All Over the Place Via Your Suggestions – Part 3 Washington State & South Wales

This is the third part of a new on-going series called “All Over the Place Via Your Suggestions” where I will continue to research your suggestions, and follow the many clues you all provide that helps to uncover our hidden history.

In part three, I was guided by looking into the suggestions and information from viewers about Port Townsend in northwest Washington; Yakima in Central Washington; and Pembroke in South Wales.

What is interesting about doing this work following up on viewer suggestions is that more often than not, unplanned themes and correlations emerge that are unique to each part, and this one was no exception. I don’t start out looking for a particular theme. I start out by selecting places people have suggested, and then I start looking to see what is there. What I found in this case are intriguing correlations and similarities between what is found in Washington State and what is found in South Wales, and I gave examples of a few other places with similar correlations from past research I have done.

My starting place for this particular journey of going “All Over the Place Via Your Suggestions” is Port Townsend, Washington.

EM sent me several pictures of buildings in Port Townsend, a port city on Quimper Peninsula at the northeast tip of Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula.

Port Townsend first became a settlement on April 24th of 1851, the year it was first incorporated.

Port Townsend is located next to the entrance of Puget Sound, and called the “City of Dreams” because of early speculation that it would become the west coast’s largest harbor, and is known by its other nickname, the “Key City,” today.

We are told that by the late 19th-century, the town was very active in getting ready for its future expected growth, and that many ornate, Victorian architecture was built here during this time.

Though railroad extensions were planned to the port, the Panic of 1893, an economic depression lasting until 1897, caused the funding to dry up and the railroad-lines ended on the other side of Puget sound, and for this reason, Port Townsend never achieved its expected growth, and instead immediately started to decline.

Puget Sound is described as a complex estuary system of connected marine waterways and basins.

An estuary is defined as a partially-enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with brackish meaning a combination of salt-water and fresh-water.

EM sent me a picture of the Jefferson County Courthouse in Port Townsend.

It was said to have been built in 1892 in the Romanesque-Revival style, and designed by architect W. A. Ritchie.

W. A. Ritchie was said to have won numerous competitions for county courthouses and other public buildings in the early 1890s, and was the first architect to achieve statewide reputation in Washington.

Other buildings attributed to him, besides the Jefferson County Courthouse, include:

The Old Capitol Building in Olympia, Washington, said to have been built between 1890 and 1892…

…and the Spokane County Courthouse in Spokane, Washington, said to have been built in the French Revival and Chateauesque architectural styles in 1895.

She sent me this photo of the historic Hastings Building in Port Townsend, said to have been built starting in 1889 and completed in 1890, and designed by Elmer H. Fisher in the Romanesque architectural style of the Victorian-era.

It was considered to be the city’s most elegant building, and has always been utilized as commercial and office space.

Elmer H. Fisher was considered best-known for his architectural work in rebuilding Seattle after the 1889 Great Fire of Seattle, though interesting to note that he began and ended his career as a carpenter, while practicing as an architect in Washington between 1886 and 1891.

Besides the Hastings House in Port Townsend, he was credited with the design of the Romanesque-style Pioneer Building in Seattle, the construction of which was said to have started in 1889 and was completed by 1892.

EM also sent me a photo of the James and Fisher Building in Port Townsend.

The architectural firm of Fisher and Clark (Elmer H. Fisher and George Clark) were credited with its design, and that it was built in 1889, and owned by Francis W. James and Lucinda Hastings.

Like the Hastings Building, the James and Hastings building has also operated as commercial and office space throughout its history.

EM mentioned that there is also a “Rothschild House” in Port Townsend.

The Rothschild House was said to ahve been built by David Charles Henry Rothschild as a family home in 1868, and operates as a museum today.

He had immigrated from Bavaria in Germany to the United States in the mid-1840s.

Shortly after settling in Port Townsend in 1858, David Rothschild, known as “The Baron,” he established a business there that not only operated as a mercantile store, but as well as provisioned ships and did some marine salvage work.

Just want to take a look at a couple of other places in the area before I leave Port Townsend – Fort Worden, Fort Flagler, and then Fort Casey on Whidbey Island.

Fort Worden was said to have been constructed between 1898 and 1920 and as an artillery corps base to protect Puget Sound from invasion by sea, and was active as a U. S. Army base between 1902 and 1953.

From 1957 until its closure in 1971, it was utilized by the State of Washington as a Juvenile Detention facility, after which time it was turned into state park

The address for the Fort Worden State Park is 200 Battery Way E in Port Townsend.

The Point Wilson Lighthouse is on the grounds of the Fort Worden State Park, and considered to be one of the most important navigational aids in the state, where it overlooks the entrance to Admiralty Inlet that connects the Strait of Juan de Fuce with Puget Sound.

Reportedly the second lighthouse said to have been built here, it was said to have been completed in 1914, replacing an earlier one that opened in 1879.

Fort Flagler was located in nearby Nordland, Washington, at the northern end of Marrowstone Island at the entrance of Admiralty Inlet, and the Marrowstone Point Lighthouse is located nearby.

We are told that Fort Flagler, along with Fort Worden and Fort Casey, was part of a Coast Artillery said to have been built starting in the 1890s that guarded Admiralty Inlet and the entrance to Puget Sound, the major cities of which include Seattle and Tacoma.

Fort Casey was located on Whidbey Island, the largest island in Washington State, and forms the northern border of Puget Sound.

The Admiralty Head Lighthouse is located within the Fort Casey State Park.

We are told these three forts were intended to be a “Triangle of Fire” against invasion from the sea.

So, there are a couple of points I would like to make here.

First, I typically find star forts in pairs or clusters, as seen here where they form a triangle in relationship to each other.

You see the same kind of geometric relationship between star forts on Alderney, one of the Channel Islands.

Here’s a view of Fort Houmet Herbe in the foreground in a triangular relationship with Fort Quesnard on the top left, and the ruins of Fort Les Hommeaux Florains on the top right.

One definition of the “battery” is a device that produces electricity that may have several primary or secondary cells arranged in parallel or series, as well as a battery source of energy which provides a push, or a voltage, of energy to get the current flowing in a circuit. 

Another meaning of the word battery is the heavy fire of artillery to saturate an area rather than hit a specific target, and which has come to be associated with all of these so-called forts.

A third definition of battery is an assault in which the assailant makes physical contact.

I think they are telling us what these structures actually were in the first answer – that these star forts functioned as circuitry and batteries for the purpose of producing electricity and/or some form of free energy to power the Earth’s grid system and the advanced civilization, and that this is the reason there star forts are found in pairs and clusters.

The second definition of battery points to the re-purposing of these structures as artillery locations in the new time-line in order for them to appear to have a strictly military function.

And does the third definition battery apply here?

I think it does, in the sense that a major assault has been committed against the Human Race by all that has taken place here without our knowledge and consent, and removing all of this critical information from our awareness about the True History of Humanity, and so, so much more.

Another thing I would like to bring forward is the consistent finding of light houses co-located with star forts as seen in this example of one at each of the three star forts at the entrance to Puget Sound.

I don’t think lighthouses functioned as advertised either.

While I do believe that lighthouses likely served to guide ships through maritime passages, I also think they were serving multiple purposes on the earth’s grid system.

Perhaps “lighthouses” were literally functioning as “a house for light” for the purposes of precisely distributing the energy generated by this gigantic integrated system that existed all over the Earth that was in perfect alignment with everything on Earth and in heaven.

Next, HS directed my attention to her hometown of Yakima, Washington.

One of the nicknames of Yakima is the “Heart of Central Washington,” and is a productive agricultural region known in particular for apples, wine, and the hops used for beer-making.

There were a number of places that HS directed my attention to in Yakima.

First, she said the A.E. Larson building has always stood out as very odd to her, even as a small child.

The A.E. Larson Building was said to have been built by entrepreneur Adelbert E. Larson in 1931, and designed in the Art Deco architectural style by local architect John W. Maloney.

At eleven-stories, it was and is the tallest building in Yakima.

The architect John W. Maloney was credited with the design of numerous buildings in Washington, Alaska, and California, including but not limited to the Shaw-Smyser Hall at Central Washington University in Ellensburg…

…the Old Providence Hospital in Anchorage, Alaska, that opened in 1939 and operated through the Sisters of Providence…

…and St. John’s Hospital in Santa Monica, California, which opened in 1942 and operated through the Sisters of Charity.

Then there’s A. E. Larson’s Rosedell mansion in Yakima.

Here’s what we are told about it.

It was said to have been built between 1904 and 1909 for Adelbert E. Larson and his wife Rose (hence “Rosedell”).

The Larson’s lived here until Rose’s death in 1945, and the property was willed to the city for the purpose of turning the mansion into an art gallery. The City of Yakima, however, sold the property and the money provided for its upkeep, and used the funds to create the Larson Art Gallery at the Yakima Valley Community College.

The property went through several owners of the years, and sat empty for 18-years before being purchased by new owners who converted the mansion into a Bed-and-Breakfast, which opened in 2009.

HS sent me a picture of the Capitol Theater, a performing arts venue in downtown Yakima, originally featuring Vaudeville acts. Today it is the home of the Yakima Symphony Orchestra.

It was said to have been designed in the Renaissance architectural style by Scottish architect B. Marcus Priteca, and first opened in April of 1920.

Industrialist Chester A. Congdon was an attorney and mining magnate was credited with funding the building the Yakima Valley Canal, said to have been built in 1894 for the purposes of irrigation.

The privately-owned Congdon Castle was said to have been built for him between 1914 and 1915 (which would have been during World War I).

Congdon died in 1916, the year after construction was said to have been completed.

Congdon Castle is surrounded by fruit orchards, and trolley tracks running out to the Congdon Orchards used to run along the south-side of the castle.

The Yakima Valley Trolley system started operating in 1907.

In 1911, we are told that a concrete and masonry powerhouse substation was built to provide the DC electricity needed to operate the trolleys. It is a museum today.

The trolley car system operated as a city service for all intents and purposes until it was terminated in 1947.

In 2001, the Yakima Valley Trolleys Association was formed, and began to operate a rail service for the city of Yakima, and is called the “last authentic, all-original, turn-of-the-century interurban railroad int he United States.”

The Carbonneau Castle was said to have been built in Yakima by Brenda Mulrooney Carbonneau in 1908.

Brenda Mulrooney was an enterprising Irish-born and said to be the richest woman in the Klondike, having made her first fortune as a merchant during the Klondike Gold Rush, which took place in the Yukon between 1896 and 1899, which she lost but subsequently made another fortune doing other things.

Today it is a flower and gift shop.

The Carmichael Castle is located in Union Gap, a city in the Yakima Valley.

It was said to have been built in 1902 in the Queen Anne architectural-style by Elizabeth Carmichael, the enterprising Scottish-born owner of the Yakima Creamery.

Next, Viewer M suggested that I look into Pembroke and Pembroke Dock in West Wales.

Pembroke has many historic buildings, walls, and complexes, including:

Pembroke Castle, described as a medieval stone fortress founded by the Normans in 1093, the seat of the powerful Earls of Pembroke and the birthplace of King Henry VII…

…and Monkton Priory, across the Pembroke river from the Pembroke Castle, and said to have been founded in 1098 by the Anglo-Norman magnate Arnulf de Montgomery and granted to the Benedictine Order.

So, a couple of things to point out here, first about these two locations as seen on Google Earth.

Pembroke Castle has the appearance of a star fort with rounded bastions.

There are different shapes and styles of star forts all over the Earth, like these two in Puebla, Mexico – Forts Loreto and Guadalupe situated across from each other.

So it wouldn’t surprise me to find out that Monkton Priory and its grounds are in a star fort configuration as well.

The two locations are connected by what is called the Monkton Bridge…

…and on one side of the Monkton Bridge is what is called the “Monkton Pill.”

Though located right next to each other, Pembroke and Monkton are considered two separate towns.

The narrow Lower Commons are below the Monkton Bridge, where it looks like it could have been part of the water’s course at one time.

The Pembroke River flows past Pembroke Castle to the Milford Haven Waterway at the Pennar Mouth.

The Pembroke River is said to start at Manorbier Newton and meander its way to Lamphey and flows past the Pembroke Castle in Pembroke…

…but the Pembroke River doesn’t make an obvious appearance until it enters Pembroke.

When it enters Pembroke, there are three pools, the first of which is the Mill Pond, the second is the Middle Mill Pond, and the third is the Castle Pond below the Pembroke Castle.

The Mill Pond was said to be a former tidal inlet.

The Mill was an ancient corn mill powered by the tidal flow of the inlet, built soon after the Pembroke Castle was founded and granted to the Knights Templar in 1199.

A Mill said to have been at this location since 1830 was destroyed by fire in 1956 and only the foundations remain.

The Pembroke Train Station is a short-walk from the Pembroke Castle, and was said to have first opened in 1863, with the line being extended to Pembroke Dock a year later.

The original train station building was built out of limestone.

It was demolished in the 1970s and replaced with the current shelter.

