Sanitary Fairs and Other Anomalies of the Civil War

Caroline from California sent me information about what were called “Sanitary Fairs,” a subject I had not heard of before.

She said they were held by northerners during the American Civil War as a fundraiser for the many needs of Union Soldiers, including health.

She found out about them not to long ago when poking around old medical journals on google books, and came across this phenomenon called “Sanitary Fairs.”

She said the “Sanitary Fairs” had everything, including majestic “temporary” buildings said to have been built for the fairs, to be torn down after, and while not as elaborate as the big expositions such as in Chicago, they were still something in and of themselves.

She mentioned that there was an agency, called the the United States Sanitary Commission, formed to raise money, and that these fairs were fundraising events held to support this agency.

The United States Sanitary Commission will be my starting point for this post.

I will delve into the little-known history of Sanitary Fairs, and many thanks to Caroline for bringing this to my attention.

After which, I will bring forward other anomalies of the Civil War that I have encountered in my own research.

The United States Sanitary Commission, a private relief agency with the mission of supporting the sick and wounded soldiers of the Union Army, was created by federal legislation on June 18th of 1861.

We are told the United States Sanitary Commission was modelled after the British Sanitary Commission, which had been set-up for the Crimean War between 1853 and 1856, during which time Florence Nightingale and a team of 38 volunteer nurses came to the Crimea in 1854 to care for British soldiers who were wounded and dying in horribly unsanitary conditions.

Florence Nightingale came to be widely revered as the founder of modern nursing.

It is also interesting to note the she came from a wealthy family connected to elite circles.

The planner of the United States Sanitary Commission, and its only president from 1861 to 1878, was Henry Whitney Bellows, an American Unitarian Clergyman.

He was the Pastor of the First Congregational Unitarian Church of New York City at the time of the American Civil War, also known as the All Souls Unitarian Church.

This building for Henry Whitney Bellows’ congregation, also known as the “Church of the Holy Zebra,” was said to have been built between 1853 and 1855, and in use only until 1929, at which time they moved uptown,

This church building was destroyed by fire on August 23rd of 1931.

Here is a description of the organs that were once housed in this beautiful building destroyed by fire.

I have come to understand such architecture and instruments as powerful frequency resonators and generators that were once part of a much larger integrated system within the original civilization for the healing and enhancement of All Life.

In addition to planning and organizing the United States Sanitary Commission, Henry Whitney Bellows was an organizer of the Union League Club of New York, along with Frederick Law Olmsted, George Templeton Strong, and Wolcott Gibbs.

It was a private social club for wealthy men that opened in New York City in 1863 for pro-Union men could come together “to cultivate a profound national devotion” and “strengthen a love and respect for the Union.”

It became the most exclusive mens’ club in Manhattan, and perhaps in the nation.

This location for the Union League Club was said to have been built on the northeast corner of 5th Avenue and 39th Street between 1879 and 1881.

This Union League Clubhouse closed its doors permanently on January 24th of 1931, after a new clubhouse was built on Park Avenue and 37th Street starting in 1929.

A little over a year later, on January 26th of 1932, a fire was said to have started in the basement, and engulfed the whole building in a short-period of time.

Henry Whitney Bellows was also involved in the organizing of the Century Association in New York City, founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1857.

The Century Association was a private social, arts and dining club, and named after the first 100 people proposed as members.

The Century Association Building at 42 E. 15th Street was in-use by the association starting in 1857, and which served as one of the headquarters of the United States Sanitary Commission.

Members of the Century Association have included artists and writers like: poet and journalist William Cullen Bryant; landscape painter Frederick Edwin Church; landscape painter Winslow Homer; and best-known for stained-glass-work, Louis Comfort Tiffany.

Architect members have included: landscape-architects Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted; Beaux-Arts architects Carrere and Hastings, as well as York and Sawyer; and architects McKim, Meade and White, who were said to have defined the ideals of the American Renaissance in end-of-the-century New York.

Other members were said to have included: Eight U. S. Presidents; ten U. S. Supreme Court Justices; forty-three Members of the Presidential Cabinet; twenty-nine Nobel Prize Laureates; members of the Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Roosevelt, and Astor families; as well as financier J. P. Morgan and morse code inventor Samuel P. Morse.

Ever hear the George Carlin quote “It’s one big club, and you ain’t in it?” and wonder where that idea might have come from?

The first executive secretary of the United States Sanitary Commission was Frederick Law Olmsted.

Among other things, during the antebellum time-period, Olmsted was commissioned by the New York Daily Times to start on an extensive research journey in the American South and Texas between 1852 and 1857.

The dispatches he sent to the Times were collected into three books, and considered vivid, first-person accounts of the antebellum South: “A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States,” first published in 1856…

…”A Journey through Texas,” published in 1857…

…and “A Journey in the Back Country in the Winter of 1853 – 1854,” published in 1860.

All three of these books were published in one book, called “Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom,” in 1861 during the first six months of the American Civil War at the suggestion of his publisher in England.

All of these books by Frederick Law Olmsted, a journalist before he became a landscape architect with Calvert Vaux, starting with what we are told was Central Park, raised red flags for me as I have come to believe from my research that publications like these are indicative of some kind of setting the stage in seeding the new historical narrative into our consciousness by those responsible for the hijack of the original positive civilization that built all of Earth’s infrastructure, and, as we will see, ultimately what this post is all about.

I have the same question about another founder of the United States Sanitary Commission, and the Union League Club of New York, and that was George Templeton Strong, a New York lawyer and diarist.

His 2,250-page diary was said to have been found in the 1930s, and containing his striking personal account of life in the 19th-century, between 1835 and 1875, including the events of the American Civil War between 1861 and 1865.

The central office of the federally-authorized private relief agency of the United States Sanitary Commission was set-up inside the federal U. S. Treasury Building in June of 1861…

…and by October of 1861, was receiving detailed reports, along with the U. S. War Department, from Sanitary inspectors about the conditions from around 400 regimental camp inspections.

The need for more frequent decision-making resulted in a standing committee of the United States Sanitary Commission that was formed in New York, with its main members throughout the Civil War consisting of: Henry Whitney Bellows; George Templeton Strong; and surgeons Dr. William H. Van Buren, Dr. Cornelius R. Agnew, and Dr. Wolcott Gibbs, who, as mentioned previously, was a founder of the Union League Club, along with Henry Whitney Bellows, George Templeton Strong, and Frederick Law Olmsted.

The United States Sanitary Commission operated 30 soldiers’ homes, lodges and rest houses for Union soldiers that were travelling or wounded, most of which closed right after the war, as well as setting -up and staffing hospitals during the war.

Caroline in California provided me with the following links.

The first is what looks to be the mudflooded building of Camp Nelson, one of the Sanitary Commission’s Soldiers’ camps, from the National Park Service website, with the dirt-covered road in the foreground, and workcrew in the back-ground.

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She also provided this image she found at Camp Nelson of what appears to be an intentionally-made rock structure.

We are told the federal government in 1887 constructed the “Pension Building,” now the National Building Museum, in Washington, DC, to process and administer all of the pension requests from veterans.

Dorothea Dix was the Union Army’s Superintendent of Army Nurses and as such worked in conjunction with the United States Sanitary Commission’s mission.

In her work as an advocate for the indigent mentally ill, Dorothea Dix was credited with creating the first generation of mental asylums through lobbying state legislatures and the U. S. Congress.

With regards to the occurrence of Sanitary Fairs themselves, they were said to have started out as local fund-raising events to benefit the United States Sanitary Commission, and grew more and more elaborate.

The fairs were expositions and bazaars organized and run by civilians to raise funds for the United States Sanitary Commission for food, clothing, bandages, and other supplies for both military hospitals and soldiers in the field.

The first Sanitary Fair was the two-day “Mammoth Fair,” which took place in Lowell, Massachusetts in February of 1863, and the largest of the Sanitary Fairs, the Northwestern Soldiers’ Fair, was held in Chicago from October 27th of 1863 to November 7th of 1863, and raising close to $100,000 for the cause.

I couldn’t find any illustrations or photos of it, but I did find this reference in the “New York Times” to the Northwestern Soldiers’ Fair opening parade on October 27th of 1863.

It was said to be a three-mile, or 5-kilometer-, long parade of militiamen, bands, political leaders, representatives of local organizations, and a contingent of farmers with carts full of crops.

Sanitary Fairs typically held large-scale exhibitions, and the 1863 Northwestern Soldiers Fair in Chicago featured a “Curiosity Shop” of war souvenirs, with weapons and other artifacts said to have been designed to contrast the barbaric southern enemy with the civilized North.

These were the Civil War Battles said to have taken place during the same period of time as the Northwestern Soldiers Fair:

The Great Central Fair in June of 1864 took place in the entirety of Philadelphia’s Logan Square.

The structures for the Great Central Fair were said to have been built in in 40-working days by volunteer craftsmen…all 6 of them?…in this could-be-staged photograph…

…because when it was completed, the 200,000-square-foot, or 18,581-square-meter complex looked like this, featuring Union Avenue, a 540-foot-, or 165-meter-, long Central Hall…

…over flag-festooned, soaring gothic arches.

Come to think of it, both of these photographs look staged, with the few people shown in both photos facing the photographer.

And are the dimensions of the interior the same?

And even if they are photos of the same structure, with the one photo on the right looking wider and higher to me than the photo on the left, could the photo on the left be a “de-construction” photo instead of a “construction” photo as it was said to be?

This was an illustration of what the whole Great Central Fair complex looked like, with the long Union Avenue hall flanked on both sides by rotundas and interconnected exhibit corridors.

Said to have raised more than $1,000,000 for the United States Sanitary Commission in its 3-week run from June 7th to June 28th of 1864, in its final form, the fair was said to have around 100 departments, including Arms and Trophies; children’s clothing; homemade fancy articles; Fine Arts; brewers; wax fruit; trimmings and lingerie; umbrellas and canes; curiosities and relics; a steam glass blower; an Art Gallery; and a horticulture exhibit.

These were the Civil War Battles said to have taken place during the same period of time as the Great Central Fair:

Other notable Sanitary Fairs included:

The first Metropolitan Fair, planned for March but ended up being held in New York between April 4th and April 23rd of 1864, also raising over $1,000,000 for the cause, and the largest Sanitary Fair ever.

Metropolitan Fair-goers could purchase souvenirs like “The Book of Bubbles…”

…a book of nonsense verses with illustrations authored by members of the United States Sanitary Commission.

This photo of one of the exhibit halls at the Metropolitan Fair has the same staged look as ones from the Great Central Fair in Philadelphia seen previously in this post, with everyone in the room turned towards the camera in various poses.

