then Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee had arrested him and his cohorts, who had withdrawn to the engine house after they had been surrounded by local citizens and militia.

John Brown was hung on December 2nd of 1859, less than two months after the onset of the Harper’s Ferry Raid.

Kirkwood was on the side of the militant abolitionists, and when Barclay Coppock, a young man from Iowa who was part of Brown’s raid, fled home, Kirkwood refused to accept extradition papers from Virginia and allowed Coppock to escape.

Like Governor Oliver P. Morton back in Indiana, Samuel Kirkwood was a strong supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, and was active in raising troops and supplies from Iowa for the Union Army, and as well attended the Loyal War Governors’ Conference in Altoona, Pennsylvania in 1862, which gave support for Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation.

In 1864, he left the office of governor to practice law in Iowa City.

Then between 1865 and 1867, he finished out someone else’s term in the U. S. Senate, and then he served again between 1877 and 1881.

In between that time, he was Governor of Iowa again between 1876 and 1877, and in March of 1881, Kirkwood resigned from the Senate to become President James A. Garfield’s Secretary of the Interior, which he was until April of 1882.

Kirkwood died in September of 1894 in Iowa City, where he was buried in Oakland Cemetery.

The two statues representing the State of Kansas are Dwight D. Eisenhower and John J. Ingalls.

Dwight David Eisenhower during World War II achieved the rank of 5-star general and was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe; the first Supreme Commander of NATO from 1951 to 1952; and the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

Dwight D. Eisenhower was born in Denison, Texas, in October of 1890.

His Eisenhauer ancestors immigrated to America from Karlsbrunn, Germany, and settled in Lancaster, Pennsylvania in 1741, considered part of the what are called the Pennsylvania Dutch.

The Eisenhower family moved to Abilene, Kansas, in 1892, and Dwight graduated from high school there in 1909.

In 1911, Eisenhower accepted an appointment to the U. S. Army military academy at West Point in New York, and graduated in the middle of the class of 1915.

His 1915 class at West Point became known as the “Class the Stars Fell on” because 59 out of 164 graduates that year became general officers, besides Eisenhower, including the 5-Star World War II General Omar Bradley.

During the years of World War I, between 1914 and 1918, Eisenhower served in infantry and logistics at bases in Texas, Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, like Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio…

…Fort Oglethorpe in northern Georgia…

…Fort Leavenworth in Kansas…

…Camp Meade in Maryland…

…and Camp Colt in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

By the time he received orders to go to France, the war was over.

After the war, Eisenhower was promoted to Major, a rank he held for 16-years.

His assignments included being assigned to a convoy that drove the 3,000-mile, or 4,800-kilometer, length of the Lincoln Highway, from Washington, DC to California, to test vehicles and show the need for improved roads to the nation, and said to have inspired the National Highway System…

…and commanding a battalion of tanks at Camp Meade.

He was the Executive Officer under Major General Fox Conner in the Panama Canal Zone from about 1922 to 1924, under whom he studied military history and theory…

…and on General Conner’s recommendation, he attended the U. S. Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, between 1925 and 1926.

From there, he was a Battalion Commander at Fort Benning in Georgia until 1927.

Then he was assigned to the Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and graduated from there in 1928.

While Eisenhower was the Executive Officer to the Assistant Secretary of War George Mosely from 1929 to 1933, he attended the Army Industrial College at Fort McNair in Washington, DC, where he graduated from in 1933.

The Army Industrial College today is known as the Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy.

Eisenhower was posted as the Chief MIlitary Aide to General Douglas MacArthur, and accompanied him to the Philippines in 1935, where he was assistant military advisor to the Philippines government in developing their army.

In December of 1939, Eisenhower returned to the United States and became the Commanding Officer of the 1st Battalion of the 15th Infantry Regiment at Fort Lewis, Washington, later becoming the Regimental Executive Officer.

He was promoted to Colonel in March of 1941, and assigned as Chief of Staff to the newly activated IX Corps under Major General Kenyon Joyce.

Then in June of 1941, he was appointed Chief of Staff for General Walter Krueger, Commander of the 3rd Army at Fort Sam Houston.

Eisenhower participated in the Louisiana Maneuvers, a series of major U. S. Army exercises held in northern and west central Louisiana from August to September of 1941…

…and he was promoted to Brigadier General on September 29th of 1941.

Eisenhower was assigned to the General Staff in Washington, DC, after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December of 1941, where he served until June 1942, with the responsibility to create war plans to defeat Japan and Germany.

After going to London in May of 1942 with the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces, Lt. General Henry Arnold, to assess the effectiveness of the Theater Command in Europe, he returned to London in June of 1942 as the Commanding General of the European Theater of Operations, and was promoted to Lt. General on July 7th of 1942.

Then in November of 1942, Eisenhower was appointed the Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force of the North African Theater of Operations through the new Allied Expeditionary Force Headquarters.

Under the command of Lt. General Eisenhower, Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa took place from the 8th through the 16th of November of 1942, and was planned in the underground headquarters at the Rock of Gibraltar.

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

By December of 1943, President Roosevelt had chosen Eisenhower, by this time a four-star general, to be the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe.

He was tasked with planning and carrying out Operation Overlord, the Allied assault on the coast of Normandy, starting with the D-Day landings on June 6th of 1944.

Eisenhower was promoted to the highest officer rank in the Army of 5-star General, known as “General of the Army,” on December 20th of 1944.

By the end of the War in Europe on May 8th of 1945, Eisenhower commanded all Allied Forces.

After World War II ended, Eisenhower was appointed Military Governor of the American Occupation Zone, located primarily in southern Germany, and headquartered at the IG Farben building in Frankfurt, the world’s largest office building in Europe until the 1950s.

Besides documenting evidence of the atrocities of Nazi concentration camps for the Nuremburg Trials, he arranged for the distribution of American food and medical equipment in response to the post-war devastation in Germany.