The construction of the South Wales Railway was said to have been proposed in an 1844 prospectus, and opened in stages starting in 1850.

It connected the Great Western Railway to South Wales.

Pembroke Dock is a town that is located 3-miles, or 4.8-kilometers northwest of Pembroke, and situated on the River Cleddau.

Originally called Paterchurch, it grew quickly after Royal Navy Dockyards were founded here in 1814.

It ceased being used as a dockyard by the Royal Navy in 1926, not long after World War I ended, for the given reason of lack of funding.

The Royal Air Force occupied the site from 1926 to 1930, using the former dockyards as a station for seaplanes and flying boats.

During World War II, it was used as a home for international forces for flying boats, air force squadrons and naval crews.

The “Defensible Barracks” at the Pembroke Dock was said to have been built in the 1840s to house the Royal Marines based at the Royal Navy Dockyards and to cover the landward side of the dockyard from an infantry assault.

It is described as a 20-sided stone masonry fort with a dry moat.

It was acquired by a private developer in 2019, and is currently up-for-sale in for 1.2-million Euros.

One section of it has already been converted into apartments, and it is being marketed for residential or commercial use.

One more place I would like to take a look at here is the Milford Haven Waterway.

The Milford Haven Waterway is described as a natural deepwater harbor and part of an estuary that was formerly a valley drowned at the end of the last Ice Age.

As I was looking into the Milford Haven Waterway, I found five more star forts and a lighthouse.

Let’s take a deeper look!

The Stack Rock Fort was said to have been built on a small island in the waterway between 1850 and 1852 with 3-guns, and then upgraded in 1859 with a new building to totally encase the original gun tower.

There are two other star forts near Stack Rock Fort in the Milford Haven Waterway – one on Thorne Island and the other called the Chapel Bay Fort.

Thorne Island is dominated by what is described as a coastal artillery fort built in the 1850s to defend the Milford Haven Waterway, as there was concern about the expansionist policy of the French Emperor Napoleon III and the increasing strength of the French Navy.

The Chapel Bay Fort was said to have been built between 1890 and 1891 as part of the inner line of defense of the Haven, following the plan of the “Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom,” a committee formed in 1859 at the instigation of Lord Palmerston, Queen Victoria’s Prime Minister, to enquire into the ability of the United Kingdom to defend itself against attempted invasion by a foreign power, and to advise remedial action to the British government if such a situation arose.

Before I move over to St. Ann’s Head on the west-side of the Milford Haven Waterway, where there is a lighthouse, and two forts, I would like share information with you about so-called Palmerston Forts on the Isle of Wight and the Solent, the strait between the Isle of Wight and mainland Great Britain.

There were approximately 20 of these Palmerston structures along the west and east coast of the Isle of Wight, all of which were said to have been constructions resulting from the 1859 Royal Commission on the Defense of the United Kingdom.

The four forts in The Solent in appearance look like the Stack Rock Fort in the Milford Haven Waterway, which in turn in shape to have the appearance of a spark plug.

The coastal areas of the Solent are estuaries and have status as protected lands, like the New Forest National Park on one-side of the Solent, which interestingly includes the Exbury Gardens & Steam Railway…

…and the Exbury Gardens are world-famous for the collection of Rhodedendrons and Azaleas of its Rothschild owners.

Now over to St. Ann’s Head, where we find the lighthouse bearing its name; the West Blockhouse Fort and the Dale Fort.

First, the St. Ann’s Head Lighthouse.

Trinity House was said to have first built two lighthouses here in 1714 at the entrance to the Milford Haven Waterway to guide ships around rocks hazardous to shipping.

The St. Ann’s Head Low Lighthouse was said to have been re- built in 1844 because of cliff erosion endangering the original

Trinity House, also known as the Corporation of Trinity House of Deptford Strong, established by Royal Charter in 1514, and the official authority for lighthouses in Wales, England, the Channel Islands, and Gibraltar.

It is also a maritime charity, taking care of retired seamen, training young cadets, and promoting safety

The funding for the work of lighthouse services comes from the levying of “light dues” on commercial vessels calling at British ports based on net registered tonnage.

The West Block House Fort on West Block House Point is described as a mid-19th-century coastal artillery fort that was also constructed in response to the perceived threat of invasion of the forces of French Emperor Napoleon III, who came to power in 1851.

And, we are told, intended to protect the entrance to the Milford Haven Waterway by means of interlocking fire with the fort on Thorne Island and the Dale Fort on St. Ann’s Head, also said to have been built as a coastal artillery fort in the mid-19th-century.

Today Dale Fort is a center run by the Field Studies Council, offering field work for schools and other course offerings.

I mentioned the estuary lands of the Solent, the strait separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Great Britain, and the Exbury Gardens in the New Forest National Park.

I noticed the Gower Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) to the southeast of Pembroke and Pembroke Dock along the coastline of South Wales, and decided to go take a look at what they tell us about it.

In 1956, most of the Gower Peninsula became the first area in the United Kingdom to be designated as an “Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty,” an area that has been designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value.

In my research, I have consistently found the world “natural” to be a cover-up code word for the original civilization.

The Gower Peninsula is bounded to the North by the Loughor Estuary and Swansea Bay to the East.

Worm’s Head is located at the furthest westerly point of the Gower AONB.

Worm’s Head is described as a headland of three islands comprised of “carboniferous limestone,” meaning the collective term for the succession of limestones occurring widely throughout Great Britain and Ireland during the Dinantian Epoch of the Carboniferous period, which occurred roughly 340-million years ago.

Worm’s Head is only accessible on foot for 2 1/2-hours either side of low tide, and yes, people have gotten stuck out there.

The formation known as the “Devil’s Bridge” is located on the middle island.

It is important to note here that limestone was a popular building material in the Ancient World.

I just want to point out that limestone was a common building material in the ancient world, and used in constructions like the Pyramids of Giza…

…and the Western Wall, also known as the “Wailing Wall,” an ancient limestone wall in the old city of Jerusalem.

The Goat’s Hole Cave, one of the Paviland Caves in Gower, was excavated in 1823, and is considered one of the most famous archeological sites in Great Britain due to the discovery of the “Red Lady of Paviland,” though the skeleton has since been determined to have been of a man.

The skeletal remains were dyed in red ochre, and said to date back to 31,000 BC and recognized as the earliest ceremonial burial in Europe and the first human fossil remains found in the world.

The Gower Peninsula is home to what is called the “Parc le Breos” burial chamber, a chambered long barrow or cairn, believed to have been constructed during the Neolithic age in Britain, around 6,000 BC and discovered in 1869 by workmen digging for road stone.

What I am aware of from other such long barrows in Great Britain is that they have important astronomical and landscape alignment features, and most likely not built to be burial chambers.

The West Kennet long barrow in the Avebury Complex is a great example of what I am talking about.

I saw a presentation by Peter Knight about the West Kennet Long Barrow for the Glastonbury Megalithomania Conference in 2011, several years before I started putting all of this together in 2016. From watching it, I gained an important piece of the puzzle, well before I really understood what it meant.

In Peter Knight’s presentation, his focus was primarily on the West Kennet Long Barrow in the Avebury complex, which is a greater sacred landscape that is precise and intricate.

He talked about sight lines in his presentation, which refers to a normally unobstructed line-of-sight between an intended observer and a subject of interest.

So, for example, in this view from Windmill Hill, there is a visual connection between Windmill Hill, Silbury Hill, and the West Kennet Long Barrow seen here.

All of the sites in the complex are perfectly aligned in some manner with each other.

There are abundant solar and lunar markers in the Avebury landscape.

Here is a winter solstice sunset seen in the landscape from the entrance of the West Kennet Long Barrow…

…and it is framed in the entrance of the West Kennet Long Barrow as seen from inside the Long Barrow on the solstice, when light streams through to special stones waiting at the end of the chamber.

There are also abundant astronomical markers inside the long barrow, in the chambers within.

From inside the West Kennet Long Barrow, there are places where you can see things at certain times, like the Equinox moonrise…

…and the Pleiades.

We are told there are eight remaining standing stones known as “menhirs” in the Gower Peninsula, out of nine that were originally here.

King Arthur’s Stone was one of them.

It has a 25-ton, or 23-metric-ton, capstone, and also described as a chambered burial tomb.

The presence of the large capstone was attributed to its being a glacial erratic, a massive piece of rock carried by glacial ice, and we are told that builders of the tomb dug underneath and supported it with upright stones to create a burial chamber.

While the term “glacial erratic” is used frequently to describe such massive structures found in North America, like Tripod Rock at the Pyramid Mountain Natural Historic Area in Kinnelon, New Jersey…

…around the world these structures are known as “dolmens,” classified as a single-chambered megalithic tomb.

By the way, there are tons of what are designated as glacial erratic boulders in Washington State, including but not limited to, the following:

Back on the Gower Peninsula, we are told the Romans built a trapezoidal fort called Leucarum at the mouth of the River Loughor in the late first-century to house a regiment of Roman auxiliary troops.

Its remains are located beneath the town of Loughor, on the estuary of the River Loughor.

The Loughor Railway Station was on the South Wales Railway, which today is the West Wales Line, from Swansea to Llanelli.

Isambard Kingdom Brunel was an English civil and mechanical engineer who was credited with the building of the Great Western Railway, along with dockyards and steamships, and called “one of the 19th-century engineering giants,” and “one of the greatest figures of the industrial revolution.”

The Loughor Viaduct going across the River Loughor was said to be the last remaining timber viaduct designed by Kingdom Brunel in 1852.

The old viaduct was replaced and the new one opened in April of 2013.

A section of the old viaduct sits next to the new viaduct in order to recognize it as an important historic monument.

The last place that I would like to take a look at on the Gower Peninsula is Mumbles, a headland situated on the western edge of Swansea Bay.

The building of the Mumbles Lighthouse was said to have been completed in 1794, and we are told the Mumbles Battery, a Palmerston fort, was built around the base of the lighthouse between 1859 and 1861.

Mumbles Pier was said to have opened in 1898 at the terminus of the Swansea and Mumbles Railway.

The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was the world’s first horse-drawn public passenger train service.

It first opened in 1804 to transport iron ore from the Clyne Valley and limestone from the quarries of Mumbles, and then opened in 1807 to passenger train service.

Steam-power replaced horse-power in 1877, and was used until 1929, when it switched to electric-power until the closure of the line in 1960.

Mumbles had both historical limestone quarries and was part of the Gower lime burning industry, which operated between 1840 and 1960.

The lime-burners job was to removed quick lime from limestone heated in what were called lime kilns to be used for things like building mortars.

This lime kiln looks like a really old stone building to me!

One of the last lime kiln quarries of this industry was the Colts Hill Quarry, immediately west of Oystermouth Castle, which produced both limestone and marble, in addition to quick lime.

Marble is a form of limestone capable of taking on a high polish, like this example of a memorial made from Mumbles marble at the Margam Abbey Church across Swansea Bay from Mumbles.

The Oystermouth Castle in Mumbles was said to have been a Norman stone castle built during the 1100s, and was already said to have been in decay by 1650, when it was described as such in a survey of Gower at that time.

When I was reading an article about “Elliptical Polarization” awhile back, I encountered the diagram showing the efficiency in decibels of the axial ratio of two antenna, and the shapes formed in the graph immediately brought this common shape of windows in cathedrals on the right, compared with the chapel window at Oystermouth Castle.

Were these windows actually functioning as antennae for sound?

Oyster beds and oysters were plentiful in the waters around Mumbles, and the hey-day of the oyster-harvesting industry was from 1850 until 1873, after which time the oyster industry went into decline as a mainstay of the economy for a variety of reasons, including the coming of the railroad and the growth of Mumbles as a tourist destination.

As always, there is much more to find here, but now I am going to wrap things up with a summary of my findings.

Here are the similarities and correlations I have found between Washington State, South Wales, and a few other places that have come to mind in the process of doing the research for this.

First, we have the presence of forts that were said to have been built as coastal artillery batteries to protect the entrances to important waterways.

Starting in the mid-19th-century, we are told that three Palmerston Forts in a triangular configuration were constructed at the entrance to the Milford Haven Waterway as a coastal artillery forts designed to provide “interlocking fire” in the event of an invasion from the forces of the French Emperor Napoleon III.

Then, later in the 19th-century through the early 20th-century, three forts were said to have been built in the Admiralty Inlet at the entrance to Puget Sound as coastal artillery forts designed to create a “Triangle of Fire” in the event of an invasion from the sea.

There are lighthouses in both places.

Not surprisingly, right, as all of these are coastal areas needing lighthouses to guide ships?

But what if lighthouses served as something much greater than just as navigational aids for ships, as I suggested previously.

Lighthouses are typically found in conjunction with these forts in some capacity.

As I surmised previously in this post, what if these forts were actually functioning as batteries on the Earth’s worldwide energy grid system, and the lighthouses were precisely distributing the energy generated by this gigantic integrated system that existed all over the Earth?

Then there are castles in both places, with the turrets commonly associated with them.