There was even a moving civil war battlefield diorama exhibit at the Metropolitan Fair to tell people about the Civil War!

Don’t know for sure, but it looks like it was accompanied by band music!

It is important to note that prior to the organizing of the 1864 Metropolitan Fair in New York City, Henry Whitney Bellows wrote a paper called “Rough Notes” in November of 1863 on the main principles that needed to be applied to hold a Sanitary Fair in New York, and his suggestions were accepted in a meeting of approximately 50 – 60 ladies at a meeting at the Union League Club House later that month, on November 21st of 1863, who then proceed to commence work on the Metropolitan Fair project.

We are told this United States Sanitary Commission print called “Our Heroines” paid homage to the women who nursed the sick and wounded soldiers, and who organized and staffed the Sanitary Fairs.

These were the Civil War Battles said to have taken place during the same period of time as the Metropolitan Fair:

Among other Sanitary Fairs, the Great Western Sanitary Fair was held in Cincinnati at the Opera House, opening on December 21st of 1863 and running through January 4th of 1864…

…and the one battle during the time the fair was happening (though plenty of battles on either side of the dates of the fair)…

…the Brooklyn and Long Island Fair held, starting on February 22nd of 1864 and lasting for two weeks, where women volunteers sold thousands of dollars worth of books, flowers and fancy goods in the Brooklyn Academy of Music…

…and the battles that took place during that time period…

…and the Grand Mississippi Valley Sanitary Fair was held in St. Louis, Missouri, from May 17th to June 18th of 1864, raising $550,000 to assist Union troops…

…and the battles that took place during the period of time the St. Louis Sanitary Fair was going on:

From October 27th to November 7th of 1865, there was a second Sanitary Fair held in Chicago, this one called the Great Northwestern Sanitary Fair.

It was the last Sanitary Fair of the War, and was said to have raised $270,000 for sick and wounded soldiers.

Speakers at this last Sanitary Fair included Generals Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, and Joseph Hooker.

Exhibits at the fair were said to include: the bell from Jefferson Davis’ plantation (he was the President of the Confederacy); the clothing both men were wearing at the 1858 Abraham Lincoln – Stephen Douglas debates about slavery and the extension of slavery into new territories; and General Grant’s horse was raffled off as a fundraiser.

This Great Northwestern Fair in Chicago took place after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, which happened on April 15th of 1865.

This medallion commemorating Lincoln and the Great Northwestern Sanitary Fair was minted for the 1865 fair.

By the time of the Great Northwestern Sanitary Fair in late 1865, the American Civil War had already officially ended on April 9th of 1865 with the meeting of of the Union General Ulysses S. Grant and the Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, which took place a week before President Lincoln’s assassination.

So, did the U. S. Sanitary Commission and its volunteers really have the wherewithal to both construct the buildings for and pull off these extraordinarily lavish and festive undertakings against the backdrop of national war and suffering?

Or was it a private front comprised of the very same people who organized and were prominent members of the private membership clubs of the day, like the previously mentioned Union League and the Century Association, to set up the new historical narrative for the reset to explain, among other things, how infrastructure came into, and left, existence.

The template for the Sanitary Fairs was the same as that for the World Fairs, Expositions and Exhibitions – infrastructure said to have been built specifically for these events out of “temporary” materials, and then, for the most part, demolished at some point afterwards, like the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition, held in 1898 in Omaha, Nebraska, from June to November of that year, one of countless examples of this story.

This question about the United States Sanitary Commission and the Sanitary Fairs leads to the larger question of what was really going on during the American Civil War, historically described as a civil war between the northern and Pacific states, known as the “Union,” or “North,” and the southern states, known as the “Confederacy,” or South, over the status of slavery and its expansion into newly acquired land after the Mexican-American War.

Before I go further with the American Civil War, I would like to bring forward three examples of a 20th-century pattern used to create division, discord, violence and war using the same North-South dichotomy, which is a division or contrast between two things that are represented as being opposed or entirely different.

Ireland was partitioned on May 3rd of 1921, when the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland divided Ireland into two home rule territories – Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland – with the stated goal of remaining within the United Kingdom and eventually reunifying.

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Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, but after the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December of 1921, Southern Ireland dropped out of the United Kingdom and became the Irish Free State.

The partition of Ireland took place during the Irish War of Independence, a guerilla conflict between the Irish Republican Army and British Army forces.

Between 1920 and 1922, during which time the Partition occurred, there was violence in Northern Ireland in defense or opposition to the new settlement, and its capital Belfast saw savage and unprecedented violent riots between Protestant and Catholic civilians, a form of violence in which the violent parties feel solidarity for their respective groups and victims of violence are chosen based on their group membership.

All of this led directly to the”Troubles” a period of unrest and violence that escalated across Northern Ireland between the Irish Catholic Nationalists and Irish Protestant Unionists between 1969 and 1998.

Next, the example of North and South Korea.

After the August 15th surrender of Japan in 1945, the Korean peninsula was divided at the 38th-parallel into two zones of occupation, with the Soviets administering the northern half, and Americans the southern half.

In 1948, as a result of Cold War tensions, the occupation zones became two sovereign states – socialist North Korea and capitalist South Korea.

The governments of the two new Korean states both claimed to be the only legitimate Korean government, and neither accepted the border as permanent.

The Korean War started in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25th following clashes along the border and insurrections in the South.

North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea by the United Nations, principally from the United States.

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The Korean War was one of the most destructive conflicts of modern times, with around 3,000,000 deaths due to the war, and proportionally, a larger civilian death toll than either World War II or the Viet Nam War; caused the destruction of nearly all of Korea’s major cities; and there were thousands of massacres on both sides.

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Lastly, the example of North and South Viet Nam.

The Geneva Conference was convened in 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, to settle unresolved issues from the Korean War and the First Indochina War in Viet Nam, and attended by representatives from the United States, France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the People’s Republic of China, as well as from Korea and Viet Nam.

While no declarations or proposals were adopted with regards to Korean situation, the Geneva Accords that dealt with the dismantling of French Indochina in Southeast Asia would have major ramifications.

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The Geneva Accords established North and South Vietnam with the 17th parallel as the dividing line, with North Viet Nam being Communist and South Viet Nam being Capitalist.

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The agreement also stipulates that elections are to be held within two years to unify Vietnam under a single democratic government.

These elections never happen.

The non-Communist puppet government set up by the French in South Viet Nam refused to sign.

The United States also refused to sign on, with the belief that national elections would result in an overwhelming victory for the communist Ho Chi Minh who had so decisively defeated the French colonialists.

Within a year, the United States helped establish a new, anti-Communist government in South Viet Nam, and began giving it financial and military assistance.

A mass migration took place after Viet Nam was divided.

Estimates of upwards of 3 million people left communist North Viet Nam for South Vietnam, going into refugee status in their own country, and many were assisted by the United States Navy during Operation Passage to Freedom.

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An estimated 52,000 people moved from South to North Viet Nam, mostly Viet Minh members and their families.

In Viet Nam by the time of John F. Kennedy’s death in November of 1963, there were 16,000 American military personnel, and the Gulf of Tonkin incident took place in 1964, an international confrontation after which the United States engaged more directly in the Viet Nam War.

The first Gulf of Tonkin incident took place on August 2nd of 1964 between ships of North Viet Nam and the United States.

The description of what took place is as follows:

Three North Vietnamese torpedo boats approached the naval destroyer U. S. S. Maddox and attacked it with torpedos and machine gun fire.

Damages said to have come about as a result of the ensuing battle were: one U. S. aircraft; all three North Vietnamese torpedo boats and 4 North Vietnamese deaths; and one bullet hole on the naval destroyer, and no American deaths.

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There was initially allegedly a second incident on August 4th of 1964, this second occurrence has long been said not to have taken place.

And then there are the people who believe the first Gulf of Tonkin incident never happened either.

Whether or not the Gulf of Tonkin incidents actually happened, they were used as an excuse for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed by Congress on August 7th of 1964, giving President Lyndon B. Johnson authority to help any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be in jeopardy of Communist aggression, and was considered the legal justification for the beginning of open warfare with North Viet Nam and the deployment of American troops to Southeast Asia, of which, with the institution of the draft, there were over 500,000 troops sent by 1966.

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The Viet Nam War ended with the Fall of Saigon on April 30th of 1975, when the capital of South Viet Nam was captured by North Vietnamese troops…

…and the beginning of the re-unification of Viet Nam into the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

It is interesting to note that the terms North and South are also applied to the poles of magnets.

A magnet is any object that produces its own magnetic field that interacts with other magnetic fields.

The magnetic field is represented by what are called field lines that start at a magnet’s north pole and end at the south pole.

As shown in the top diagram, if you put the north pole of one magnet against the south pole of another, the field lines go straight from the north pole of the first magnet to the south pole of the other, creating an attractive force between the two magnets.

If you have two magnets next to each other, and either their north poles or south poles are facing each as shown in the bottom diagram, the field lines move away from each other, creating a repelling force between the two magnets.

Electricity runs within us, where our cells are specialized to conduct electrical currents, which is required for the nervous system to send signals throughout the body and to the brain, making it possible for us to move, think, and feel.

…and we each generate our own magnetic fields as does the Earth, as well as the other life on Earth.

There is so much more to us than our physical forms.

Electromagnetism is an integral part of existence on Earth and throughout the Universe, which is the physical interaction that occurs between electrically-charged particles, the force of which is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electrical fields and magnetic fields.

I bring this subject of magnetism and electromagnetism up because of how they appear to have been applied negatively by the controllers to create the conditions necessary for war, destruction and suffering in this realm, by dividing countries into north and south, and then by instilling different belief systems in each pole of this magnet, which created an “attraction,” or perhaps “action” is a better word, to facilitate destruction on each other.

There are more examples of this practice of dividing a country into north and south than the ones I gave, especially in Africa.

One example is the country of Sudan.

When Sudan was granted independence from its British colonizers in 1956, it was immediately divided into north and south, with each region characterized by different belief systems and loyalties, and Sudan promptly descended into violent civil war that lasted for decades.

The history of Sudan goes back to the Pharaonic period of ancient Egypt, with the Kingdom of Kerma in ancient Nubia (dated from 2500 to 1500 BC)…

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…the Egyptian New Kingdom dated between 1500 BC and 1070 BC…

…and the Kingdom of Kush, dated from 785 BC to 350 AD, with its royal capital at Meroe, located on the Nile River where it flows through northeast Sudan in northeastern Africa.

