In the last post, I tracked the alignment from Cachimbo, and the Serra do Cachimbo in Brazil’s Para State; through Porto Velho, the capital of the Brazilian State of Rondonia, on the Madeira River in the Upper Amazon Basin; across the Serra do Divisor National Park in Brazil’s Acre State, on the border with Peru; through to Pucallpa, the capital of the Colonel Portillo Province of Peru.
I am picking up this circle alignment starting, and ending, in Washington, DC, at Trujillo, a coastal city in northwestern Peru, and the capital of the Department de La Libertad.
This is an historic map of Trujillo, Peru from 1786, with its fifteen-pointed city wall.
For comparison, this is Lucca, Italy in the present-day, known for its well-preserved, and what are called Renaissance, walls.
Lucca is also described as a star city by modern researchers of star forts.
This is a view of Trujillo from Google Earth, with an oval shape in the center that looks like the historic map of Trujillo.
There is one intact point of the original fifteen remaining…
…that I found when I looked at a close up of the oval in the city’s center.
Here is a street view of the wall of the intact point. Note the size of it compared to the people next to it…
…and here it is from another side. It has definitely seen better days, but at least it is still standing!
About 9 miles, or 14 kilometers, northwest of Trujillo, is the fishing village of Huanchaco, known for its reed boats, called “Caballitos de Tortora,” said to have been first made by the Moche people 2,500 years ago.
Still in Peru, Lake Titicaca is known as well for not only its reed boats of similar design…
…but also for its communities of people living on reed islands…
…where even more elaborate boats are made from reeds.
Reed boats of similar design are also found in Africa, from Egypt in ancient times…
…to the Blue Nile in Ethiopia in the present day…
…as well as Lake Chad in the country of Chad.
At one time the small fishing village of Huanchaco of the reed boats was the port city for Chan Chan, believed to be the largest city of the pre-Columbian era in South America. It was the capital of the Chimu Kingdom from 900 to 1470 AD, when it was defeated by the Inca Empire.
Then the Spanish came 50-years later and defeated the Inca, at which time the riches and artifacts of Chan Chan were looted and shipped to Spain.
In the last thirty years, Chan Chan has become one of the most restored sites in South America.
The Palacio Tschudi is the most restored.
Chan Chan is considered to be the largest mud-brick (also known as adobe) city in the world.
It is interesting to note there are many other places with similar mud-brick architecture, like Djenne in Mali.
Djenne’s masons use a technique called Djennefere using cylindrical, instead of rectangular, bricks as building materials.
Timbuktu, also in Mali, is known for its mud-brick architecture.
In the region of what was ancient Nubia, there is a mud-brick temple complex in Kerma, Sudan, called Deffufa, that is believed to be an estimated 9,500-years-old.
The Bam Citadel near Kerman, Iran, is considered to be the world’s largest mud-brick building.
This is the mud-brick Itchan Kala, the inner walled town of Khiva in Uzbekhistan…
…and lastly, these are the mud-brick Tombs of Astana in Turpan, China, in the Uighur Autonomous Region.
Now back to Peru.
The Moche Culture is said to have flourished in Peru somewhere between 100 AD and 900 AD, with its capital near present day Moche in Trujillo.
The Moche are particularly noted for their ceramics…
For comparison, this ceramic artifact, called a stone effigy pipe, was found at Spiro Mounds in Eastern Oklahoma.
The Moche are also known for their gold-work…
…their monumental constructions, like the Huaca del Sol, a massive mud-brick pyramid, in the Moche Valley of the northern coast of Peru…
…and the Huaca de Moches, located or 2.5-miles, or 4-kilometers, outside of the modern city of Trujillo.
The Moche are also known for their canal irrigation systems.
Before I leave Peru, I would like to back-track to a place that is not directly on the alignment, but is situated north of it between Pucallpa and Trujillo. That place would be Cajamarca.
The Spanish Conquest of Peru is said to have started in 1532 with the Battle of Cajamarca.
We are told that Pedro Arias D’Avila established a base of conquest in Panama City for Peru in 1519, on the Pacific side of the Isthmus of Panama. The coast of Spain is on the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.
It is quite a distance from Panama City to Cajamarca, by land or sea. It sits at 8,900 feet in elevation, or 2,750 meters.
That’s way up there, about 1.7 miles, or 2.75 kilometers, in elevation!
It is generally agreed that altitude sickness typically tends to start occurring at 8,000 feet. Characterized by headache, nausea, shortness of breath and vomiting.
I went to Cusco, Peru last year, and was hit with altitude sickness on the second full day I was there. I was absolutely miserable and not really functional. I had difficulty breathing, and was nauseous. Money brought to spend on memories instead got spent on portable oxygen bottles and altitude sickness medicine. I didn’t start feeling much better until we went down in altitude several days later.
Yet, somehow Pizarro and his 128 men marched to Cajamarca from Piure, on the coast of modern-day Peru, in unfamiliar terrain at high altitudes, managed to kill thousands of Incas and capture the Inca Emperor Atahualpa? I am having a hard time buying what they are selling….
The circle alignment leaves Peru from the Trujillo area, and crosses into the Pacific Ocean.
The next land it comes to is comprised of the Galapagos Islands, a province of Ecuador that is described as a volcanic archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.
It is considered one of the world’s foremost destinations for wildlife viewing.
Pay attention to the different species, and not the rocks…
…same thing with the rare bird shown here that is called blue-footed booby. Rocks are just rocks, right? No big deal.
These land features are found on Bartelome Island, a small island at the center of the archipelago.
I have seen the same land features in other places.
First, the double-shoreline is seen at World’s End near Hingham, Massachusetts on the top left; on the top right is found at the Alter do Chao in Santarem, Brazil; and on the bottom is a land feature found on Attu Island, the farthest west of the Aleutian Islands.
Second, this land feature in the same location from another on Bartolome Island in the Galapagos Islands…
…looks like this one off the coast of Yalta on the Crimean Peninsula in the Black Sea…
…this one in the Revillagigedo Islands between Hawaii and Mexico in the Pacific Ocean…
…and this one at Cape Litke on the eastern coast of Wrangel Island, in the East Siberian Sea off the northern coast of Russia.
I am going to end this post here, and pick up the alignment in the next post in Colima, Mexico.