In Wales, they are typically dated to having been constructed during the Norman period in 1100s in Welsh history, like the Pembroke Castle on the right.

In Washington State, there are a number of “castles” that were said to have been built as residences for entrepreneurs in the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries.

There are massive, multi-ton boulders called “Glacial Erratics” in both South Wales and Washington State, which we are told were massive pieces of rock carried by glacial ice, like the capstone of King Arthur’s Stone on the Gower Peninula of South Wales, and the Lake Lawrence Erratic in the Puget Sound region of Washington.

Then, there are estuaries.

Again, an estuary is defined as a partially-enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with brackish meaning a combination of salt-water and fresh-water.

Puget Sound in Washington State is described as a complex estuary system of connected marine waterways and basins, and was said to have been carved out by the advance and retreat of massive glaciers during Ice Ages.

The ten major river drainages into the Puget Sound include: the Cedar/Lake Washington Canal; and the Green/Duwamish; Elwha; Nisqually; Nooksack; Puwallup; Skagit; Skokomish; Snohomish; and Stillaguamish.

The Milford Haven Waterway is described a natural deep harbor that was originally a valley drowned at the end of the last ice age.

The Daugleddau Estuary is part of it, and was formed the coming together of four rivers in the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park: the Western and Eastern Cleddau and the Carew and Creswell.

This is a photo of the confluence of the East Cleddau and the West Cleddau…

…and here are a few of examples of many river confluences that look very much the same.

We are told all of these rivers are natural, but I have come to believe from my research that we are looking at what were originally canal systems that were found all over the Earth.

Port Isabel on the Texas Gulf Coast is a good example of what I am talking about.

Port Isabel is located next to an estuary system called the “Laguna Madre Bay.”

The otherwise land-locked Laguna Madre Bay has two channels connecting it to the Gulf of Mexico. One is at Port Isabel, which becomes the 17-mile, or 27-kilometer, Brownsville Ship Channel…

…and the other is at Port Mansfield.

Then in Port Isabel itself, there are artificially-made channels and canals throughout the city.

There are many more examples of this all over the world, but this is the first one that came to mind.

As seen earlier, the River Loughor Estuary is at the northern end of the Gower Peninsula in South Wales.

Lastly from this post, there are estuaries found throughout the Solent, the strait that separates the Isle of Wight from mainland Great Britain…

…an area which also has numerous star forts known known as Palmerston Forts, said to have been built starting in the mid-19th-century as a result of the recommendations from the 1859 Royal Commission on the Defense of the United Kingdom.

There are many more estuaries around the world, but these coastal estuaries across continents and oceans are examples of why I think coastal landmasses sank relatively recently, and that we have been given a brand new historical narrative superimposed over the original infrastructure and civilization to tell us what happened.

Personally, I believe that the submerging of earth’s land masses was caused by a deliberately created cataclysm or cataclysms by malevolent beings who had a plan to take-over the Earth’s original civilization for their own benefit.

For another example, just a short-distance down the Pacific Coast from Washington State, in Portland, Oregon, there is a visible star fort point at the Smith & Bybee Wetlands Natural Area, which is now the location of the Bybee Lakes Hope Center for the homeless.

This urban wetlands area in Portland is located right next to the BNSF Ford Railyard. I am finding that it is not uncommon to find the presence of historical railyards and rail-lines co-located with estuaries and wetlands and forts, like what we are told was the historic Leucarum fort that is now underneath the city of Loughor on the Loughor Estuary in South Wales, with Loughor Viaduct railroad bridge crossing beside it to this day as mentioned previously.

So, what does it all mean?

Is it evidence for one original worldwide advanced civilization that was completely integrated in all ways that we know nothing about, with a false historical narrative to cover it up?

Or evidence for colonization and importation of everything from one place to another as we have always been taught to believe?

The definition of Statistical Significance is a determination that a relationship between two or more variables is caused by something other than chance.

I have presented evidence of more than two variables that would be the minimum requirement of correlations between Washington State, South Wales, and a couple of other places, to be considered statistically significant.

Yet our historical narrative leads us to believe that all of the Earth’s infrastructure came into existence as a result of random factors, like some guy in the past bought the land upon which _________________ eventually became a large city.

The definition of random includes, among others, “lacking a definite plan, purpose, or pattern.’

Besides what I have presented here, I have found many examples in past research of the flimsy nature of the randomness explanation vs. the plentiful evidence for the planned nature of an original worldwide civilization.

I am going to end this post here, and will continue to investigate your suggestions in the on-going series “All Over the Place via Your Suggestions.”

Seeing World History with New Eyes – 1981 to 1983

I am giving an overview of modern history with an eye towards uncovering the patterns that give insight into the world we live in today.

Now I am going to look at the 1980s with new eyes, starting with 1981 ~ the year I graduated from high school.

So far, the uncovered patterns show events and people being manipulated for particular outcomes, deceiving us about what was really going on to gain our consent, partitioning one country into two, setting up two different political systems, and then instigating them to fight each other…

…and things like seeing Communist regimes take down hereditary rulers in Cambodia, Iran, and Ethiopia in the 1970s, leading to massive repression, suffering, and death.

Now let’s see what was happening upon my entry into adulthood!

On January 19th, Iran and the United States signed an agreement to release the 52 Iranian hostages after 14-months, or 444-days, of captivity, of which the release took place on the following day, minutes after the inauguration of Ronald Reagan as the President of the United States.

Just a little over two months after his inauguration, there was an assassination attempt on President Ronald Reagan by lone gunman John Hinckley Jr. on March 30th.

Hinckley was said to be seeking fame in order to impress actress Jodie Foster, with whom he was obsessed.

Then on May 13th, there was an assassination attempt on the life of Pope John Paul II as he entered St. Peter’s Square to greet his supporters by the Turkish gunman Mehmet Ali Agca.

The first cases of AIDS recognized by the CDC took place on June 5th.

AIDS is the acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a disease caused by the HIV virus, and short for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, a retrovirus that inserts a copy of its RNA genome into the DNA of the host cell it invades, and interferes with the person’s immune system.

It was said to originate from monkeys in West Central Africa.

On August 12th, IBM released the original 5150 IBM PC in the United States, the first of the IBM PC, which had a substantial influence on the personal computer market.

On October 6th, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat was assassinated, and Hosni Mubarak was elected president on October 14th, who was Egypt’s President for the next 30 years.

There were gas explosions at the Hokutan Shinko coal mine on October 16th, at the time Hokkaido’s newest mine in Japan, killing 93 people.

On December 1st, a Yugoslavian charter flight crashed into a mountain peak on the island of Corsica, killing all 180 passengers on-board.

A week later, on December 8th, the Number 21 Mine explosion took place in Whitwell, Tennessee, killing 13 people.

On December 11th, the El Mozote massacre took place during El Salvador Civil War, where a Salvadoran Army unit killed 900 civilians.

On January 7th of 1982, the Commodore 64 8-bit home computer was launched by Commodore International in Las Vegas, becoming the highest-selling single personal computer model of all-time.

Air Florida Flight 90 crashed into the 14th-Street Bridge in Washington, D. C. on January 13th, shortly after take-off, and landed in the Potomac River, killing 78, allegedly due to a series of pilot errors that resulted from the pilot not turning on the engines’ internal ice protection systems.

On the same day in the same city, a Washington Metro subway train derailed, killing 3 people.

Four Thunderbird aircraft in a demonstration squadron crashed in the Indian Springs Diamond Crash in Nevada on January 18th.

The first computer virus, called the Elk Cloner, which infected Apple 2 computers via floppy disk, was found on January 30th. It was written by Rich Skrenta, who was 15-years-old at the time.

Skrenta is currently a computer programmer and Silicon Valley entrepreneur.

On February 9th, Japan Airlines Flight 350 crashed in Tokyo Bay, killing 24 of the 174 people on board, with blame attributed to deliberate actions of the captain of the plane.

The Ocean Ranger oil platform sunk during a storm off the coast of Newfoundland, killing all of the 84 rig workers on it at the time.

The invasion of the British Overseas Territory of the Falkland Islands, off the coast of Argentina, began on April 1st of 1982, when Argentine forces land near Stanley, marking the beginning of the Falklands War.

British administration of the islands was restored at the end of the war, two-months later.

There was an assassination attempt in London on the life of Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, on June 3rd, which was used for the justification of the start of the Lebanon War of 1982, where on June 6th the Israeli Defense Forces invaded southern Lebanon to go after Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) forces operating there.

Also known as “Operation Peace for Galilee,” the Lebanon War lasted until 1985.

Sao Paolo Airways, known as VASP, Flight 168 crashed into a forested hillside in Fortaleza in Brazil on June 8th, killing 137 people.

The cause of the crash was attributed to pilot error.

A month later, on July 9th, Pan Am Flight 759, crashed in Kenner, Louisiana, killing all 146 on board the plane, and 8 on the ground.

The cause of this crash was said to be due to a microburst shortly after take-off from New Orleans, with a microburst being a strong, ground-level wind system.

On July 20th, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated two bombs in Central London, one in Hyde Park, and the other in Regent’s Park, killing 8 soldiers, wounding 47 people and killing 7 horses.

The Chicago Tylenol Murders occurred between September 29th and October 1st after 7 people die in the Chicago-area after taking Tylenol capsules laced with potassium cyanide.

No suspect was ever charged or convicted for the poisonings.

On November 7th, a gas tanker exploded in the Salang Tunnel in Afghanistan, with estimates of the death toll ranging from 176 to 2,700.

There was no clear cause of the explosion given, of which the gas tanker was said to be part of a Soviet military convoy, with claims ranging from it being an accident to a successful terrorist attack.

The Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day Fire took place on November 25th and 26th of 1982, and destroyed two buildings covering an entire block in downtown Minneapolis.

One was the Northwestern National Bank Building, said to have been built in 1930 by the architecture firm of Graham, Anderson, Probst, and White…

…and the other was the abandoned Donaldson’s Department Store.

The fire was said to have been started by juvenile arsonists using an acetylene torch, though they were never charged.

Minneapolis’ famous “Weatherball” sat on top of the Northwestern National Bank Building, which predicted the weather based on the color it was displaying, was also destroyed in the fire.

Starting on December 3rd, a final soil sample was taken at Times Beach in Missouri, which had 300-times the safe level of dioxin and on December 23rd, the EPA recommended evacuation of the community based on these results.

On February 23rd of 1983, the EPA announced its intention to buy-out and the entire population of Times Beach was subsequently relocated.

So, apparently what happened was an independent contractor was hired to dispose of concentrated dioxin waste from a chemical company in the area.

The contractor was the owner of a small waste-oil business, who mixed the dioxin waste into motor oil tanks, which he then used to coat local horse arenas and roads for dust suppression, starting in 1971.

The site of Times Beach has housed a state park since 1999 commemorating Route 66, and the EPA removed Times Beach from its Superfund list 2001.

Now on to 1983.

January 1st marked the beginning of the true internet when ARPANET, or the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, migrated to TCP/IP, the Internet Protocol Suite.

In Turin, Italy, a fire in the Cinema Statuto killed 64 people on February 13th.

The largest disaster in Turin since World War II, the fire was said to have started from flames spread by an old curtain, and that the burning of the theater seats created hydrogen cyanide fumes, of which inhalation was the primary cause of death of the victims.

All but one of the theater’s emergency exits was said to have been closed and locked.

Three days later in Australia, the Ash Wednesday bushfires took place in the States of South Australia and Victoria on February 16th.

They were a series of bushfires that within 12 hours there were 180 fires fanned by winds up to 68 mph, or 110 kph, made worse by severe drought and extreme weather.

The fires claimed the lives of 75 people and caused widespread destruction.

The Nellie Massacre took place on February 18th, described as one of the worst pogroms since World War II, which is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or expulsion of an ethnic or religious group.

In a six-hour period there was a varying estimate of between 2,100 and 10,000 Muslim residents of Assam in northeastern India, after natives of the area were enraged, so we are told, that Prime Minister Indira Gandhi made the decision to give millions immigrants from Bangladesh the right-to-vote.

On March 8th, IBM released the Personal Computer XT, model 5160, similar to the model 5150 except that it had a hard-drive built-in and extra expansion slots.

The Ismaning Radio Transmitter, the last wooden radio tower in Germany, was demolished on March 16th, after having been defunct since 1977.

It was a large radio transmitting station that started operating in Bavaria, Germany in 1932.

The U. S. Embassy bombing in Beirut took place on April 18th.

It was a suicide bombing that killed 32 Lebanese, 17 Americans, and 14 visitors, and considered the beginning of Islamist attacks on U. S. targets.

Suicide attacks and bombings are any violent attacks in which the attackers accept their own death as a direct result.

Between 1981 and 2015, over 4,800 suicide attacks occurred in over 40 countries, killing an estimated 45,000 people.

On May 20th, the Church Street car-bombing took place in Pretoria, South Africa, killing 16 and injuring 130 people.

Responsibility for it was claimed by a military wing of the African National Congress.