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Now back to the American Civil War.

I am going to use the remainder of this post to present information I have found in the course of my research in what we are told in our historical narrative, and my questions about them, that I am calling “Anomalies of the Civil War.”

During the entire course of the American Civil War, between 1861 and 1865, there were an estimated 10,500 battles, engagements, and other military actions fought in 23 states, with over 650,000 casualties.

We are told there were three theaters of war during those years: Eastern, Western, and Trans-Mississippi.

I have often thought that theater, defined as a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, like a stage, is a thought-provoking word choice for an area or place in which important military events occur or are progressing.

The official beginning of the American Civil War was said to be the Battle of Fort Sumter between April 12th and 13th of 1861, in South Carolina’s Charleston Harbor, with victory going to the Confederate forces under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard.

These are Currier and Ives prints depicting the bombardment of Fort Sumter.

Nathaniel Currier got his start in the lithography business in 1835, and he was joined by bookkeeper and marketer James Ives in 1850, and the firm became known as Currier and Ives in 1857.

Over the years, they produced about 7,500 images depicting illustrations of current events…

…including other civil war illustrations, like the Burning of Richmond in 1865.

Is it possible these lithographic prints were used to imprint vivid visual historical images in peoples’ minds?

This is Fort Sumter today.

It is described as a sea fort that was said to have been built starting in 1829 as one of a series of fortifications on the southern coast of the United States to protect American harbors from foreign invaders, and said to have never been fully completed.

To build up the artificial island the fort is situated on, we are told that 70,000 tons of granite were transported to South Carolina from New England.

70,000 tons of granite? Which is 63,500 metric tons?

How did they manage to accomplish transporting that weight of stone according to the history we have been taught?

Oh…okay…apparently on schooners.

That makes perfect sense, right?!

When I pulled up a map looking for Fort Sumter, I found this one showing at least 9 references to forts, batteries, castles in Charleston Harbor.

The “Star of the West” Battery is at the head of the Main Channel leading into Charleston Harbor.

Apparently the battery received its name from a civilian steamship that was built in 1852 for Cornelius Vanderbilt.

The “Star of the West” was used in an effort to re-supply Union troops at Fort Sumter on January 9th of 1861, several weeks after South Carolina had become the first state to secede from the Union on December 20th of 1860, and was fired upon by an artillery battery situated on Morris Island.

The “Star of the West” steamship ended up having a storied career during the Civil War, and ended up at the bottom of the Tallahatchie Channel near Yazoo City in Mississippi, where she was deliberately scuttled and sunk by Confederate forces before the Battle of Fort Pemberton, an earthen fort said to have been built hurriedly by Confederate forces, which resulted in a victory for them which took place on April 12th of 1863, two years exactly after the Battle of Fort Sumter.

The Cummings Point Battery was located on a promontory of Morris Island, and was directly across the harbor from Fort Sumter.

The battery on Cummings Point was said to be an earthwork in a belt of waterfront fortifications, and to have originally been built in February of 1780, during the American Revolutionary War, under the direction of Colonel William Moultrie when it became clear that the British were going to attack Charleston from the south and west.

By the time of the American Civil War, it had been faced with bars of railroad iron placed side-by-side, and became known to history as the “ironclad battery.”

A story about the ironclad battery at Cummings Point appeared in Harper’s Weekly Magazine, on March 2nd of 1861, along with the 21st Chapter of Charles Dickens novel “Great Expectations,” which was first released in a serial format in his weekly periodical “All the Year Round,” starting December 1st of 1860, and apparently it appeared in other magazines as well.


I believe most famous novelists including, but not limited to, Charles Dickens, Victor Hugo, Mark Twain, Jack London, and John Steinbeck, were all involved in delivering the brand-new historical narrative right into our collective minds.

When looking for information on the Cummings Point battery, I found the historical Fort Wagner on Morris Island, which would have been located between the “Star of the West” battery to the south and the Cummings Point battery to the north of it.

The Battle of Fort Wagner took place on July 18th of 1863, where the 54th Massachusetts, known to history as the first African-American regiment in the Union Army, unsuccessfully assaulted Fort Wagner as depicted in the 1989 movie “Glory.”

Nothing remains of the physical infrastructure of Fort Wagner today…

…as apparently it was somehow lost to the sea in the late-1800s.

On the same side of the Charleston Harbor as Fort Wagner, and the two batteries I just mentioned, Fort Johnson was located further up towards the city of Charleston, on the coast of James Island, where the first shot of the Civil War was said to have been fired at Fort Sumter by Confederate soldiers…

…of which its only remains today are only two cisterns…

…and the old magazine, said to have been built in 1765, buried by Confederate soldiers during the Civil War, and uncovered in 1931.

Fort Sumter was located in Charleston Harbor almost directly in-between where Fort Johnson was located on James Island, and Fort Moultrie, which is still standing on Sullivan Island on the other side of the Harbor from Fort Sumter.

The first fort built on this location, Fort Sullivan, was said to have been built from Palmetto logs, giving the inspiration for the flag of South Carolina and its nickname “The Palmetto State,” and said to have been still incomplete when it was attacked by the British during the American Revolutionary War in 1776, and named after the commander, Colonel William Moultrie.

This is the fort standing on Sullivan Island today.

What is called the Moultrie flag on the left was flown during the defense of Fort Sullivan in 1776.

The Palmetto was added in 1861, and it was adopted as the state flag.

Another battle commander’s flag with the crescent symbol in the upper-left-hand corner was the flag of Confederate Army Major General Earl van Dorn, the great-nephew of Andrew Jackson, who led the Confederate forces at the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas in March of 1862.

This was the battle flag of General Van Dorn.

Why are there crescent images on these battle flags?

The star and crescent symbolism has been identified with Islam, and what we are told is that this happened primarily with the emergence of the Ottoman Turks, and for one example of several national flags, are depicted on the modern Turkish flag.

I also read where the Egyptian hieroglyphs of a star and the crescent moon denote the Venus Cycle from morning star to evening star.

The Floating Battery was said to be located at the northern tip of Sullivan Island, above the location of Fort Moultrie.

We are told it was an ironclad vessel constructed by the Confederacy early in 1861 before the start of the war, and as a strategic naval platform, it was utilized in the April 12th and 13th bombardment of Fort Sumter.

The last three things I am going to look at on the map of the Charleston Harbor Defenses are the Mt. Pleasant Batteries; the Castle Pinckney; and the tip of Charleston known as “the Battery.

Along the coast of Mt. Pleasant which includes Hog Island, there were three Confederate batteries said to have been constructed over the course of the war to defend Charleston Harbor.

Battery Gary was said to be the first one constructed, and utilized in the bombardment of Fort Sumter in April of 1861.

Interesting side-note…Charleston’s professional soccer team is called the “Charleston Battery” and their stadium is located at Patriots Point in Mt. Pleasant.

…and where the Patriots Point Naval and Maritime Museum, also known as the U. S. S. Yorktown, is permanently moored.

Next up for scrutiny is Castle Pinckney.

Castle Pinckney is located on what is called Shute’s Folly in Charleston Harbor between Patriot’s Point and “The Battery” of Charleston.

We are told that Castle Pinckney was a small masonry fortification built by the United States government in 1810, and was used as an artillery position during the Civil War, garrisoned by the Charleston Zouave Cadets, a light infantry regiment of the French Army, after the attack on Fort Sumter.

Zouave units were said to have been used on both sides of the conflict.

Castle Pinckney was declared a National Monument in 1924, and then in 1951, Congress passed a bill to abolish its status as a National Monument.

Since then, primarily under state ownership, it has undergone some limited restoration efforts, but is in the process of being reclaimed by nature.

Lastly, I am going to take a look at “The Battery,” described as a defensive seawall and promenade in Charleston, and said to have been named for a civil war coastal defense battery at the site.

The Battery is famous for its antebellum homes…

…and its great view of Fort Sumter!

Interestingly, this is called the “Crisp Map of Charleston” from 1711, named after its English publisher Edward Crisp based on a 1704 survey he did, showing Charleston as a walled, bastioned star city.

I found one reference that called this map a “flawed, 19th-century fake.”

Well, that may be, but this is said to be the 1721 Herbert Map, showing the same idea.

And if anyone lives in or near Charleston, or is planning a visit there, please consider going on an Old Walled City Tour of Charleston.

I would love to know what you find out about it!

Now I am going to take a look at the Civil War Defenses of Washington, D.C.

According to what we are told, Washington was protected from Confederate invasion by a large group of Union Army fortifications, consisting of 68 major enclosed fortifications, as well as 93 batteries for artillery and 7 blockhouses; most never came under enemy fire; and the Confederacy never captured anything in Washington.

The sites of some of these forts are located in a collection of National Park Service properties that is identified as Fort Circle Park, where there is a 7-mile, or 11-kilometer, hiker-biker trail around the remnants of what are called Civil War-era forts…

…with end-points at Fort Stanton, which was described at one time as a massive earthwork.

Fort Ricketts was near Fort Stanton…

…and the other end-point of the Fort Circle Trail is where Fort Mahan was located.

This is an historic photo of Benning, the residential neighborhood in Washington where Fort Mahan Park is located now. Note the massive size and style of the architecture.

There were four other historic forts on the Fort Circle Park Trail, and there is only signage to mark their one-time existence:

Fort Dupont, which was turned into a recreational park area by the Civilian Conservation Corps between 1933 and 1942…

Fort Chaplin, where you now find the Fort Chaplin Park Townhomes…

…and the former location of Fort Davis is also on the Fort Circle Parks Trail, also the name of a residential neighborhood in southeast Washington.

This is Fort Reno, where it sits on top of an earthwork, AKA mound. It is located on the highest point in Washington, and said to be the site of the only Civil War battle fought in Washington, the Battle of Fort Stevens, which took place on July 11th and 12th of 1864, and was said to be watched by President Lincoln.

It was said to have been built in the winter of 1861, after the defeat of the Union Army at the Battle of Manassas.

Does this look like a structure that was hastily built, in the middle of winter?

What is very interesting to me is that if you look at Fort Reno on Google Earth, you can see where the top layer of the Earthwork Fort Reno is built upon is being peeled off, and dumped to the side.

I think there is some kind of ancient energy technology is being harvested here, and I have seen this practice in other places as well with earthworks.

Now I am going to take a look at a line of fort pairs and clusters along the Gulf of Mexico coastline running from southern Louisiana below New Orleans to Pensacola, Florida, called part of the U. S. Seacoast Defense System.

Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip were situated across from each other on the Mississippi River, and both located 40-miles, or 64-kilometers, upriver from the mouth of the river

Fort Jackson was an historic masonry fort said to have been constructed as a coastal defense of New Orleans between 1822 and 1832.

It is marked “Battery Millar” on some maps.

Fort Jackson was attacked and damaged by Union mortar and gunboats during the American Civil War from April 18th to April 24th of 1862.

Today, Fort Jackson is a National Historic Landmark and museum.

Fort St. Philip was said to have been constructed in the 18th-century when the Spanish governed Louisiana, and is a privately-owned National Historic Landmark in a bad state of deterioration.

It was also said to have been attacked by Union forces at the same time as Fort Jackson, in April of 1862, during the Civil War.

Next, still in Louisiana, we find Fort Macomb and Fort Pike across from each other and situated between Lake Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain, northeast of New Orleans.

Fort Macomb, formerly known as Fort Wood, is situated on what is called the Chef Menteur Pass, a water route which connects the Gulf of Mexico to Lake Pontchartrain.

These waterways really start to clearly look man-made when you see what appears to be a straight canal running from Fort Macomb to the adjacent community of Venetian Isles.

More on this subject in a moment.

Fort Macomb was said to have been built around 1820, seven years after the British invasion of New Orleans towards the end of the War of 1812.

It was said to have been occupied at different times by both Confederate troops and Union troops during the Civil War, and then decommissioned in 1871.

An effort was made by the State of Louisiana to open it to the public in the late 20th-century, but its deteriorated condition was deemed too hazardous for tourism.

Fort Pike is a short-distance northeast of Fort Macomb, and was said to have been built in 1819, after the War of 1812 like Fort Macomb, to provide a defense against invasion of the United States, and to guard the Rigolets Pass between Lake Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain.

The Rigolets Pass, from the French word “rigole” meaning “trench” or “gutter,” is bounded by bridges on either end – the US Route 90 bridge adjacent to Fort Pike, and the CSX Railroad bridge on the other end, and about which the CSX Railroad tracks are right next to Fort Macomb.

I bring this point forward because I believe the star forts and railroads were connected to each other as integral parts of the circuitry for the Earth’s original worldwide grid system.

In the case of star forts, what I believe originally functioned as actual batteries, defined as a combination of two or more cells electrically connected to work together to produce electric energy, were repurposed as military fortifications, and as such, they became military targets for destruction in the various wars and conflicts of our modern history.

Though railroads were too important to developing economiesin most cases to destroy the infrastructure for, they didn’t go completely unscathed during wartime either.

But that’s not what we are told, now is it!!!

So, like Fort Macomb, Fort Pike was said to have been occupied at different times by both Confederate troops and Union troops during the Civil War, and Fort Pike was decommissioned in 1890.

If you look at the location of Fort Pike on Google Earth, you see clearly man-made channels all around it…and this brings me to the subject of canals.

Fort Pike is located quite close to Eden Isle, which is on Lake Pontchartrain, just south of Slidell.

I encountered Eden Isle in past research on an alignment, and the point that I want to make now is that the original civilization was also a canal-building civilization, and there similar-looking canal systems all over the earth.

In this part of the world alone, including Eden Isles…

…there are the canals in Venice, Florida…

…Las Olas Isles on Florida’s Atlantic Coast in Fort Lauderdale…

…Port Isabel on the Texas Gulf Coast…

…and all the way over in Australia in the South Pacific near Brisbane in eastern Australia is the Gold Coast ~ same thing!

I know this is off-topic, but I couldn’t help myself with finding man-made channels around Fort Pike, and its proximity to the canals of Eden Isle.

Now back to the Gulf Coast “forts,” and the next pairs of the Forts Massachusetts and Maurepas along the State of Mississippi Gulf Coast region.

Fort Massachusetts is on West Ship Island near Gulfport, Mississippi.

The City of Gulfport was founded by William H. Hardy, and incorporated in 1898. He was the President of the Gulf & Ship Island Railroad that connected inland lumber mills to the coast.

Another railroad connection to the location of a star fort.

Let’s see if I can find more as we go along the coast.

Ship Island refers to a barrier island off the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore.

It was split into West Ship Island and East Ship Island by Hurricane Camille in 1969.

We are told the construction of Fort Massachusetts was said to have started in June of 1859, with the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers supervising around 100 men, primarily civilians who were stonecutters, stonemasons, carpenters and blacksmiths, but that it was never completely finished.

It was involved in different capacities by both sides during the Civil War.

Then, only one-year after the end of the Civil war, it was for all intents and purposes not in use as a military installation as of 1866.

I found a close match in my previous research for Fort Massachusetts in the form of Fort Quesnard on Alderney Island in the Channel Islands.

Fort Quesnard was said to have been built and completed in 1855 as a defense against an attack from France.

Next in this line of star fort pairs is Fort Maurepas is across the Gulf in Old Biloxi, and was located at present-day Ocean Springs, approximately 2-miles, or 3.2-kilometers, east of Biloxi.

It was said to have been developed by the French in 1699, and we are told it burned down around 1722.

This is Fort Maurepas City Park and Nature Preserve today, which has a pavilion, large green space, playground equipment, and a splash pad.

The next pair of forts we come moving from west to east along the Gulf of Mexico coast, are Fort Gaines and Fort Morgan in the State of Alabama.

Huge thanks to sisters Rebecca and Jane P. in Texas for bringing these two forts to my attention.

I was not aware of them before last week, and their sending me photographs they had taken at the two forts provided another link in the chain.

I knew about the forts in Louisiana, Mississippi, and west Florida in this stretch of coast-line, but not these two particular Alabama forts.

Both Fort Gaines and Fort Morgan were said to play significant roles in the Civil War Battle of Mobile Bay, where the Union naval fleet under the command of Rear Admiral David Farragut victoriously attacked a smaller confederate fleet, as well as the three forts that guarded Mobile Bay, with the other one being Fort Powell, the remains of which are now under water.

Fort Gaines is located on the eastern end of Alabama’s Dauphin Island, and was said to have been built in 1821.

Fort Gaines is considered to be one of the nation’s best-preserved Civil-War-era masonry forts.

Here are some of the photos of Fort Gaines from Rebecca and Jane, showing its impressive brickwork, with low to the water slot windows…

…impressive archways…

…and spiral staircase.

Fort Morgan is located across from Fort Gaines on Mobile Point on what is called the Fort Morgan Peninsula.

It was said to have been built between 1819 and 1833, and addition to its use during the Civil War, it saw intermittent use during the Spanish-American War, World Wars I and II.

It was turned over to the State of Alabama as an historic site in 1946.

Here are some of Rebecca and Jane’s photos of Fort Morgan:

Next are the numerous star forts in Pensacola in western Florida.

I had already learned about several of the star forts of Pensacola from previous research.

Our historical narrative says that the Siege of Pensacola was fought in 1781, and was the culmination of Spain’s conquest of British West Florida during the Gulf Coast campaign.

Here is one of the clusters of star forts I found when I first looked into Pensacola.

Fort Pickens is on the western end of the Santa Rosa Island…

…where it sits on one side of the channel entering Pensacola Bay from the Gulf of Mexico.

Fort Barrancas is directly across from Fort Pickens on the other side of this channel, and located physically within the Pensacola Naval Air Station…

…and what is called the Advanced Redoubt of Fort Barrancas as well.

This is how the relationship between these three star forts looks from above.

Then when I started looking into the same area as part of the research for this post, and the historical Fort McRee showed up on Google Earth on the eastern end of Perdido Key, and was situated directly across from Fort Pickens on Santa Rosa Island, and was not far from Fort Barrancas either.

Fort McRee was said to have been constructed between 1834 and 1839 in a strange boomerang shape because of its position on the end of this narrow barrier island.

All three of these forts saw action during the Civil War.

While we are told Fort Pickens and Fort Barrancas remained preserved due to their continued use and later as historic sites, Fort McRee was left to the elements because it was not as accessible, and very little of Fort McRee remains to be seen today.

Other forts that I know of in Pensacola included:

Fort George, of which this is what is left:

…and there is nothing left of what was the Fort of Pensacola, also known as the Presidio Santa Maria de Galvez.

This was its previous location…

…which I found through the coordinates of the former fort on this map.

I find it interesting to note the head of the CSX Railyards was just one-block due south of where the Fort of Pensacola was located.

But the finding of star forts is not limited to coastal areas, as I consistently find them along the rivers of the world.

Let’s look at Vicksburg n Mississippi as an example of a star fort location and the site of a major Civil War battle in our historical narrative.

Vicksburg is located roughly half-way between Memphis and New Orleans at the confluence of the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers.

We are told French colonists were the first Europeans to settle the area, which was part of the historical territory of the Natchez people, and that it was the French who built Fort St. Pierre in 1719…

…on the high-bluffs at Redwood on the Yazoo River.

Perhaps Vicksburg is best-known for the Vicksburg Campaign and Siege during the American Civil War, which took place between 1862 and 1863, and at the end of which the Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant captured the Confederate stronghold of the port of Vicksburg and divided the Confederacy.

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Along with the Battle of Gettysburg in July of 1863, it was considered a turning-point in the American Civil War.

We are told that after the Vicksburg National Military Park was established in 1899, the nation’s leading architects and sculptors were commissioned to honor the soldiers and sailors from their respective states that fought in the Vicksburg campaign, leading it to be called the “Art Park of the World” with more than 1,400 monuments found throughout the park.

Like the Mississippi Memorial…

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…the Michigan Memorial…

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…and the Illinois State Memorial.

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The Shirley House is said to be the only-surviving wartime structure inside the Vicksburg National Military Park.

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This is a wartime picture of the Shirley House circa 1863, with what is described as the camp of the 45th Illinois Infantry behind it.

But there are things going on in this photo that don’t make sense to me.

Why all the digging and entrances?

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Apparently during the Siege of Vicksburg, the people of the city dug caves into the sides of hills to get out of harm’s way from the hail of iron that was coming their way from Union forces.

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A possible explanation…but is it plausible?

This photo was notated as Union soldiers on the lawn of the Warren County Courthouse after the siege.

It was said to have been constructed between 1858 and 1860.

Interesting to note the contrast between the size of the soldiers and that of the courthouse.

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Considered to be Vicksburg’s most historic structure, a museum is operated within the old courthouse today.

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The mud-flooded-looking Washington Hotel in Vicksburg was said to have been used as a military hospital during the Civil War.

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There was a castle in Vicksburg which was said to have been built in the 1850s, including a moat, but it was destroyed by the Union Army and the site turned into an artillery battery.