The Benton Fireworks Disaster took place on Webb’s Bait Farm in Benton, Tennessee on May 27th, where we are told there was an explosion at an unlicensed and illegal fireworks operation, resulting in 11 deaths and 1 injury.

The initial explosion was heard 20-miles, or 32-kilometers, away.

On June 13th, Pioneer 10 passes the orbit of Jupiter, an American space probe that was launched in 1972, and the first of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity needed to leave the solar system.

Meanwhile back on earth, on June 18th, seventeen-year-old Iranian teenager Mona Mahmudnizhah and nine other women were hanged at the order of the Iranian Revolutionary court for the crime of being members of the Baha’i faith in the Islamic Republic of Iran, after being imprisoned and tortured.

A North Korean plane crashed into a mountain in the West African country of Guinea on July 1st, resulting in 23 deaths and attributed to pilot error.

On July 15th, the Turkish Airlines counter at the Orly Airport in Paris was bombed by the Armenian Terrorist Organization ASALA, killing 8 people and injuring 55.

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam killed 13 Sri Lankan soldiers in an ambush on July 23rd, immediately after which an anti-Tamil pogrom started that escalated into spontaneous mass violence with significant public participation.

Over a period of 7 days in what is known as “Black July,” mobs attacked, burned, looted and killed Tamil targets, with a death toll with a death toll estimated at over 3,500, and their homes and shops destroyed.

This was seen as the beginning of the Sri Lankan Civil War, which lasted until 2009.

On August 21st, Benigno Aquino Jr., a Filipino political leader who was in opposition to President Ferdinand Marco, was assassinated at the Manila International Airport upon his return from a self-imposed exile.

The old Philadelphia Arena, an auditorium used mainly for sporting events, was destroyed by arson on August 24th.

Korean Airlines Flight 007 was shot down by a Soviet Air Force air-to-air missile when it flew into Soviet prohibited airspace due to what we are told was a navigational error, killing all 269 people on-board, on September 1st.

Gulf Air flight 771 crashed in the desert in United Arab Emirates on September 23rd after a bomb exploded in the baggage compartment, killing 112.

Palestinian terrorist organization Abu Nidal group was believed to have planted the bomb, allegedly to convince Saudi Arabia to pay protection money to the Abu Nidal group to avoid attacks on their soil.

The Rangoon Bombing took place on October 9th.

The South Korean President Chun Doo-Hwan and his delegation were in Rangoon, the capital of Burma, and went to the Martyrs’ Mausoleum there to lay a wreath.

Three bombs detonated during the visit, killing 21 and injuring 46. The South Korean President survived, but other senior officials in his administration did not.

It was believed to have been perpetrated by North Korean agents.

The Beirut Barracks Bombing took place on October 23rd, where simultaneous suicide truck bombings destroy both the French Army and Marine Corps barracks there, killing 307 and injuring 75, with Hezbollah believed to be behind it, an Islamist militant group based in Lebanon.

Armed forces of the United States and a coalition of six Caribbean nations invaded the island nation of Grenada on October 25th, and lasted for four days.

It resulted in the toppling of the Communist People’s Revolutionary Government, the removal of the Cuban military presence, and the restoration of the former government.

There was a bombing in the Senate of the U. S. Capitol building on November 7th, with the intent to kill Republican Senators by the May 19th Communist Organization, a U. S.-based terrorist organization formed by the Weather Underground Organization, in retaliation for the U. S. military involvement in Grenada and Lebanon.

There were no deaths or injuries as a result of the bombing.

On November 27th, Colombian Avianca Flight 11 crashed into a hill near Barajas Airport in Madrid, Spain, killing 181 of the 192 on-board, and attributed to pilot error in making a wrong turn on approach.

It was the worst accident in the history of Avianca and mainland Spain.

A little over a week after the Avianca crash, on December 7th, two Spanish passenger planes crashed on a foggy runway at a Madrid airport, killing 93 people, and known to history as the Madrid Runway Disaster.

Then on December 17th, the Alcala 20 Nightclub Fire occurred in the center of Madrid, in which 82 people were killed and 27 injured out of the 600 in the building at the time.

An exit on an upper floor was locked, and a main exit to an adjoined building was closed with an iron-grill, during the fire.

In London on December 17th, the same day as the Alcala 20 Nightclub Fire in Madrid, the Harrod’s bombing took place.

Members of the Provisional Irish Republican Army planted a time-bomb in a car in front of Harrod’s Department Store, and issued a 37-minute warning before it exploded, during which time the area was evacuated. Six people were killed and 90 injured.

Two bombs exploded in France on December 31st, one on a high-speed train in Paris…

…and one in the luggage room of Marseille’s terminus train station.

The Venezualan terrorist Carlos the Jackal was convicted for these terrorist acts many years later, in December of 2011.

It seems like between 1945 and 1980, there were more regional civil wars, conflicts and proxy wars going on, where events and people in certain places were manipulated for particular outcomes, and at the same time, deceiving us about what was really going on to gain our consent; the implementation of communism in places around the world, with things taking place like citizenry being forced onto collectivized farms and subsequent famines resulting in the deaths of millions

…and the beginnings of terrorism as we have come to know it.

And then fast forward to doing this research now, and realizing that ALL HELL BROKE LOOSE ALL OVER THE EARTH STARTING IN 1981 in a way that I did not realize the year I graduated in high school.

Multiple Assassination attempts and assassinations; AIDS; explosions in mines; frequent plane crashes and planes blown out of the air by bombs; many massacres and atrocities against innocent civilian populations; regular people traumatically dying at theaters and night clubs, and fires of all kinds; suicide bombings; and on and on and on. And that is just from 1981 to 1983.

Certainly, some of the incidents attributed to accident could have actually been accidents, but back then, we didn’t even think about the possibilty they could have been intentionally caused for maximum psychological effect.

As we shall see, our collective human consciousness has been continuously seeded from 1981 onward with the notion we could meet a violent, horrible death, randomly, at any given moment, by forces beyond our control, and genocide was committed on large numbers of people in populations where there was armed conflict around the world, and that somehow all of this is normal. Over the years, our collective consciousess has been raised about false flags, defined operations committed with the intent of disguising the actual source of responsibility and pinning blame on a second party.

It is also interesting from the beginning of the 1980s forward was when the personal computer and internet came into being in our lives, ultimately allowing us to instantneously connect with each other all over the world and by-pass Mainstream Media for news and information. Definitely a very important development for our mass awakening and a way out of tyranny and dystopian nightmare that was planned for us.

Has the Earth’s population been experiencing a very calculated and undeclared Psychological War based on terror and trauma against all of Humanity for the last 40-years to bring us to what is going on against Humanity in the world in which we live in today?

There are many clues that what has taken place is part of someone or something’s blueprint, not the least of which is this quote attributed to Albert Pike regarding World War III in 1871. Albert Pike, the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Scottish Rite’s Southern Jurisdiction, was believed to have written a letter to Italian Illuminatist Giuseppe Mazzini, with the military blueprint for three world wars.

This was what Pike was reported to have said with regards to World War I:

The First World War must be brought about in order to permit the Illuminatit to overthrow the power of the Czars in Russia and of making that country a fortress of atheistic communism.

His reported words with regards to World War II:

The second World War must be fomented by taking advantage of the differences between the fascists and the political Zionists. This war must be brought about so that Nazism is destroyed and that the political Zionism be strong enough to institute a soverign state of Israel in Palestine. During the second World War, International communism must become strong enough in order to control Christendom

And this about World War III:

The third World War must be fomented by taking advantage of the differences caused by the “agentur” of the “Illuminati” between the political Zionists and the leaders of the Islamic World. The war must be conducted in such a way that Islam and political Zionism mutually destroy each other.

Let’s just say for the sake of argument that Pike didn’t actually write these things in a letter to Mazzini in 1871.

But even if he didn’t, doesn’t this sound very familiar, like it was what has actually already taken place, and has been taking place in world history?

Seeing World History Since 1945 with New Eyes – Part 1 1945 – 1960

I am going to give an overview of modern history in this video series, starting with the three major wartime conferences between the United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union – the Big Three of the Allied Powers during World War II – on up through the present-day, and see what comes to the surface that gives us more insight into the patterns that have led to the world we live in today.

I already have a feeling the patterns of what has taken place for Humanity since 1945 are not going to be nice.

The first Big Three wartime conference, the Tehran Conference was actually held in November of 1943, in which the Allies committed to open a second front against Nazi Germany, and two years after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in August of 1941.

Reza Shah Pahlavi was deposed in September of 1941 as a result of the British and Soviet Invasion of Iran during World War II because he was seen as a German ally even though Iran had maintained neutrality in the conflict, and the invasion took place purportedly to secure Iran’s oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines along the Persian Corridor.

He was replaced as Shah by his young son at the time, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi…the last Shah, or Emperor, of Iran.

The next of the Big Three wartime conferences was the Yalta Conference, which was held between February 4th and 11th of 1945, near Yalta in Crimea, a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in what was the Soviet Union at the time.

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss the post-war reorganization of Germany and Europe.

Much was agreed to by the Big Three at the Yalta Conference, but what I want to highlight is the Declaration of Liberated Europe; the ratification of the agreement of the European Advisory Commission; and the groundwork for the United Nations.

The Declaration of Liberated Europe was created by the leaders of the three nations as a promise to allow the people to create democratic institutions of their own choice, and pledged the earliest possible establishment through elections governments responsive to the will of the people.

So this is what they all said…but what actually happened?  More on this soon.

The European Advisory Commission (EAC) allowed each occupying power full control over its occupying zone, and the subsequent Cold War was reflected in the partition of Germany as each occupying force could develop its zone on its own without influence from any overseeing body.

More on the Cold War shortly.

With regards to the formal establishment of the United Nations in San Francisco in June of 1945…

…all the parties at the Yalta Conference agreed to an American plan concerning voting procedures in the Security Council, which had expanded to five permanent members ~ which were, with the inclusion of France, China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

It was only 6 months after the Japanese surrender that Winston Churchill proclaimed that “an iron curtain had descended across central Europe.”

On the east side of the curtain were the countries connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union, while on the west side were the countries that were NATO members or nominally neutral.

The third Big Three wartime conference was held in Potsdam, Germany between between July 17th and August 2nd in 1945.

They gathered to decide how to administer Germany after its unconditional surrender nine-weeks earlier on the May 8th of 1945.

Franklin Roosevelt’s death occurred on April 12th of 1945, and his Vice-President Harry S. Truman succeed him and represented the U. S. as President at the Potsdam Conference…

…and on July 28th, the new Prime Minister Clement Atlee replaced Winston Churchill as the representative for Great Britain at the Potsdam Conference.

A number of changes had occurred since the Yalta Conference that greatly Big Three relations in Potsdam.

By the time of the Potsdam Conference, the Soviet Union occupied central and eastern Europe – with the Red Army effectively controlling Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania – claiming this region was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence as well as a defensive measure against future attacks.

Outcomes of the Potsdam Conference included, but was not limited to: the division of Germany and Austria into four occupation zones, with their capitals of Berlin and Vienna divided into four zones as well; the prevention of Nazi activity and preparation for the reconstruction of Germany into a democratic state; the decision to put Nazi war criminals on trial; war reparations to Allied countries; and the dismantling of Germany’s war industry.

It is important to note that during the same time period as the Potsdam Conference, the United States successfully tested the first atomic bomb on July 16th at Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

The Potsdam Declaration was issued on July 26th, an ultimatum calling for the surrender of all Japanese forces or Japan would face prompt and utter destruction.

By August 5th of 1945, the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, destroying the city and killing over 70,000 people…

…and the second atomic bomb was dropped on the ship-building center of Nagasaki on August 9th, several days later, killing around the same number of people as Hiroshima.

Japan formally surrendered on August 15th of 1945, with the formal treaty signed on board the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2nd of 1945.

The Potsdam Declaration was intended by the Big Three to be the legal basis for administering Japan after the war, and after Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Japan General Douglas MacArthur landed there in September, it served as the legal basis of the occupation’s reforms.

While the Emperor Hirohito was allowed to remain on the imperial throne, the Japanese constitution was completely overhauled, and the Emperor’s powers became strictly limited by law, and a parliamentary democracy was installed as the new form of government.

Also, after the August 15th surrender of Japan in 1945, the Korean peninsula was divided at the 38th-parallel into two zones of occupation, with the Soviets administering the northern half, and Americans the southern half.

In 1948, as a result of Cold War tensions, the occupation zones became two sovereign states – socialist North Korea and capitalist South Korea.

The governments of the two new Korean states both claimed to be the only legitimate Korean government, and neither accepted the border as permanent.

The beginnings of the Cold War are firmly rooted in the events of 1945.

Lasting from the formulation of the Truman Doctrine in 1947 until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, it was called “cold” because there was no direct fighting between the United States and the Soviet Union, but engaged instead in proxy wars by supporting different sides of major regional conflicts.