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The last subject I am going to look at with regards to Civil War Anomalies is that of the role of two secret societies during this time.

First, the Knights of Pythias.

I first encountered the Knights of Pythias at the Pythian Castle of Springfield, Missouri, when I was tracking a circle alignment that begins and ends in Algiers, Algeria.

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What jumped out at me on learning about the Knights of Pythias is that it was a secret society founded in Washington, D.C in February of 1864, and the Civil War didn’t end until 1865.

It was the first fraternal order to receive a charter by an Act of Congress.

For what purpose would Congress charter a fraternal secret society in wartime?

I will just leave this National Fire Protection Association Hazard Diamond signage here for comparison on the left, as I thought of it when I saw the Knights of Pythias logo on the right. Coincidence…or is there some kind of connection?

I don’t discount any possibility with the amount of secret society symbolism that goes on without our awareness.

I will start at the Pythian Home of Missouri where I first encountered the Knights of Pythias in Springfield, Missouri, then give other examples Pythian orphanages.

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We are told that this Pythian Home was constructed by the order in 1913 as a home for needy members of their order, and their widows and orphans.

The original main floor features things like a grand foyer…

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…and sitting parlors.

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In addition to this home, the Knights of Pythias built orphanages in places like Clayton, North Carolina, near Raleigh.

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The construction of this orphanage was said to have started in 1910, and it is reported as no longer standing.

The Pythian Home in Weatherford, Texas, opened in 1909 for widows and orphans in Knights of Pythias members.

It is in operation as a children’s home to this day.

The Pythian Home in Springfield, Ohio, was said to be the first constructed by the order in 1894.

Same idea with the Odd Fellows.

The American lodges formed a governing system separate from the English Order in 1842, and assumed the name Independent Order of Odd Fellows in 1843.

The Independent Order of the Odd Fellows became the first fraternity in the United States to include both men and women in 1851, with its establishment of the “Beautiful Rebekah Degree.”

The command of the Odd Fellows is to “visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan.”

Here are some examples of Odd Fellows Institutions along these lines:

The Odd Fellows Home in Liberty, Missouri, was said to have been built in the late 19th-century, and had an orphanage, school, nursing home, and cemetery, and is in ruins today…

…and like the Pythians, the Odd Fellows also built a Home for Orphans, Indigent, and Aged in Springfield, Ohio, said to have been built in 1898…

…and the Oklahoma Odd Fellows Home at Checotah for Widows and Orphans, said to have been built starting in 1902.

What’s up with the castle-looking appearance of these charitable institutions?

It would be interesting to know what was really going on here with all this focus on helping the sick, distressed, aged, dead and orphans in combination with the elaborate architecture.

The information I received from Caroline in California opened up a new area of research for me that dove-tailed well with other research I have already done seen throughout this post, and was able to pull examples of it together in one-place to share the anomalies that I have serious questions about.

What might have actually been taking place here?

Could the cover of warfare have been used to destroy the infrastructure of the original civilization and create the new narrative?

I could go on with anomalies I have found in my research connected with the Civil War, but I am going to end this post here because they are more of the same idea, and I have provided numerous examples to show why I have many questions about the truth of the historical narrative that we have been taught from cradle-to-grave to accept as absolute fact.

Frederick Law Olmsted, Frank Lloyd Wright and Other Iconic American Architects and Civil Engineers in our His-Story

This particular subject of iconic architects came to the forefront of my mind as a result of my recent trip to visit family and friends in Florida from where I live in Arizona at the beginning of May 2021.

I spent the first night of my trip in Lakeland, Florida, which is the location of my Dad’s college alma mater, Florida Southern College, where Frank Lloyd Wright was said to have designed over ten of its buildings.

Then, on my way home to Sedona from the Phoenix Airport on the West Loop 101, I passed by the sign for “Frank Lloyd Wright Boulevard” in Scottsdale.

The prodigiousness of his work as an architect in places geographically- distant from each other brought to mind, in addition to Frank Lloyd Wright…

…four other individuals I have encountered in my research that were credited with the same kind of prodigious output – landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted…

…building architect Henry Hobson Richardson…

…and bridge-designers Polish-born American Ralph Modjeski…

…and German-born American John Augustus Roebling.

In addition to the prominent place they occupy in our historical narrative to explain how our infrastructure came into existence, I will bring forward interesting connections between these gentlemen and other people and events that were happening during the reset of the timeline from the Old World Order to the New World Order.

I am going to begin with Frederick Law Olmsted.

He is called the “Father of Landscape Architecture.”

His biography says he created the profession of landscape architecture by working in a dry goods store; taking a year-long voyage in the China trade; and by studying surveying, engineering, chemistry, and scientific farming.

Though I found references saying he did attend Yale College, we are also told he was about to enter Yale College in 1837, but weakened eyes from sumac poisoning prevented him the usual course of study. 

At any rate, he apparently did not graduate from college in any course of study.

We are told he started out with a career in journalism, travelling to England in 1850 to visit public gardens there, including Birkenhead Park, a park said to have been designed by Joseph Paxton which opened in April of 1847 and said to be the first publicly funded civic park in the world.

 Joseph Paxton, a gardener and greenhouse builder by trade…

…was also said to have been commissioned by Baron Mayer Rothschild in 1850 to design the Mentmore Towers in Buckinghamshire…

…and Joseph Paxton was also given credit for designing the Crystal Palace to house the 1851 Great Exhibition in London in Hyde Park.

The Crystal Palace was described as a massive glass house that was 1,848-feet, or 563-meters, long, by 454-feet, or 138-meters, wide, and constructed from cast-iron frame components and glass. 

After his trip, Olmsted published “Walks and Talks of an American Farmer” in England in 1852, where he recorded the sights, sounds and mental impressions of rural England from his visit.

Frederick Law Olmsted apparently was also commissioned by the New York Daily Times to start on an extensive research journey in the American South and Texas between 1852 and 1857.

The dispatches he sent to the Times were collected into three books, and considered vivid, first-person accounts of the antebellum South: “A Journey in the Seaboard Slave States,” first published in 1856…

…”A Journey through Texas,” published in 1857…

…and “A Journey in the Back Country in the Winter of 1853 – 1854,” published in 1860.

All three of these books were published in one book, called “Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton Kingdom,” in 1861 during the first six months of the American Civil War at the suggestion of his English publisher.

All of these books by Frederick Law Olmsted are really raising red flags for me as I have come to believe from my research that publications like these are indicative of some kind of setting the stage in seeding the new historical narrative into our consciousness by those responsible for the hijack of the original positive civilization that built all of Earth’s infrastructure, and, as we will see, ultimately what this post is all about.

One more thing, before I move on to what Frederick Law Olmsted was really known for, is that he provided financial support for, and sometimes wrote for, “The Nation,” a progressive magazine that is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, having been founded on July 6th of 1865, three-months after the end of the American Civil War.

Now, on to Frederick Law Olmsted’s career as a prolific and celebrated landscape architect, and his other connections to people and events going on during this time.

Olmsted was said to have gotten his start teaming up with Calvert Vaux in the design and creation of Central Park in New York City.

He had been introduced to English-born architect Calvert Vaux by his mentor, another founder of American landscape architecture, Andrew Jackson Downing, who died in 1852 in a tragic steamboat fire.

A prominent advocate of the Gothic Revival architectural movement, Andrew Jackson Downing had brought Calvert Vaux to the United States as his architectural collaborator after they met when Downing was travelling through Europe in 1850.

Olmsted and Vaux entered the Central Park design contest together after Downing’s death in 1852.

Vaux was said to have been impressed by Olmsted’s theories and political contacts, though Olmsted had never designed or executed a landscape design.

Their design, announced as the winner in 1858, was called the “Greensward Plan.”

Frederick Law Olmsted’s visit to Birkenhead Park in 1850 was said to have provided him inspiration for the Central Park design.

Backing up in time just a tad regarding Central Park, the land for it was said to have been donated by Robert B. Minturn, after he and his family’s return from an 18-month grand-tour of Europe between 1848 and 1850.

Robert B. Minturn was  one of the most prominent American merchants and shippers of the mid-19th century. 

Robert Minturn was an active manager of many charitable associations in New York city, aided in establishing the Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, and the New York Juvenile Asylum.

There were an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 homeless children in New York City by 1850, which was said to have a population at the time of 500,000 people.

The New York Juvenile Asylum (NYJA), which was established in 1851, sent an estimated 6,000 children out west between September of 1854 until 1923, and was in the top four of institutions participating in the American orphan train movement.

The NYJA supplied thirty of the forty-six children for the very first company of children sent to Dowigiac, Michigan, by Charles Loring Brace’s New York Children’s Aid Society in a new experimental program called “placing-out,” and was a function of the Children’s Aid Society’s Emigration Department.

After a long and arduous journey involving two train rides and two boat rides, the children arrived in Dowigiac, where thirty-seven of the forty-six children were said to have found adoptive homes in local families.

The remaining unadopted children were said to have traveled, by way of Chicago, to an Iowa City orphanage to seek foster families for them.

On the basis of this 80% placement rate in Dowigiac, the program was deemed a success and led to approximately seventy-five years of orphan trains taking something like 200,000 children across the continent…to uncertain destinations and uncertain futures with strangers.

A close friend of Frederick Law Olmsted, Charles Loring Brace established the Children’s Aid Society in 1853.

It was during this time that the American West was opening up for settlement, and we are told Brace’s vision was to emigrate children to live with western farming families.

A movement going in this direction was widely supported by members wealthy New York families, like Charlotte Augusta Gibbes, the wife of John Jacob Astor III, who was the wealthiest Astor family member of his generation.

Before they boarded the train, children were dressed in new clothing, given a Bible and placed in the care of Children’s Aid Society agents who accompanied them west.

As part of the orphan train movement, committees of prominent local citizens were organized in the towns where the trains stopped.

These committees were responsible for arranging a site for the adoptions, publicizing the event, and arranging lodging for the orphan train group.

Though committees were required to consult with the Children’s Aid Society on the suitability of local families interested in adopting children, Brace’s system put its faith in the kindness of strangers.

Many of the children did not understand what was happening.

They were placed in homes for free and were expected to serve as an extra pair of hands to help with chores around the farm, with families expected to raise them as they would their natural-born children, providing them with decent food and clothing, a “common” education.  Legal adoption was not a requirement.

Many orphan train children went to live with families that placed orders specifying age, gender, and hair and eye color.

Others were paraded from the depot into a local playhouse, where they were put up on stage.

The Children’s Aid Society’s sent an average of 3,000 children via train each year from 1855 to 1875, to forty-five states, as well as Canada and Mexico.

Criticisms of the orphan train movement focused on concerns that initial placements were made hastily, without proper investigation, and that there was insufficient follow-up on placements. Charities were also criticized for not keeping track of children placed while under their care.

What was the true significance of Charles Loring Brace’s orphan train movement?

Was it really about finding impoverished children from the city a good home and a better life, as we are taught?

Or was the orphan train movement a means to populate the country with parentless children with no history and no sense of connection to wherever and with whomever they landed?

Or does the orphan train movement really represent the beginning of organized, industrial-scale, trafficking of children by the elite?

Now back to Frederick Law Olmsted, and his prodigious career as a landscape architect.

Other works he and Vaux were credited with include the landscaping plan in 1866 for Prospect Park in Brooklyn, New York…

…the plan for Riverside Park in Illinois, one of the first planned communities, in 1868…

…the Buffalo Olmsted Park System, New York’s oldest system of paths and pathways, which included six parks, seven parkways, eight landscaped circles, and other public spaces, said to have been designed with Vaux starting in 1868.

According to the notation on the bottom of this image of his map of the Buffalo Park System, Olmsted proclaimed that “Buffalo was the best planned city in the United States…if not the world.”

The plan for the Walnut Hill Park in New Britain, Connecticut, was said to have been designed by Olmsted and Vaux in 1870.

The Mount Royal Park in Montreal Quebec was planned in 1877, said to be the first park Olmsted created after he and Vaux dissolved their partnership in 1872.

Other landscape plans for which Frederick Law Olmsted is listed as the primary landscape architect include:

Boston’s Emerald Necklace of Parks starting in 1878…

…and in 1888, in Rochester, New York, both Highland Park…

…and the Genesee Valley Park.

The Belle Isle Park in Detroit, Michigan, sometime in the 1880s…

…and the Cadwalader Park in Trenton, New Jersey, in 1890.

The Cherokee Park in Louisville, Kentucky in 1891…

…and starting in 1892, Olmsted is credited with the Grand Necklace of Parks in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, also known as the Emerald Necklace, which includes Lake Park…

…and Juneau Park.

Here is a good place to insert a picture of the “Tartarian” Milwaukee City Hall, suggested by YouTube viewer John L, the construction of which was said to have been finished in 1895 in the Flemish Renaissance Revival style by architect Henry Koch, a German-American architect based in Milwaukee.

Next came the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

We are told Frederick Law Olmsted collaborated with yet another prolific architect, Chicagoan Daniel Burnham, to adapt Olmsted’s design of a Venetian-inspired pleasure ground, complete with waterways and places for quiet reflection in nature that complemented the grand architecture of the exposition…

…for the South Park Commission Site for the World’s Columbian Exposition of Jackson Park, Washington Park, and the Midway Plaisance.

This area was described as a sandy area along Chicago’s lakeshore that looked like a deserted marsh before construction began, but Olmsted saw, we are told, the area’s potential, and that his design included lagoons and what became known as Wood Island since they had not been developed yet.

As the person responsible for planning the basic land- and water-shape of the exposition grounds, we are told that Olmsted concluded the marshy areas of Jackson Park could be converted into waterways, and that workers dredged sand out of the marshes to make lagoons of different shapes and sizes.

Of course, since the buildings of the Exposition were only intended to be temporary structures, they were torn down afterwards, but Olmsted’s Jackson Park was left as a legacy for Chicagoans to enjoy…

…which hosts the one of two Exposition buildings that were left standing – the former Palace of Fine Arts, which houses the Museum of Science and Industry today.

The other still-standing building from the 1893 Exposition is the Art Institute of Chicago…

…which was said to have been utilized as an auxiliary building during the Exposition for international assemblies and conferences.

Frederick Law Olmsted’s last project, we are told, was for the Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina…

…where he was employed by George Washington Vanderbilt III to design the landscape for his new Biltmore Estate, which was said to have been built between 1889 and 1895.

Just for the record, before I move on, the Olmsted Legacy in landscape architecture did not end, as it was carried on by his son, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. and adopted son and nephew John Charles Olmsted, in the form of the Olmsted Brothers architectural firm which they established in 1898…

…and they played an influential role, among other things, in the creation of the National Park Service, which was established in August of 1916 by President Woodrow Wilson.

Now, I am going to take a close look at the life and work of Frank Lloyd Wright.

Frank Lloyd Wright was credited with designing over 1,000 structures in a creative period spanning 70-years, and that he played a major role in the architectural movements of the 20th-century through his Taliesin Fellowship program.

A native of Wisconsin, he was born in June of 1867. His father, William Cary Wright,was a gifted musician, speaker, and minister, and his mother, Anna Lloyd Jones, was a member of the Lloyd-Jones clan that had emigrated from Wales to Wisconsin, and her brother Jenkin was influential in the spread of Unitarianism in the Midwest.

According to his autobiography, his mother decorated his nursery before he was born with illustrations of English cathedrals she took from a periodical to encourage the baby because she believed he would grow up to build beautiful buildings.

His mother also was said to have bought a set of educational blocks for her son called the “Froebel Gifts” after she saw an exhibit featuring them in 1876, with which he spent much time playing, and shared in his autobiography that these youthful exercises influenced his approach to design.

His father William sued for divorce from Anna in 1884, when Frank was 14, on the grounds of “emotional cruelty and physical violence and spousal abandonment” and when their divorce was granted in 1885, his father left his life forever.

Frank Lloyd Wright attended the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1886 when he was admitted as a special student and worked under civil engineering Professor Allan D. Conover, though he left the university soon, and without taking a degree.

Much later in his life, the University of Wisconsin-Madison granted him an honorary doctorate in 1955.

After leaving the university, next we find Frank Lloyd Wright landing in Chicago in 1887 looking for a job, where we are told architectural work was plentiful as a result of the 1871 Great Fire of Chicago.

He took a position as a draftsman almost immediately upon arrival in the firm of the significant American architect Joseph Lyman Silsbee, known best for his drawing ability, gift for designing buildings in a variety of styles, and prominent buildings in New York in Syracuse and Buffalo; and in Chicago.

During his short time with the firm between 1887 and 1888, Frank Lloyd Wright worked on two family projects: one in Chicago, the Unitarian All Souls Church, for his uncle Jenkin Lloyd-Jones…

…and the Hillside Home School 1 in Wyoming, Wisconsin, near the town of Green Spring, for his aunts, which functioned as a dormitory and library, and which he later had destroyed in 1950.

In 1888, Frank Lloyd Wright became apprenticed to the firm of Adler & Sullivan, where prominent Chicago architect Louis Sullivan, called the “Father of Skyscrapers” and the “Father of Modernism,” took Wright under his wing.

Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Henry Hobson Richardson, who I will be looking at next in this post, form what is called the “Recognized Trinity of American Architecture.”

The firm of Adler & Sullivan, and primarily Louis Sullivan, was credited with designing the Transportation Building for the 1893 World Columbian Exposition in Chicago.

I am not finding Frank Lloyd Wright’s name attached in connection to this building design, or any other at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition.

What I am finding is that it provided the opportunities for Frank Lloyd Wright to engage with Japanese art, architecture and culture with the physical Japanese architecture at the Exposition.

This is the Ho-o-den, also known as the Phoenix Hall, said to have been erected by the Japanese government specifically for the Exposition.

In 1893, Frank Lloyd Wright left the Adler & Sullivan architectural firm on less than good terms with Louis Sullivan after Sullivan had discovered Wright was designing buildings privately outside of his exclusive contract to work for the firm.

Wright established his own architectural practice on the top-floor of the Schiller building on Randolph Street to start out, which was said to have been designed by Adler & Sullivan for Chicago’s German Opera Company.

Opening in 1891, at one time it was one of the tallest buildings in Chicago.

It was demolished in 1961, and replaced by a parking garage.

Between 1893 and 1897, Frank Lloyd Wright was credited with the design of projects in the following examples of the 22 listed…

…which included the Walter Gale House in 1893…

The Lake Mendota Boathouse of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the commission for which was said to have been awarded to Frank Lloyd Wright and built in 1893 based on his winning design in a competition to build a boathouse with the “primary function of storing recreational equipment and serving as a viewing deck for boating events and races that took place on the lake.”

Based on what we are told, it was demolished after only 33-years, in 1926.

The Francis Apartments in Chicago, Illinois in 1895, and the Chicago Architectural landmark that was officially-designated in 1960…

…was demolished by 1971.

The year of 1895 was also the year that Frank Lloyd Wright was said to have designed, and eventually patented, forty-five variations of the Luxfer Prism for the American Luxfer Prism Company.

Frank Lloyd Wright’s design was described as:  having “lines of ornamentation produced upon the prism-light by variations in the surface-levels. These ornamental lines take the form of circles, arcs of circles, squares, and the like, arranged concentrically about the center and interlacing or overlapping each other. The whole forms a grid-like sort of ornament.”

When I saw the ornamentation on the facade of the Schiller Building that was credited to Adler & Sullivan, and was the location of Frank Lloyd Wright’s office during this time, it immediately brought to mind the basic design of the Luxfer Prism design.

This is what it brings up for me.

  1. Did Frank Lloyd Wright get the inspiration for the Luxfer Prism design from studying the the design of his mentors’ ornamentation through the window of his top-floor office in the same building?
  2. Or were both Frank Lloyd Wright and Adler & Sullivan given the credit in our history for designing what was already in existence?

This brings me first to the United States Patent Office, with the question:

Did the U. S. Patent Office play the same role as the Smithsonian Institution in covering up True History?

This is the old U. S. Patent Office, said to have been built between 1836 and 1867, with this image of it said to be circa 1846.

Today the Old Patent building houses two Smithsonian Institution Museums:  the National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum.

We are told that the original designer of the building in the Greek Revival Design, Robert Mills, was removed for incompetence in 1851, and that the building was eventually completed under the direction of the Dean of American Architecture during that time, Thomas U. Walter, in 1867.…and the year the American Civil War ended. 

Then in 1877, a fire in the buildings west wing destroyed some 87,000 patent models and 600,000 copy drawings.

This is said to be a picture of one of the Old Patent Office’s model rooms between 1861 – 1865 (all of the years of the American Civil War)…

…and the Kogod Courtyard of the now National Portrait Gallery of what was the old Patent office, complete with sky-lights and three rectangles filled with water that ripple across the ground-plane.

The other thing this brings me to is the subject of the prism lights themselves.