Truman was much more suspicious of the Soviets than Roosevelt had been, and saw Soviet actions in central and eastern Europe as aggressive expansionism.

President Truman announced the Truman Doctrine to Congress on March 12th of 1947, where he asked for money to contain the communist uprisings in Greece and Turkey.

It was an American foreign policy which had the stated purpose of containing Soviet geopolitical expansion and generally considered the start of the Cold War.

It led to the formation of NATO in 1949, a military alliance between western nations that still exists today.

The Warsaw Pact was signed in 1955 as a counter-balance to NATO between the Soviet Union and seven other eastern-bloc social republics of Central and Eastern Europe, and created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO.

Aside from nuclear arsenal development under the doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction, said to have been intended to discourage a pre-emptive attack by either side, and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance between the United States and the Soviet Union was expressed by psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, rivalry at sporting events, and the Space Race.

The Berlin Blockade, which took place between June 24th of 1948 and May 12th of 1949, was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.

The Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies power, railway, road, and canal access to the sectors in Berlin under western control during the multi-national occupation of Berlin.

In response the western allies organized the Berlin Airlift, which lasted from June 26th of 1948 to September 30th of 1949, to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, flying over 200,000 sorties in one year to provide the people of West Berlin food and fuel.

Let’s see what’s going on in other parts of the world in the mid-1940s.

In China, the Chinese Civil War was fought off-and-on between the Nationalist Republic of China and the Chinese Communist Party from 1927 to 1949.

Hostilities were being put on-hold between 1937 and 1945, when the two factions united in the face of the Japanese invasion of China and establishment of its puppet-state Manchukuo.

Generally referred to as the Chinese Communist Revolution, the Communists gained control of mainland China in 1949, forcing the leadership of the Nationalist Republic of China to retreat to the island of Taiwan.

The Partition of India in 1947 divided British India into the Hindu-majority Union of India and the Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan…

…displaced 10 – 12 million people in forced mass migrations to the newly-constituted dominions, and created overwhelming refugee crises, as well as large-scale violence, thereby establishing the conditions for suspicion and hostility between these two countries that has existed into the present-day.

This movement of people started after India’s official Independence Day from Great Britain on August 15th of 1947.

So much for the non-violent independence movement Mohandas Gandhi had led for 25-years prior, and Gandhi himself was assassinated on January 30th of 1948.

Now with regards to the creation of the State of Israel.

Great Britain had been granted a colonial mandate for Palestine and Transjordan by the League of Nations on April 25th of 1920, which lasted until the formation of Israel in May of 1948.

A League of Nations Mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another after World War I, in this case territories that were conceded by the Ottoman Empire following the end of World War I in 1918.

Despite growing conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Palestinian Jews, Truman ultimately decided to recognize Israel.

David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the establishment of the modern State of Israel on May 14th of 1948, and President Truman recognized the new nation on the same day.

On the same day the new State of Israel was proclaimed, and the British Army withdrawn, gun-fire broke out between Jews and Arabs, and Egypt had launched an air assault that evening.

The Korean War started in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25th following clashes along the border and insurrections in the South.

North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea by the United Nations, principally from the United States.

The United Nations Security Council denounced the North Korean move as an invasion, authorizing the formation of the United Nations Command and forces to Korea, and the decisions to do this were made without the participation of Security Council members China and the Soviet Union.

One of the first major engagements of the war was the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter between the UN Command and North Korean forces, which took place between August 4th to September 18th of 1950, in which UN forces fought of North Korean forces for six-weeks, and ultimately were able to break free from the perimater, a 140-mile, or 230-kilometer, long defensive line around the southeastern tip of South Korea.

Shortly after a UN counter-offensive was launched from Incheon in September of 1950, the Chinese entered the war, triggering a retreat of UN forces, and by December, China was in South Korea.

The Korean War ended in 1953, during which time there was a back-and-forth going on – Seoul was captured numerous times, and communist forces were pushed back to the 38th-parallel numerous times, creating a stalemate in the ground-war.

From the air, North Korea was subject to a massive U. S. bombing campaign, and the Soviets flew in covert missions in defense of their Communist allies.

The Korean Armistice Agreement was signed on July 27th of 1953, ending the fighting; creating the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to separate North and South Korea; and allowing for the return of prisoners.

No peace treaty was signed, however, and the two Koreas are still technically at war in a frozen conflict.

The Korean War was one of the most destructive conflicts of modern times, with around 3,000,000 deaths due to the war, and proportionally, a larger civilian death toll than either World War II or the Viet Nam War; caused the destruction of nearly all of Korea’s major cities; and there were thousands of massacres on both sides.

The Geneva Conference was convened in 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, to settle unresolved issues from the Korean War and the First Indochina War in Viet Nam, and attended by representatives from the United States, France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the People’s Republic of China, as well as from Korea and Viet Nam.

The Geneva Conference was held in the Palace of Nations, the home of the United Nations Office in Geneva, said to have been built between 1929 and 1938 to serve as the headquarters of the League of Nations, the forerunner of the United Nations.

While no declarations or proposals were adopted with regards to Korean situation, the Geneva Accords that dealt with the dismantling of French Indochina would have major ramifications.

The French military forces in Viet Nam, formerly part of French Indochina, had been decisively defeated in May 7th of 1954 by the Communist Viet Minh forces under Ho Chi Minh at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.

The very next day the discussions on French Indochina began at the Geneva Conference, and the western allies did not have a unified position on what the conference was to achieve in relation to French Indochina.

The Geneva Accords establish North and South Vietnam with the 17th parallel as the dividing line, and the French agreed to remove their troops from North Viet Nam.

The agreement also stipulates that elections are to be held within two years to unify Vietnam under a single democratic government.

These elections never happen.

The non-Communist puppet government set up by the French in South Viet Nam refused to sign.

The United States also refused to sign on, with the belief that national elections would result in an overwhelming victory for the communist Ho Chi Minh who had so decisively defeated the French colonialists.

Within a year, the United States helped establish a new, anti-Communist government in South Viet Nam, and began giving it financial and military assistance.

A mass migration took place after Viet Nam was divided.

Estimates of upwards of 3 million people left communist North Viet Nam for South Vietnam, going into refugee status in their own country, and many were assisted by the United States Navy during Operation Passage to Freedom.

An estimated 52,000 people moved from South to North Viet Nam, mostly Viet Minh members and their families.

The Chinese occupation of Tibet started in 1950, when China invaded Tibet and engaged in a military campaign at the Battle of Chamdo to take the Chamdo Region from an independent Tibetan state, one of three traditional provinces of Tibet along with Amdo and U-Tsang.

As a result, Chamdo was captured by the Chinese, and Tibet was eventually annexed when the State Council of the People’s Republic of China dissolved Tibet on March 28th of 1959, and it became known as the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in 1965.

Since that time, over a million Tibetans have been killed, and monks, nuns, and lay-people who protest ending up as political prisoners who are tortured and held in sub-standard conditions.

China has a policy of resettlement of Chinese citizens to Tibet; Chinese is the official language; and Tibetans have become a minority in their own country.

Tibet’s spiritual and temporal leader, the 14th-Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, and other Tibetan refugees escaped to Dharamsala in India during the 1959 Tibetan Uprising, where he established the Central Tibetan Administration, the Tibetan government in exile which is not recognized by China.

Joseph Stalin passed away in 1953.

The guy who was so chummy with the other leaders at the Big Three wartime conferences was a brutal dictator.

He rose to power in 1924 after Lenin’s death, and became a dictator, ruling by terror with a series of brutal policies which left countless millions of his own citizens dead.

Between 1928 and 1940, Stalin enforced the collectivation of the agricultural sector, by stripping people who owned land and livestock of their holdings, forcing people to join collective farms, and rounding up and executing higher-income farmers, and confiscating their land.

Instead of increasing the food supply, this policy caused food shortages, which in turn led to what was called the Great Famine between 1932 and 1933, with millions of people perishing from starvation.

The height of Stalin’s terror campaign was known as the Great Purge, taking place between 1936 and 1938, during which time an estimated 600,000 Soviet citizens were executed, and millions more were deported, or imprisoned in forced labor camps known as gulags.

Not a nice man.

Neither was Chairman Mao, who was doing much the same kinds of things to his people in China.

For one example, Mao and the Chinese Communist Party launched the Great Leap Forward in 1958 for the citizenry to industrialize China by the mass mobilization of the country’s population into agriculturally-based communes to increase grain supply.

It had the same effect as forced farming collectives had in the Soviet Union, resulting in the Great Chinese Famine, with an estimated number of deaths ranging between 15- and 55-million, the largest in history, not to mention that researchers give of up to 3-million people being tortured to death or executed for violating the policy.

The Cold War-era Nuclear Arms Race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, Soviet Union and their respective allies.

The first Soviet atomic bomb was detonated on August 29th of 1949.

A ring of spies in the Manhattan project led by German physicist Klaus Fuchs and American physicist Theodore Hall had kept Stalin well-informed on the American progress, including detailed designs.

Fuchs arrest in 1950 led to the arrest of other suspected Russian spies, including Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, who were convicted of espionage in 1951 and executed in 1953, the first American civilians to be executed for such charges and the first to suffer that penalty during peacetime.

Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 67 nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands, vaporizing whole islands, carving craters into its shallow lagoons, and exiling hundreds of people from their homes.

Novaya Zemlya is a boomerang-shaped island off the northern coast of Russia, where there is a history of nuclear testing by the Russians, including over 224 nuclear detonations at Novaya Zemlya between 1955 and 1990. 

The most powerful nuclear weapon ever, the hydrogen bomb “Tsar Bomba,” was detonated at Novaya Zemlya in 1961.

The Chinese Nuclear Weapons Test Base had four nuclear testing zones at Lop Nur, a former salt lake in China’s Uighur Autonomous Region, starting in 1959 – with H-Bomb detonation in 1967 – until 1996, with 45 nuclear tests conducted.

France had its nuclear testing program in Reggane in Algeria between 1960 – 1961, before Algeria’s independence. They conducted four atmospheric nuclear tests, which contaminated the Sahara Desert with plutonium, negatively impacting those who live here to this day – not only Reggane, but far beyond.

Between 1960 and 1966, a total of 17 nuclear tests were conducted in the Reggane District of Algeria. It is called Africa’s Hiroshima.

The Space Race was a competition to achieve spaceflight firsts, with origins in the ballistic-missile-based nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union following World War II.

Quickly achieving spaceflight capabilities such as satellites, uncrewed space probes, and human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the moon was seen as necessary for national security.

The beginning of the Space Race was seen as the date of August 2nd of 1955, when the United States announced it was going to launch artificial satellites for the International Geophysical Year, and the Soviets responded by saying they were going to launch on in the near future, and they ended up having the first successful launch, with Sputnik I on October 4th of 1947.

The peak of the Space Race was considered to be the what we are told was the United States landing the first humans on the moon on July 20th of 1969 with the Apollo 11 mission.

Senator Joseph McCarthy became the public face of a period of time in which Cold War tensions propelled fears of widespread Communist subversion in the United States.

In 1950, one of the U. S. Senators from Wisconsin, McCarthy said he had the names of 205 Communists working at the State Department, which prompted the Senate to form a special committee to look into the allegations, the outcome of which was said to not find much supporting evidence.

When he became chair of the Senate Permanent Investigations subcommittee in 1952, McCarthy called more than 500 people before the committee for questioning – people in the federal government, universities, the film industry, and elsewhere.

He was ultimately censured by the Senate in 1945 for “conduct unbecoming a senator.”

The definition of McCarthyism is making baseless accusations of subversion or treason without any proper regard for evidence, especially when referring to Communism.

A lot of what we see playing out in our world right now makes me wonder if these claims about communist infiltrators was baseless…or actually based in fact….

The short-lived Hungarian Uprising took place from October 23rd of 1956 to November 10th of 1956 against Soviet control and policies, and was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II.

The symbol of it was the Hungarian flag with the communist emblem cut-out.

Starting out as a student protest, the movement turned into a much larger revolt, and the government collapsed, and thousands organized themselves in militias battling the Hungarian army and Soviet troops.

The revolution was ultimately crushed when a large Soviet force invaded Hungary and by January of 1957, a new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all opposition.

The Suez Crisis of 1956 was an invasion of Egypt by Israel followed by the British and French to regain western control of the Suez Canal and remove Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser who had just nationalized the canal, which prior to that was owned primarily by Britain and France.

The invasion was quickly stopped upon political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations.

Britain and France were humiliated and Nassar was strengthened.

Fidel Castro came to power in 1959 after overthrowing Cuban President Fulgencio Batista via guerrilla warfare, and subsequently assuming military and political power as Cuba’s Prime Minister.

He was ideologically a Marxist-Leninist and Cuban Nationalist, and under his administration, Cuba became the first one-party Communist state in the western hemisphere.

The United States opposed Castro’s government, and Castro aligned himself with the Soviet Union.

More on Castro’s Cuba in the next part of this series.