Prism lighting was the use of lighting to improve the distribution of light, usually daylight, within a space.  It is a form of anidolic lighting, which refers to using non-imaging mirrors, or lenses, and light guides, like fiber-optics, to capture exterior sunlight and direct it deeply into rooms…and scattering rays to avoid glare. 

Sounds like a form of advanced renewable lighting technology that did not involve energy generation, like, for example, electricity does.

Yet we are told prism lighting was only popular starting from its introduction in the 1890s…until cheap electric lights became commonplace in the 1930s, at which time prism lighting became unfashionable.


At any rate, with funding Frank Lloyd Wright secured through his contract with the Luxfer Prism Company, he was able to build a new studio addition to his Oak Park residence in Chicago, and worked primarily from home between 1898 and 1911 on around 100 projects, and he is credited with such projects as…

…the William Fricke House in 1901 in Oak Park, Illinois, which had elements of what was called the Prairie Style, which were the features of a high-water table (which is a projection of lower masonry on the outside of a wall), slightly above the ground, horizontal-banding, overhanging eaves, shallow-hipped rooves, and an expansive, stucco, exterior.

It is still in use as a residence today.

He is credited with the design of the entrance, poultry house and stable of his architect and developer friend Edward Waller’s Auvergne estate in River Forest, Illinois, but only the entrance credited to Wright is still-standing.

The Larkin Company Administration Building was said to be Frank Lloyd Wright’s first independent, large-scale commercial project, for a company that sold soap-products to middle-class customers.

The building included air-conditioning, built-in desk furniture and housed a 100-rank Moller pipe organ in the building’s central court, complete with pipe chambers in the upper-levels.

For what reason would you need to have an organ in a company administration building?

None of this can be seen today as the building was demolished in 1950.

I could go on and on with the work Frank Lloyd Wright is credited with during this period of his work.

One more example from it that I would like the share was the Banff Park Shelter in Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada.

This long, low-lying structure featured an expansive common room with three fireplaces and exposed steel trusses.

According to what we have been told about it, this beautiful shelter, a classic structure attributed to Frank Lloyd Wright in the wilderness of Banff National Park, only lasted for 27 years before it was demolished in 1938?

And yet another example of Frank Lloyd Wright’s masterful architecture destroyed!

There are so many examples to choose from to share of work attributed to Frank Lloyd Wright that I am going to fast forward in his legendary career to where I started at the beginning of this post – to Florida Southern College in Lakeland, Florida, and in Arizona, to Frank Lloyd Wright in the Phoenix-area and Sedona.

Florida Southern College in Lakeland is the largest single-site collection of Frank Lloyd Wright architecture in the world, with 13 of his 18 proposed structures funded and built, and is considered to be one of the most beautiful campuses in America.

This history of his involvement starts when Dr. Ludd Spivey, the President of Florida Southern College starting in 1925, met with Frank Lloyd Wright in April of 1938 in the hopes of finding someone who could transform the small, obscure college into a consequential national institution by creating a “campus of tomorrow.”

Frank Lloyd Wright was 71-years-old when he first set foot on the Florida Southern campus in May of 1938…

…and the first building he was credited with was the Annie Pfeiffer Chapel, with it being constructed between 1938 and 1941, which would have been taking place at the end of the Great Depression and the beginning of World War II.

He was also given credit for these other buildings on campus, including, but not limited, to:

The Danforth Chapel, said to have been designed by Wright in 1954…

…the Watson-Fine Administration Building said to have been completed in 1949…

…and the Water Dome, said to have been partially completed by 1949, and fully-completed in accordance with Wright’s original plans in 2007.

Next, the road sign I saw in Scottsdale, a city in the Phoenix area, for Frank Lloyd Wright Boulevard, focused my attention on Frank Lloyd Wright in Arizona.

Frank Lloyd Wright came to Arizona for the first time in 1927 for the given purpose of consulting on the Biltmore in Phoenix.

At this time, he was living in a home and studio named Taliesin in Green Spring, Wisconsin.

I want to make some comparisons here between architectural designs credited to Frank Lloyd Wright in examples I have seen so far, with some examples of the same design features that I have seen in other places.

The main architectural design with the towers, window arrangements, and directional orientation that I see with Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fricke House in Illinois on the left, and Lake Mendota Boat House and Taliesin home in Wisconsin on the right, reminds me of…

…the architectural design of towers, window arrangements and directional orientation that I have seen many times, including, but not limited to, Old Ouarzazate in Saharan Morocco on the left, Santa Cruz de Tenerife on the Canary Islands in the middle, and the city of Atchison in Kansas on the right.

For point of information, the pyramids on Egypt’s Giza plateau on the left, and the Pyramids of Guimar on the island of Tenerife in the Canary Islands are also facing a certain way as well.

It has been determined that the Pyramids of Giza are oriented to the cardinal points of the north, south, east and west.

After his 1927 visit to Arizona, Frank Lloyd Wright ended up purchasing 600-acres at the foothills of the McDowell Mountains in Scottsdale, where he established the “Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture, also known as “Taliesin West,” in 1937, and it served as his winter home as well until his death in 1959.

Now, I want to take a look at Henry Hobson Richardson, the namesake of the Richardsonian Romanesque architectural-style.

Richardsonian Romanesque is described as a free-revival style, incorporating 11th- and 12th-century southern French, Spanish, and Italian Romanesque characteristic

Architecture historically said to have been built in the Richardsonian Romanesque-style by other architects included the Greenville City Hall,built in 1889, and demolished in the early 1970s…

…the Central Railroad of New Jersey Terminal, said to have been built in 1889…

…the Algiers Courthouse in the Algiers community of New Orleans, said to have been built in 1896…

…and in the design in Alabama of the Montgomery Union Station in 1898.

Henry Hobson Richardson never finished his college-level architecture studies in Paris due to the American Civil War.

He also died at the relatively young age of 47, after having a prolific career as the architect of mind-blowingly sophisticated and ornate buildings of heavy masonry, including:

…Boston’s Trinity Church, said to have been built between 1872 and 1877…

…the Ames Free Library in Easton, Massachusetts, said to have been commissioned by the children of Oliver Ames, Jr, after he left money in his will for the construction of a library.

The building of it we are told took place between 1877 and 1879. The Ames Free Library is situated right next to…

…the Oakes Ames Memorial Hall, said to have been commissioned by the children of Congressman Oakes Ames as a gift to the town of Easton, and built between 1879 and 1881…

Henry Hobson Richardson got around like Frederick Law Olmsted, and in some of the same places, like in Easton, where we find the Rockery, also known as the Memorial Cairn, described as an unusual war memorial designed by Olmsted in 1882…

…and they even worked together in 1870 on what is now known as the Richardson-Olmsted Complex in Buffalo, New York, with Richardson getting credit for the buiilding’s architecture, and Olmsted getting credit for the landscaping.

It started out as the Buffalo State Asylum for the Insane.

One more thing in association with Richardson and the Ames Brothers of Easton was the credit given to him for the design of the Ames Monumentin Wyoming, near Laramie, said to have been built between 1880 and 1882.

It was dedicated to the Ames Brothers for their role in financing the Union Pacific Railroad.

He was also given credit for the design of Albany City Hall in Albany New York, said to have been built between 1880 and 1883.

Here is a chronological list of the architecture in the historical record that is attributed to Henry Hobson Richardson:

Ralph Modjeski is the next prolific builder I am going to take a look at, a Polish-American civil engineer who specialized in bridges.

I first encountered Ralph Modjeski’s name and reputation when I was doing research on the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys.

Thebes, Illinois, is on the Mississippi River, and located near Cairo, Illinois, which sites at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.

It is geographically near Thebes, Makanda, and Carbondale in Illinois and is just down the Mississippi River from St. Louis, Missouri.

Like Cairo, Thebes was said to have been named for the Egyptian city of the same name, and is perhaps best-known for the Thebes Bridge, a five-span cantilever truss railroad bridge said to have been built for the Union Pacific Railroad and opened for use in 1905.

The Thebes Bridge was said to to have been designed by civil engineer Ralph Modjeski, a pre-eminent bridge designer in the United States, and its construction started in 1902.

Ralph Modjeski was born in Poland in 1861, and emigrated to America with his mother and stepfather in 1876.

He returned to Europe and studied at the  “l’Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées,” or “School of Bridges and Roads,” in Paris, France.

He received his American citizenship in Paris in 1883, and he graduated first in his class from the “School of Bridges and Roads” in 1885.

Upon his return to America, Ralph Modjeski worked first for George Morison, an attorney-turned-civil-engineer known as the “Father of American Bridge-Building.”

Ralph Modjeski opened his own in Chicago in 1893, the same year as the World Columbian Exposition, and his first project as Chief Engineer was said to be the railroad bridge across the Mississippi River from Davenport, Iowa to Rock Island, Illinois, called the “Government Bridge,” said to have been completed in 1896.

The “Government Bridge” has a swing-section to accommodate traffic navigating the river.

Called “America’s Greatest Bridge Builder, Ralph Modjeski is listed here as having been Chief Engineer or Consulting Engineer on 26 bridges:

Besides the Thebes Bridge, his major accomplishments were considered:

The Benjamin Franklin Bridge between Camden, New Jersey, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, opening in 1904, and one of four primary bridges between Philadelphia and southern New Jersey…

…along with the Tacony-Palmyra Bridge over the Delaware River in Northeast Philadelphia, opening in 1929…

…the Trans-Bay Bridge between San Francisco and Oakland in California, opening in 1936…

…and the Blue Water Bridge connecting Port Huron, Michigan, and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, opening in 1938.

The last prolific producer of infrastructure I am going to take a look at in this post is John Augustus Roebling, whom I first encountered doing research in the Cincinnati-area.

This is what we are told about his life and work.

John A. Roebling was born in the Prussian city of Muhlhausen in 1806, and starting in 1824, he received an education in architecture, engineering, and hydraulics in two semesters at Berlin’s Bauakademie, or Building Academy.

After working as a designer and supervisor in the construction of military roads for four years until 1829, he returned home to prepare for his engineer examination, which he was said to have never taken.

He ended up emigrating to America in 1831 with a group of Prussians including his brother, and the two of them ended up landing in Butler County, Pennsylvania, and purchased land to establish a German settlement, which they named Saxonburg, and John Augustus Roebling was a farmer there for about 5 years.

Then, in 1839, he went back into engineering, starting with improvement of river navigation and the building of canals, and in 1840, he connected with suspension bridge designer Charles Ellet, Jr, to help with the design of a suspension bridge near Philadelphia.