The first CERN particle accelerator became operational in Geneva, Switzerland on February 5th of 1960, described as a unique tool for penetrating deeper into the knowledge of matter.

On March 6th of 1960, it was announced that 3,500 American soldiers were going to be sent to Viet Nam for the first time, after North Viet Nam escalated military operations against South Viet Nam.

As seen in this blog post, there are patterns that can be detected when looking at the historical narrative. These patterns seen in the period of time from 1945 to 1960 show how events and people were manipulated for particular outcomes benefiting the world powers at the expense of other countries and their people.   At the same time, they were deceiving us about what was really going on in order to gain our consent, like with the examples of partitioning one country into two, setting up two different political systems, and then instigating them to fight each other, and the inherent brutality against Humanity of communism, to name a few. 

We are conditioned to see all of this as normal, but it’s not! 

Someone or something is benefiting from it all, but not Humanity.

Seeing World History with New Eyes – 1961 to 1980

I am looking for the patterns in the historical narrative itself that give us more insight into the world we live in today.

So far the patterns I found between 1945 and 1960 show events and people being manipulated for particular outcomes benefiting the world powers at the expense of other countries and their people, and at the same time, deceiving us about what was really going on to gain our consent, like with the examples of partitioning one country into two, setting up two different political systems, and then instigating them to fight each other, like in the cases of Korea and Viet Nam, and the inherent brutality against Humanity of communism.

Let’s see what comes to the surface in our historical narrative of this nature between 1961 and 1980, those events about which we have been taught about and which the older generations alive today have memory of happening, either from experience or the news.

My starting point for “Seeing World History with New Eyes – 1961 – 1980” is the Berlin Wall.

Soviet Premier Nikita Khruschev ordered the Berlin Wall to be built in 1961 after 160,000 East German refugees crossed into West Berlin following major food shortages.

Berlin was located entirely within the Soviet part of the country.

As mentioned previously in this series, during the Yalta Big-Three Conference held in February of 1945, the European Advisory Commission (EAC) allowed each occupying power full control over its occupying zone, and the subsequent Cold War was reflected in the partition of Germany as each occupying force could develop its zone on its own without influence from any overseeing body.

Berlin was split into similar sectors.

The Soviets took the eastern half, while the other Allies took the western. This four-way occupation of Berlin began in June 1945.

Subsequently, in August of 1961, the Communist government of East Germany, also known as the German Democratic Republic, began to build a wall of concrete and barbed wire between East Berlin and West Berlin.

It was built ostensibly to prevent western “fascists” from entering the country, but the even bigger reason was to contain the citizens of East Berlin, and made it harder for them to leave, not that they didn’t try.

Berlin Wall-GettyImages-1060974188

Once the wall was constructed the only access between East Berlin and West Berlin was via three checkpoints – Alpha, Bravo, and Charlie.

On June 26th of 1963, John F. Kennedy delivered a famous addresses to a crowd of more than 120,000 in West Berlin, in which he said “I am a Berliner.”

Also, during John F. Kennedy’s administration, United States tensions with Fidel Castro’s Cuba intensified after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion between April 17th and 20th of 1961, when Cuban exiles invaded via a counter-revolutionary military brigade that were secretly funded by the CIA, and included some U. S. military personnel and trained in Guatemala.

However, the brigade was badly outnumbered by Castro’s troops, and they surrendered after 24-hours of fighting.

The Cuban Missile Crisis took place the year before Kennedy’s speech in Berlin, which started on the 16th of October in 1962, and ended a little over a month later.

It was a confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union which is considered the closest the two countries came to full-scale nuclear war, when the Soviet Union deployed nuclear ballistic missiles to Cuba as a response to the United States deploying nuclear ballistic missiles to Italy and Turkey.

An agreement was reached between Nikita Kruschev and Fidel Castro to place the missiles on the island in the summer of 1962 at Castro’s request to deter future invasions, and the construction of missile sites on Cuba was confirmed by U-2 spy plane photos.

After consulting with the National Security Council, Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of Cuba on October 22nd, in order to stop further missiles from reaching Cuba.

The blockade was formally lifted on November 20th of 1962, after negotiations between the United States and Soviet Union resulted in the dismantling of their offensive weapons, and a U. S. promise not to invade Cuba again.

Civil Wars started in Guatemala in 1960 between the government and leftist rebel groups supported by the Maya and Ladinos, a distinct Spanish-speaking ethnic group, who comprise the rural poor in Guatemala.

Civil Wars in Guatemala lasted until 1996.

The military forces of the Guatemalan government have been condemned for genocide of the Maya and for widespread human rights violations against civilians, with some of the context being longstanding issues of unfair land distribution.

Companies such as the American United Fruit Company controlled much of the land in Guatemala, conflicting with the rural poor.

The United Fruit Company came into being with the merger of Minor C. Keith’s banana trading business and the Boston Fruit Company of Andrew W. Preston in 1899, and came to control large parts and transportation networks of Central America, and maintained a monopoly in certain regions which became known as Banana Republics, like Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica.

The United Fruit Company, monopolized all of Guatemala’s banana production and export, as well as owning the country’s telegraph and telephone system, and most of its railroad track.

The United Fruit Company has been described as an exploitative multinational corporation that influenced the economic and political development of these countries in a deep and enduring way.

The company known today as Chiquita Brands International came out of the United Fruit Company.

It is interesting to note that in 1897, two years before United Fruit Company was formed, the Central American Exposition was held in Guatemala.

We are told it was constructed to highlight the railroad between Iztapa on the Pacific Coast and Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic Coast, but that for a variety of reasons, including the railroad not being finished at the time of the Exposition, it was considered a dramatic failure for Guatemala.

In Viet Nam by the time of John F. Kennedy’s death in November of 1963, there were 16,000 American military personnel, and the Gulf of Tonkin incident took place in 1964, an international confrontation after which the United States engaged more directly in the Viet Nam War.

The first Gulf of Tonkin incident took place on August 2nd of 1964 between ships of North Viet Nam and the United States.

The description of what took place is as follows:

Three North Vietnamese torpedo boats approached the naval destroyer U. S. S. Maddox and attacked it with torpedos and machine gun fire.

Damages said to have come about as a result of the ensuing battle were: one U. S. aircraft; all three North Vietnamese torpedo boats and 4 North Vietnamese deaths; and one bullet hole on the naval destroyer, and no American deaths.

There was initially allegedly a second incident on August 4th of 1964, this second occurrence has long been said not to have taken place.

And then there are the people who believe the first Gulf of Tonkin incident never happened either.

Whether or not the Gulf of Tonkin incidents actually happened, they were used as an excuse for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed by Congress on August 7th of 1964, giving President Lyndon B. Johnson authority to help any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be in jeopardy of Communist aggression, and was considered the legal justification for the beginning of open warfare with North Viet Nam and the deployment of American troops to Southeast Asia, of which, with the institution of the draft, there were over 500,000 troops sent by 1966.

Even the country neighboring Viet Nam in Southeast Asia, Laos, had its own problems with the Viet Nam war spilling over, with Laos being bombed by American planes starting in 1964, in retaliation we are told, for the shooting down of an American plane by insurgents, and after which bombing runs over Laos intensified, with over 100,000 bombing runs on Laos’ eastern border with North Viet Nam.

There were numerous hot wars going on in diverse places in the 1960s in the aftermath of World War II, too many to go into great detail but this is a list of what was happening:

The Portuguese Colonial Wars took place in the years between 1961 and 1974 involving the Portuguese military and nationalist movements in Portugal’s African colonies, primarily in the countries of Angola, Mozambique, and Portuguese Guinea.

The Indo-Pakistani War in 1965, a 17-day conflict in September of that year between India and Pakistan that caused thousands of deaths on both sides and featured a large engagement of armored tank vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.

The Six-Day War between Israel and the neighboring Arab states of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria took place in June of 1967.

By the end of the Six-Day War, Israel had gotten control of the Sinai Peninsula, and the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, and East Jerusalem.

The eight-year-long Algerian Civil War ended in 1962, at which time Algeria became independent from France, but only after armed conflict between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front, involving guerilla warfare, the use of torture, and civil wars between and within different communities of Algerians.

Other examples of Civil Wars starting in Africa in the 1960s include the countries of Sudan; Chad; and Nigeria.

There were two Civil Wars in Sudan.

The first Sudanese Civil War lasted for 17-years, from the time tensions started to develop in 1955, to the Addis Ababa agreement in 1972, between the northern part of Sudan, and the southern Sudan region that wanted representation and more regional autonomy.

During that 17-year-period, over half-million people are estimated to have died.

This is what we are told.

The British government administered the primarily Muslim and Arab Northern Sudan and mostly Christian and animist Southern Sudan as separate regions under international sovereignty until 1956, at which time the two regions were merged into a single administrative region as part of British strategy in the Middle East, and without the consultation of the minority southern leaders, who were fearful of being absorbed into Northern Sudan, for whom the British had shown favoritism, and tensions between the North and South escalated between the two.

Following Sudan’s independence from Britain, the southern ruling class were powerless in the merged Sudan’s politics and government compared to the northern ruling class, and unable to address the injustices against their people.

Hostilities escalated characterized by insurgencies and political turmoil…

…including in-fighting between Marxist and non-Marxist factions in the ruling military class.

What is “just war” theory?

There must be six conditions met before a war is considered “just:”

  1. The war must be for a just cause.
  2. The war must be declared lawful authority.
  3. The intention behind the war must be good.
  4. All other ways of resolving the problems should be first tried.
  5. There must be a reasonable chance of success.
  6. The means used must be in proportion to the ends that the war seeks to achieve.

How must a “just war” be fought:

  1. Innocent people and combatants should not be harmed.
  2. Only appropriate force shall be used.
  3. Internationally agreed conventions regulating war must be obeyed.

The 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement was observed by Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie, and led to more regional autonomy for South Sudan, and while providing stability for South Sudan for a number of years, it was only temporary with the onset of the Second Sudanese Civil war between 1983 and 2005.

The history of Sudan goes back to the Pharaonic period of ancient Egypt, with the Kingdom of Kerma in ancient Nubia (dated from 2500 to 1500 BC)…

…the Egyptian New Kingdom dated between 1500 BC and 1070 BC…

…and the Kingdom of Kush, dated from 785 BC to 350 AD, with its royal capital at Meroe, located on the Nile River where it flows through in northeast Sudan in northeastern Africa.

There have been roughly three Civil Wars in Chad since independence from France in 1960. 

The first one started in 1965 and lasted until 1979, and was waged by rebel factions against the authoritarian and corrupt regime of Chadian President Francois Tombalbaye.

At the time of Chad’s independence from France in 1960, roughly half of the population was Muslim and lived in the north and eastern parts of the country, and the other half was Christian and animist and lived in the southern part of the country.

Chad Civil War

Apparently, President Tombalbaye was from the southern part of the country, granting favors to his political supporters in the South while at the same time marginalizing the rest of the country.

He also filled prisons with thousands of people he believed were his opponents, whether they really were or not.

Tension and discontent grew, and several opposition groups started to organize a resistance movement.

Initially, Tombalbaye’s military crushed civilian demonstrations in 1962, and he relied heavily on French support to maintain power.

The Chadian Civil War officially started with the Mangalme, or Mubi, Uprising in September and October of 1965, involving a series of riots that started after a tax increase on personal income, which was tripled in certain areas.

Local citizens accused the government of corruption and tax collection abuses.

The military was sent in and crushed the riots, killing approximately 500 people.

Thus began the 14-year-long first Chadian Civil War.

Tombalbaye was eventually killed in coup in 1975, and was replaced by the former commander of the national army, Felix Malloum.

Malloum was a southerner with strong kinship ties to the North, who thought he could reconcile Chad’s divisions.

In the summer of 1977, rebels under the command of Goukouni Oueddei and supported by Libya, launched an offensive from the northern part of the country, and was the first time modern Soviet military equipment came into the Civil War, forcing Malloum to ask for help from France.

After the 1977 Khartoum Peace agreement, two Chadian northern military leaders, Hissene Habre and Goukouni Oueddei, came together in order to oust the southern government of Felix Malloum on March 23rd of 1979.

Then, Goukouni Oueddei seized power later that year, and became President of the Transitional Government of National Unity, composed of northerners supported by different factions that were close to Habre.

This state-of-affairs triggered the Second Chadian Civil War between 1979 and 1986.

Chad in the modern-day is one of the poorest countries in the world, with most of its inhabitants living in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers.

Here’s another way of looking at Africa…

…and Chad has sizeable reserves of crude oil, which is the country’s primary source of export earnings.

The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Biafran War, began in July of 1967, and ended in January of 1970, between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra, representing the nationalist desires of the Igbo people as a result of violence and repression against them by the Nigerian government after the British de-colonized Nigeria between 1960 and 1963.

Apparently control over the oil-rich Niger delta was also a strategic factor in the war.

The Nigerian government used genocide and starvation as a weapon to win the Civil War by blockading Biafra from civilization.

A humanitarian airlift was organized to supply food to the people of Biafra during the years of the civil war, but the whole conflict brought suffering and death to the innocent.

The Cultural Revolution in China lasted from 1966 to 1976.

It was a violent social and political purge under Mao Zedong, Communist Party of China (CPC) Chairman, with the stated goal of removing traditional and capitalist elements from Chinese society in order to preserve Chinese Communism.

Soon, Chairman Mao called on young people to “bombard the headquarters” in schools, factories, and government institutions apparently in order to eliminate his rivals within the CPC.

He insisted that middle-class elements in Chinese society who wanted to restore capitalism be removed through violent class struggle.

The death of Chairman Mao in 1976 ended the Cultural Revolution.  During this ten-year period, there was an estimated death toll of somewhere between hundreds-of-thousands to 20 million, and severely damaged China’s economy and traditional culture.

Civil War started in Cambodia in 1967, and lasted until 1975.

It was a war fought between the government forces of the Kingdom of Cambodia under Prince Sihanouk and the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea, known as the Khmer Rouge, supported by North Viet Nam and the Viet Cong.

Cambodia is in Southeast Asia, sandwiched between Thailand, Laos, and Viet Nam.

Prince Sihanouk’s policies in the early 1960s initially protected his nation from the turmoil that engulfed Viet Nam and Laos.

His balancing act eventually went awry with all the forces-at-play during that time, and ultimately the Khmer Rouge seized power in 1975, and Prince Sihanouk was exiled.

Between 1975 and 1979, Cambodia was ruled by Pol Pot, General Secretary of the Communist Party, and his Khmer Rouge party, leading to the genocide of the Cambodian people, considered to be one of the bloodiest in history, in which an estimated 1.5 – 2 million deaths occurring, in part due to Pol Pot’s goals of turning Cambodia into a socialist agrarian Republic by forced relocation of its people to labor camps in the countryside.

Many people were just taken out into fields and summarily executed, giving us the name of “The Killing Fields,” the title of a 1984 film about the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia based on the experiences of two journalists, one Cambodian and one American.

The Troubles in Northern Ireland lasted from 1969 to 1998.

Though the terms Catholic and Protestant were used to refer to the two sides, it was more of a political and nationalistic conflict that was fanned by historic events.

Though there are differences of opinion on the exact start of the Troubles, two events in August of 1969 are generally agreed to officially constitute the beginning of them.

The first occurred on August 12th of 1969 in Derry, Northern Ireland.

That was the first day of what was called the Battle of the Bogside, a very large communal riot between residents of the Bogside area, a majority nationalist-Irish-Catholic community outside the walls of Derry.

Fighting took place between the Catholic Irish Nationalists, and the Royal Ulster police, which was formed after the partition of Ireland in 1922, and Protestant Irish Unionists professing loyalty to the British Crown.

The event which provoked the onset of hostilities was the occurrence of an Apprentice Boys of Derry parade, a fraternal Protestant society founded in 1814 to commemorate the 1688 & 1689 Sieges of Derry, when there were two attempts by the Catholic King James II of England & Ireland and VII of Scotland, the first one of which was foiled by thirteen Apprentices.

When the parade ended, fighting erupted between local unionists and police on one-side and Catholic nationalists on the other side, and rioting continued for three days.

Among other things, local boys climbed onto rooves in order to bomb the police below with projectiles, which came to included stones and home-made gas bombs.

The second event was the arrival of British troops in Bogside on August 14th of 1969.

The unrest and violence of The Troubles escalated across Northern Ireland between the Irish Catholic Nationalists and Irish Protestant Unionists for thirty years to come.

Between 1971 and 1979, Idi Amin was Uganda’s President.

He was considered one of the most brutal dictators in world history, with his rule of Uganda characterized by rampant human rights abuses, and persecution of certain ethnic groups and political dissidents among other things.

The 1972 Munich Olympics are remembered for the occurrence of the Black September Palestinian terrorist attack the second week of the Olympics, in which 8 terrorists took nine members of the Israeli Olympic team hostage after killing two of the team’s members and a West German police officer.

I remember this happening very well.

I was nine-years-old at the time and enjoying watching the Olympic Games.

Then this happened.

The Palestinian terrorists demanded the release of 234 Palestinian prisoners held in Israeli jails and the West German-held founders of the German far-left militant group Red Army Faction, Baader and Meinhof.

Five of the eight Black September terrorists were killed in a failed attempt to rescue the demanded hostages.

The three surviving terrorists were arrested, but then released in a hostage exchange following the hijacking of Lufthansa Flight 615, a Palestinian terrorist attack aimed at securing the release of the three surviving terrorists.

When the three Palestinian Prisoners were released, the Israeli government authorized Operation Wrath of God to track them down and kill them. Two out of the three were believed to have been killed.

Looking back on the 1972 events at the Munich Olympics with what we know now versus what we knew then, I have to ask the question if this was an early false flag event.

A false flag in our modern terminology is an operation committed with the intent of disguising the actual source of responsibility and pinning blame on a second party.

The Yom Kippur War was fought between Israel and a coalition of Arab-states led by Egypt and Syria from October 6th to October 25th of 1973.

Egypt led a surprise attack into the Sinai, territory it had lost to Israel during the Six-Day War in 1967, and Syria unsuccessfully focused on ridding the Golan Heights of Israeli soldiers.

There was an Israeli counter-attack, and it didn’t happen.

On October 26th, the UN brokered a cease-fire between Egypt and Israel, ultimately leading to the first peace agreement being signed between the two countries in 1979.

Meanwhile, the cease-fire exposed Syria to military defeat and Israel seized even more territory in the Golan Heights.

Syria voted along with other Arab states in 1979 to expel Egypt from the Arab League.

Another noteworthy fall-out from the Yom Kippur War was the Oil Embargo that started in October of 1973.

The Arab-dominated Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) proclaimed an oil embargo targeted at countries that supported Israel during the Yom Kippur War, creating an international oil and gas crisis.

By the end of the embargo, in March of 1974, the price of oil had risen by nearly 300% and had many short- and long-term effects on global politics and economy.

The overthrow of the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie took place on September 12th of 1974, in a coup initiated by a Marxist-Leninist factions in the military, and marked the beginning of a 17-year-long Ethiopian Civil War, which formally ended in 1991. 

The war left at least 1.4 million dead.

The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, was the former ruling dynasty of the Ethiopian Empire.

Its members were lineal descendents of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba through their son Menelik I, the first Emperor of Ethiopia.

Haile Selassie was the last Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974.

The full title traditionally of the Emperors of Ethiopia was: “Elect of God, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah and King of Kings of Ethiopia.”

The Iranian Revolution that took place in 1979 culminated in the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, on February 11, 1979…

…to be replaced by the Islamic Republic of Iran, with what is called a unitary theocratic-republican authoritarian presidential system subject to a Grand Ayatollah.

The revolution was supported by various Islamist and leftist organizations, as well as student movements.

So things changed considerably for the people in the Islamic Republic of Iran after 1979. This picture of the citizenry was taken in 2012…

…and these pictures were before the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran.

The Central American Crisis started in the late 1970s with the eruption of major civil wars in the Central American countries of Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

The U. S. government was deeply involved in efforts to prevent victories by Pro-Soviet Communist forces in these countries.

The Georgia Guidestones were unveiled on March 22nd of 1980 on a rural site in Elbert County Georgia.

Engraved on each face of the four large, upright stones, in eight different languages, was a message containing ten principles, or guidelines.

The very first guideline was “Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature.”

What was up with that?

The remaining guidelines sound positive…but are they really?

Whoever was behind the Guidestones was unknown.

There were apparent focuses of population control, eugenics, and internationalism engraved on the guidestones.

I am happy to report that as of July 7th of 2022, the Georgia Guidestones are no more.

One was mysteriously destroyed in an explosion, and the rest were subsequently demolished.

Do the same patterns continue to emerge between 1961 and 1980 that we saw between 1945 and 1960 showing events and people being manipulated for particular outcomes benefiting the world powers at the expense of other countries and their people?

Like with the examples of partitioning one country into two, setting up two different political systems, and then instigating them to fight each other, like in the cases of Korea and Viet Nam…

…and the inherent brutality against Humanity of communism?

Among other examples, in Sudan we saw the former British colonial government arbitrarily divide the country into the primarily Muslim and Arab Northern Sudan and mostly Christian and animist Southern Sudan in 1956, and then create the conditions for protracted civil war by showing favoritism to the North and oppressing the South…

…and in Chad at the time of its independence from France in 1960, roughly half of the population was Muslim and living in the north and eastern parts of the country, and the other half was Christian and animist and living in the southern part of the country, and the conditions for civil war were created with an authoritarian and oppressive dictator who showed favoritism to the southern part of the country, and marginalized the rest of the country, in both cases leading to great suffering and death of the civilian population.

As we saw in the previous video between 1945 and 1960, at the same time India was liberated from British Rule in 1947, the country was partitioned into the Hindu-majority Union of India and the Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan…

…10 – 12 million people were displaced in forced mass migrations to the newly-constituted dominions, and created overwhelming refugee crises, as well as large-scale violence, thereby establishing the conditions for suspicion and hostility between these two countries that has existed into the present-day.

This movement of people started after India’s official Independence Day from Great Britain on August 15th of 1947.

Wouldn’t you think a country’s independence would be a great cause of celebration instead of a hellish nightmare?

In this video, we saw the Communists take down hereditary rulers in Cambodia and Ethiopia, also leading to great suffering and death of the civilian population…

Then the Islamic Revolution took down the hereditary Shah of Iran, to replace him with the Islamic Republic of Iran, leading to the severe repression of the civilian population in all ways.

All of this signifies that who or whatever is behind what has been taking place here does not value human life, and instead has sought to violently destroy it.

It certainly seems like there was there something bigger going on with all of these activities behind the scenes, and that they were not random occurrences.

I think we are seeing the unfolding of a plan that definitely does not have the best interests of Humanity at heart, and only benefits the power-and-control-hungry few that have been manipulating events behind scenes to control or destroy the original people and their advanced civilization.

How the New World was Created from the Old World

There are three-parts to this post on “How the New World was Created from the Old World”, which is taken from a three-part series I did back in the summer of 2020.

I am expanding it now to include historical information I have come across in my research since then.

Part One is about “Trading Companies, Wars, Partitions, Conferences & Treaties;”

Part Two is on “Language, Religion, New Nobility, Corporatization, Colonization & Place Name Changes;”

And Part Three on “Maps, Globes & the Centuries of Exploration.”

Trading Companies, Wars, Partitions, Conferences & Treaties

European colonialism intentionally created divides over almost the entire landmass of the earth, creating new countries from lands that were taken, as well as divisions and discords between peoples that originally existed in harmony worldwide.

It also diagrams the means by which power and control were consolidated worldwide, mostly starting out as “trading” companies that ended up being very powerful in their respective regions, and after gaining complete control, transferring power and control of the regions to their respective European empires.

I will be providing numerous examples to illustrate how creating the New World from the Old World was accomplished.

Others means by which power and control were consolidated included partitions, wars, treaties, and conferences.

I will start with trading companies.

But before I begin talking about trading companies, it is important to discuss the meaning of “royal charters,””chartered companies,” and related-issues like “body corporate.”

This discussion will also come into play again in the subject of colonization, which I will also be touching on in part two of this post.

A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under “royal prerogative” as “letters patent.”

“Royal prerogative” is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity recognized in common and civil law jurisdictions within a monarchy as belonging to the sovereign that becomes widely vested in government.

“Letters patent” are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published, written order issued by a monarch or other head-of-state, granting an office, right, monopoly, title or status to a person or corporation. Thus, they can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for granting city status or a coat-of-arms.

We are told Royal Charters historically were used to make public laws, like the Magna Carta of King John in 1215 AD.

Since the 1300s in our historical narrative, royal charters have been used to grant a right or power to an individual or “body corporate,”‘” the formal term for a corporation.

A “body corporate” functions as a “legal person” in law that can do the things a human person is usually able to do but are not literal people.

A “chartered company” is an association with investors and shareholders that is “incorporated,” or formed into a new corporation, and granted rights for the purposes of trade, exploration, or colonization.

Until the 19th-Century, royal charters were the only means that a company could become incorporated, other than by an Act of Parliament.

Arms are granted by the most senior heralds via the previously mentioned “Letters Patent.”

Heralds are appointed by the British Monarch and delegated to act on behalf of the Crown on all matters of heraldry, besides the granting of new Coats-of-Arms, including genealogical research and the granting of pedigrees.

The use of Arms went from individuals to corporate bodies starting in 1438 with a Royal Charter of incorporation, and the earliest surviving grant of arms, for the “Worshipful Company of Drapers,” formally known as “The Master and Warden and Brethren and Sisters of the Guild and Fraternity of the Blessed Mary the Virgin of the Mystery of Drapers of the City of London,” and since then have been made continously including, but not limited to, companies & civic bodies.

When I think of the word “draper,” curtains come to mind, I guess because of the word “drapery,” which pertains to curtains.

Come to find out, the word “draper” is defined as a retailer or wholesaler of cloth that was mainly for clothing.


Why all the fanfare and fancy titles for cloth merchants?

Was that the “Mystery of Drapers” referenced in the formal title of the company?

The College of Arms was said to have been first incorporated by a Royal Charter in March of 1484 under King Richard III, and then re-incorporated in 1555 under Queen Mary I of England.

The College of Arms has been on Queen Victoria Street in the City of London in the shadow of St. Paul’s Cathedral since 1555.

This is the Coat-of-Arms for the College of Arms, with the motto “Diligent and Secret,” which interestingly the heraldry-wiki doesn’t know the meaning of.

Could it possibly mean exactly what it says – diligent and secret?

Like we don’t want you to know something, but we are sure working hard at what we are doing!

“The Laws of Heraldic Arms” governs the ‘bearing of arms,’which is the possession, use or display of arms, also called “Coats-of-Arms” and “armorial bearings.”

According to the “Law of Heraldic Arms,” “Coats-of-Arms” and other similar emblems may only be borne by 1) ancestral right, or descent from an ancestry through the male line; 2) or a grant made to the user under due authority, like the State or the Crown.

More to come on this in Part 2 of this post under the subject of “Colonization” with respect to “Ancestral Right.”

With regards to the “Law of Arms” as part of the general law, such armorial bearings are considered a form of property, and confer certain rights upon the grantee.

Now onto the subject of trading companies, starting with the British East India Company.

The British East India Company held a monopoly granted to it by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1600 between South Africa’s Cape of Good Hope and Tierra del Fuego’s Cape Horn at the southern tip of South America, until 1834 when the monopoly was lost.

East Indiaman was the general name of any sailing ship operating under charter or license to any of the East India companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th- through 19th-centuries.

The British East India Company ruled over parts of the Indian Subcontinent between 1757 and 1858, commencing after the 1757 Battle of Plassey, called a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal, Mir Jafar, after which time the Nawab ceded revenues to the what was called the “Company.”

Mir Jafar was considered the first dependent Nawab of Bengal of the British East India Company, and this was considered to be the start of British Imperialism in India, and a key step in the eventual British domination of vast areas there.

The British East India Company arrived in what came to be known as Madras in 1600, making it their principal settlement, and we are told, constructed Fort St. George in 1644.

The British East India Company was said to have come here in order to have a port close to the Malaccan Straits, the main shipping channel between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and to secure its trade lines and commercial interests in the spice trade.

It is one of the most important shipping lanes in the world.

They succeeded in securing their goals, as the British East India Company obtained the Prince of Wales Island in the Malaccan Strait.

Prince of Wales Island is known today as Penang Island, the main constituent island of the Malaysian state of Penang.

Apparently the British East India Company was able to successfully take what they named the Prince of Wales Island from the Kedah Sultanate in 1786, which became the capital of the Straits Settlements, a group of British territories in Southeast Asia established in 1826, including Melaka and Singapore.

The Kedah Sultanate was an historical Muslim dynasty located in the Malay Peninsula, said to have dated as an independent state from 1136 AD.

Its monarchy was abolished with the formation of the Malayan Union in 1909, but restored and added to the Federation of Malaya in 1963.

The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, was an administrative subdivision of British India, and established in 1652, and of which Elihu Yale became president in 1684.

Elihu Yale was a British merchant, trader, and a President of the British East India Company settlement at Fort St. George…

…who later became a benefactor of the Collegiate School in the Colony of Connecticut, which in 1718 was renamed Yale College in his honor.

At its greatest extent, the Madras Presidency included most of southern India, including the whole of the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh; parts of Odisha, Kerala, and Karnataka; and the union territory of Lakshadweep, a group of islands off India’s southwestern coast.

The Madras Presidency ended with the advent of Indian independence on August 15th of 1947.

Bareilly, in northern India, was a center of the ultimately unsuccessful Indian Rebellion of 1857.

At this time a major uprising took place in northern India, which lasted between 1857 and 1859 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.

The last Mughal Emperor in India, Bahadur Shah Zafar, a devout Sufi, a mystic and practitioner of the inward dimension of Islam, was deposed by the British East India Company in 1858, and exiled to Rangoon in Burma.

Through the Government of India Act of 1858, the British Crown assumed direct control of the British East India Company-held territories in India in the form of the new British Raj…

…and in 1876, Queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of India.

King-Emperor and Queen-Empress were the titles used by the British monarchs in India between 1876 and 1948.

The tribe of Bhil Minas inhabits all three islands on Dhebar Lake near Udaipur in India.

The Bhils, who speak a subgroup of the western zone of the Indo-Aryan languages, are one of the largest indigenous groups in India, as well as among the most economically deprived peoples of India.

This is interesting to note because they are among the oldest communities in India and were inhabitants of the ancient Indus River Valley civilization.

The Bhil Minas tribe was the ruling tribe before the Mewar Kingdom, forced them to hide out in the Aravalli Hills, and they were named a criminal tribe by the British government in 1924 to keep them from regaining power over the Rajputs.

They were subsequently given protection as a Scheduled Tribe after the upliftment in 1949 of the Criminal Tribe Act, which had been enacted on October 12th of 1871.

The Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 criminalized entire communities by designating them as habitual criminals, and restrictions on their movements imposed, including men having to report to the police once per week.

A Scheduled Tribe is recognized by the Indian Constitution, have political representation, and yet they are legally totally or partially excluded from various types of services important for leading a healthy life, and altogether, the Scheduled Tribes of India make-up almost 10% of the population, and are considered India’s poorest people.

India was called the “Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire. and its largest, and most important, overseas possession.

Much of the British Empire was built around India, in order to provide routes to, or protection for, India.

India was prosperous and rich, in spices, silk, indigo, gold, cotton, and other products and resources.

Trade with, and eventual political dominance of large parts of India, was what provided Britain with large parts of its wealth in the 1700s through 1900s.

On March 20, 1602, Dutch East India Company was chartered to trade with India and Southeast Asian countries by the States General of the Netherlands, the Supreme Legislature of the Netherlands, granted it a 21-year monopoly for the Dutch spice trade. 

It was a megacorporation, which is defined as a massive conglomerate (usually private) holding near-monopolistic, if not monopolistic, control over multiple markets.

It was chartered to trade with Mughal India, and primarily Mughal Bengal, from where 50% of textiles and 80% of silks were imported.

It has often been labelled a trading or shipping company, but was in fact a proto-conglomerate, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities, such as international trade, ship-building, production and trade of East Indian spices, Indonesian coffee, Formosan (Taiwan) sugar-cane, and South African wine.

The first formally listed public company by widely issuing shares of stock and bonds to the general public in the early 1600s, it was the world’s most valuable company of all-time, with a worth of $7.9-trillion.

It is considered by many to be to have been the forerunner of modern corporations.

Among other places, I found the Dutch East India Company in Cape Town, South Africa, establishing the first European settlement in South Africa there in 1652, called the VOC Cape Colony.

In 1814, it became the British Cape Colony, as it was ceded to the British Crown by the Netherlands after the British successfully invaded and took-over everything from the Dutch starting in 1806.

South Africa is the world’s leading producer of copper, platinum, uranium, and vanadium.

The British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company were the major players of a number of trading companies during that era.

Others included:

The French East India Company founded in 1661 to compete with first the British, and later the Dutch East India Companies, in the East Indies, the term given to the lands of South and Southeast Asia.

It was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere, and was abolished in 1769 because it was said to have not been able to maintain itself financially.

The Swedish South Company was founded in 1626 to support trade between Sweden and its colony New Sweden.

The company established a settlement at Fort Christina, named after Queen Christina of Sweden, and is present-day Wilmington, Delaware.

Said to have been built in 1638, the first Swedish settlement in North America, and the principal settlement of the New Sweden Colony.

The activities of the Swedish South Company were finally dissolved in 1680, after New Sweden was annexed by New Netherland in 1655.

The Hudson Bay Company was granted a permanent charter by King Charles II of England on May 2nd, 1670, conferred two things on a group of French explorers:  1)  A trading monopoly with London merchants over the lucrative North American fur trade; and 2)  Gave them effective control over the vast region surrounding the Hudson Bay in Canada.

It is still in operation today as a Canadian retail business group operating department stores in several countries.

Hudson Bay Company

The British Northwest Company, a fur-trading business based out of Montreal in Quebec from 1779 to 1821, built their inland headquarters at Grand Portage in Minnesota in 1785, and was active there until 1802.

Grand Portage, along with Fort Niagara, Fort Detroit, and Michilimackinac in the Straits of Mackinac in Michigan, were the four main fur-trading centers of the British Empire in North America.

The Royal Company of the Philippines was established by the royal decree of King Charles III of Spain, and had a monopoly on the trading industry between Spain and the Philippines, and to exploit the natural resources of the islands.

It also opened a large access to goods from the Orient that were imported into the Philippines.

The next subject I would like to introduce is that of “Partition,” and what that actually looked like in real life.

Partition is defined as a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.

Here are some examples I encountered in my research.

Another one of three presidencies of British India within the British Empire was the Bengal Presidency, which was formed following the dissolution of Mughal Bengal in 1757.

The Bengal Presidency was the economic, cultural, and educational hub of the British Raj, and its governor was concurrently the Viceroy of India for many years.

In 1905, Bengal Proper was partitioned, separating largely Muslim areas eastern areas from largely western Hindu areas.

In 1912, British India was reorganized and the Bengal Presidency was reunited with a single Bengali-speaking province.

Could this first partitioning of Bengal have been a human- and social-engineering project, and a practice run for the 1947 Boundary partition of India?

The 1947 Boundary Partition divided what was British India into two independent dominion states – the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. Today they are called the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

It involved the division of two provinces – Punjab and Bengal – based on district-wise non-Muslim or Muslim majorities, and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj.

The Partition of India in 1947 divided British India into the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan along religious lines, displacing 10 – 12 million people and creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions, as well as large-scale violence. This created the conditions for suspicion and hostility between these two countries into the present-day.

The Pashtuns are the primary inhabitants of a region in Pakistan and in Afghanistan, in a region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between two countries since the Durand Line border between the two countries was formed in 1893 after the second Anglo-Afghan War.

The name sake of the line, Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, was a British Diplomat and Civil Servant of the British Raj. We are told that together with the Afghan Emir, Abdur Rahman Khan, it was established to “fix the limit of their respective spheres of influence and improve diplomatic relations and trade.”

Well, that certainly sounds good…but what was really going on here?

The Durand Line cuts through the Pashtunistan and Balochistan regions, politically dividing ethnic Pashtuns and Baloch, who live on both sides of the border.

What was the actual purpose of dividing a people in this fashion?

The Pashtun are a tribal nation of millions of Afghani and Pakistani Muslims who also have a strong oral tradition that they are descendants of lost ten Tribes of Israel, and they refer to themselves as Bani Israel. 

Here is an example of a Pashtun textile piece showing the sacred geometric shape of a star tetrahedron in the center, also known as the Star of David…

…and a recognizable symbol of what is called Judaism today, as seen on the flag of Israel.

Khorasan was a province in northeastern Iran from 1906 to 2004, but historically referred to a much larger area comprising the east and northeast of the Persian Empire, including, besides northeastern Iran, parts of Afghanistan and much of Central Asia.

While Khorasan was said to mean “The Eastern Province,”it is also said to mean “The Land of the Sun.”

During the Qajar Dynasty and Empire, of what was then called the Sublime State of Persia between 1789 and 1925, Britain supported the Afghans to protect their East India Company.

Herat in Afghanistan was separated from Persia by British in the Anglo-Persian War of 1856 – 1857, and the Persians were unable to defeat the British to take back Herat.

Persia was compelled by the Treaty of Paris of 1857 not to challenge the British for Herat and other parts of what is today Afghanistan. Khorasan was divided into two parts in 1906, with the eastern part coming under British occupation, and the western section remained part of Persia, shown here.

Another example was the Ottoman Empire, founded at the end of the 13th-century in northwestern Anatolia, and existing as a vast empire and center of interactions between east and west until the end of World War I, when it was defeated as an ally of Germany and occupied by Allied forces.

At this time, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned and lost its Middle East holdings, which were divided between the Allied Forces.

Then there is what happened to historical Armenia, much of which today is a part of Turkey.

There was a time when Armenia was considered the center of the world, as depicted in this map.

The Sumerians called Ararat “Arrata,” and they tell of this land of their ancestors in the Armenian Highlands in their epic poem of Gilgamesh.

At the end of World War I, when the victorious powers divided up the Ottoman Empire, the 1920 Treaty of Sevres promised to maintain the existence of the Armenian Republic and to attach the former territories of Ottoman Armenia to it.

Ottoman Armenia was referred to as Wilsonian Armenia because the new borders were to be drawn by U. S. President Woodrow Wilson.

The Treaty of Sevres never came into effect because it was rejected by the Turkish National Movement, which used the occasion to declare itself as the rightful government of Turk