He began producing wire rope in Saxonburg in 1841 for use in such projects as suspension bridges…

…and in 1844, Roebling was said to have won a bid to replace the wooden canal aqueduct over the Allegheny River with the Allegheny Aqueduct in Pittsburgh, the first wire suspension bridge he was credited with.

The next bridge project in Pittsburgh Roebling was credited with building was what is known as the Smithfield Street Bridge, with construction starting in 1845.

Some time around 1848, apparently he built a large industrial complex for his growing wire production company in Trenton, New Jersey…

…and this wire production complex was said to have inspired the famous slogan on the Lower Trenton Bridge “Trenton Makes, the World Takes.”

I am going to highlight two of his most famous bridge projects out of this list of twelve.

I am going to first look at the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge connecting Cincinnati, Ohio, with Covington, Kentucky, across the Ohio River.

The Covington and Cincinnati Bridge Company was incorporated in 1846, we are told, and asked Roebling to build a bridge, which was perceived as necessary due to the increase in commerce between Ohio and Kentucky that led to highly congested steamboat traffic and constriction of the economy.

Construction of it was said to have started in 1856, and that it first opened on December 1st of 1866, which would have been only a year after the end of the American Civil War.

At the time the bridge opened, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world.

The John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge on the left reminds me in appearance of the famous Tower Bridge in London, England,on the right, which was said to have been built between 1886 and 1894.

The other famous bridge that John A. Roebling was said to have designed was the Brooklyn Bridge.

We are told he started the design work on the Brooklyn Bridge in 1867…

…but that on June 28th of 1869, when John A Roebling was standing at the edge of the dock to fix the location of where the bridge would be built, his foot was crushed by an arriving ferry, requiring the amputation of his injured toes.

His death on July 22nd of 1869 was caused by tetanus after he refused medical treatment.

The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge was said to have been completed by his son, Washington Roebling.

The Brooklyn Bridge on the left reminds me in appearance of the Sidi M’ Cid Bridge on the right in Constantine, Algeria, known as the city of bridges…

…which at one time was the highest suspension bridge in the world.

There are many famous architects and engineers to choose from, but these five men really stick out in my mind that I have encountered in my research as great examples of being hailed as geniuses, pulling off spectacular building accomplishments all over the country in their prolific careers, largely without formal training during times we are taught in our historical narrative that were low technology compared to what we have now.

Their accomplishments were incredible, and the details of their celebrated careers defy belief upon close examination.

I think these men were elevated in stature and ability to provide the explanation for how previously existing architecture and infrastructure came into existence after something very unnatural happened here in the last 200 – 300 years, wiping the builders of the original advanced civilization off the face of the Earth…

…and was part and parcel of the reset of civilization by negative beings seeking absolute power and control.

Yet the stories we are told by them to explain the world we live in just don’t add up!

Evidence for the Manipulation of Our Perception of Space and Time & the Creation of a New Timeline for the Earth

I am going to start this post with information on how concepts of space and time were viewed in the past versus how they changed moving into the present-day; then cover the subject of chronology and what it is exactly; and then move into my speculation as to how the New World Order timeline was created from the original positive timeline of Humanity and the Earth.

In this post, I am going to share evidence I have found that our perception of Space and time has been manipulated with, and evidence for the creation of a new timeline for the Earth that was not the original timeline.

This is not a field about which I have a lot of knowledge, and what I am about to share reflects what I have discovered about this subject primarily in my research of cities and places in long-distance alignments around the Earth, based on and emanating from my finding of the North American Star Tetrahedron in 2016, upon which all of my original research is based.

First on historical concepts of space and time.

The study of geodesy is the science of accurately measuring and understanding the Earth’s shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

A  geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used for locating places on the Earth.

 A geographic coordinate system enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters and symbols.

The coordinates are such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, which would derive from the North-South lines of latitude, and the horizontal position, from the East-West lines of longitude.

We are told that in cartography, the science of map-making, a map projection is the way of flattening the globe’s surface into a plane in order to make it into a map, which requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane.

This is a 1482 engraving by Johannes Schnitzer of the “Ecumene,” an ancient Greek word for the inhabited world, and used in cartography to describe a type of world map used in late antiquity and the Middle Ages.

Johannes Schnitzer was said to have constructed it from the coordinates in Claudius Ptolemy’s “Geography.”

Ptolemy’s “Geography” was an atlas and treatise of geography from 150 AD said to compile the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire, and a revision of the now-lost atlas of Marinus of Tyre, a Phoenician cartographer and mathematician who was said to have founded mathematical geography, and who introduced improvements to the construction of maps and developed a system of nautical charts.

The Prime Meridian is the zero-line of longitude.

Longitude fixes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a North-South zero-line of longitude called the Prime Meridian, given as an angular measurement that ranges from 0-degrees at the Prime Meridian to +180-degrees westward and -180-degrees eastward.

Sir George Biddell Airy, an English mathematician and astronomer, was the seventh Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.

He established the new prime meridian of the Earth in 1851, a geographical reference line, at the Royal Observatory of Greenwich in London, and by 1884, over two-thirds of all ships and tonnage used it as the reference meridian on their charts and maps.

Previous to that, the great pyramid of Giza was the Prime Meridian, located at the exact center of the Earth’s landmass.

Carl Munck deciphers a shared mathematical code in his book “The Code,” related to the Great Pyramid, in the dimensions of the architecture of sacred sites all over the Earth, one which encodes longitude & latitude of each that cross-reference other sites. 

He shows that this pyramid code is clearly sophisticated and intentional, and perfectly aligned over long-distances.

In October of 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by twenty-five countries, in order to determine the Prime Meridian for international use after worldwide pressure had been applied to establish a prime meridian for worldwide navigation purposes and to unify local times for railway time-tables, with Sir George Airy’s Greenwich Meridian already being the favored one for use.

Twenty-two of the twenty-five countries in attendance voted to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich as the zero-reference line.

The International Meridian Conference was held right before the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck-organized Berlin Conference, which was convened in November of 1884 and lasted until February of 1885, during which time the entire continent of Africa was carved up between the European powers.

Interestingly, in earlier maps, ley-lines were depicted on land and sea, a like on the Catalan Atlas of the Majorcan Cartographic School, considered the most important map of the Medieval period in the Catalan language, dated to 1375.

Another early map is the Cantino Planisphere, which was said to have been completed by an anonymous Portuguese cartographer some time before 1502.

A planisphere is defined as a map formed by the projection of a sphere or part of a sphere on a plane.

In addition to what I have shared thus far, the following examples are why I think there was a deliberate manipulation of how we viewed the Earth, and our perception of Space and Time, in the 1500s.

It would seem that the Earth’s grid-lines started to disappear from maps in the 1500s, when Gerardus Mercator, a Flemish geographer, cartographer and cosmographer, published a world map in 1569 that is considered to be the first where sailing courses on the sphere were mapped to the plane map, allowing for a “correction of the chart to be more useful for sailors.”

His 1569 map showed the depiction of straight ley-lines in the seas, but not on land and sea as were present on the flat projections of the Cantino Planisphere and the Catalan Atlas.

Here is a close-up section of the 1569 map showing the depiction of straight ley-lines in the seas but not on land and sea as were present on the flat projections of the Cantino Planisphere and the Catalan Atlas.

Not only that, Mercator was also a globe-maker, like this one from 1541.

This is the cover of Mercator’s 1578 publication of “Tabulae Geographicae,” along with the globe, and Ptolemy said to depicted on the left, and Marinus of Tyre on the right.

Notice the difference between the lines on the globe at the top of the engraving, and the globe at the bottom, and while Ptolemy is pointing down to the globe at the bottom…

…he is holding up a geometric shape in his right hand that looks like the lines on the globe at the top on the left, which looks remarkably like the shape the sacred hoops formed in the Native American Hoop Dance on the right.

We are told the first globe in existence was called the Erdapfel, which translates from the German as “earth apple,” a terrestrial globe said to have been produced by Martin Baheim, a German textile merchant and cartographer, between 1490 and 1492.

This engraving of him was said to have been done in 1886.

It was a laminated linen ball, constructed in two-halves, reinforced with wood…

…and overlaid by a map painted by Georg Glockendon, pasted on a layer of parchment around the globe.

The German-English geographer and cartographer, Ernst Georg Ravenstein, who was born in Germany in 1834 but spent most of his adult life in England, wrote a book about Martin Baheim and his Erdapfel in 1908.

More on Ravenstein, and other biographers like him, later in this post.

Only 13-years after Mercator was said to have published his world map in 1569, the Gregorian Calendar was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in October of 1582, for the given reason of correcting the Julian calendar on stopping the drift of the calendar with respect to the equinoxes, and included the addition of leap years. 

It took 300 years to implement the calendar in the west, and nowadays used in non-western countries for civil purposes.

The Mayan calendar was involved with the harmonization and synchronization of Human Beings and the development of Human Consciousness with natural cycles of time.

The Mayan calendar consisted of several cycles, or counts, of different lengths.

The 260-day count, or Tzolkin, was combined with a 365-day solar year known as the Haab’, to form a synchronized cycle lasting for 52 Haab’, called the Calendar Round, still in use today by many Mayan groups in the highlands of Guatemala.

Mayan Calendar

The Tzolkin calendar combines twenty day-names and symbols, with thirteen day numbers, which represent different-sounding tones, to produce 260 unique days.

The Mayan Long Count calendar was used to track longer periods of time.

The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day-year, with three seasons of 120-days each, and 5-6 epagomenal days, also known as an intercalary month, transitional days that were treated as outside of the year proper to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases in common years and leap years.

Chronology is the next subject I would like to address.

Chronology is defined as: 1) the arrangement of events or dates in the order of their occurrence; 2) a document displaying an arrangement of events in order of their occurrence; 3) the study of historical records to establish the dates of past events.

In 1583, just one year after the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, Joseph Justus Scaliger published the “Opus de Emendatione Temporum” or “Work on the Amendment of Time.”

Scaliger was said to revolutionize perceived ideas of ancient chronology to show that ancient history was not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians, and the Jews.

In this work, we are told Scaliger investigated ancient systems of determining epochs, calendars and computations of time.

We are told the publication of his “Work on the Amendment of Time” placed him at the head of all the living representatives of ancient learning.

Scaliger synchronized all of ancient history in his two major works, De Emendatione Temporum (1583) and Thesaurus Temporum (1606). Much of modern historical datings and chronology of the ancient world ultimately derived from these two works.

Interestingly, when I was looking for information on Scaliger’s Thesaurus Temporum, I found the “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” a Latin translation of a 5th- or early 6th-century Greek chronicle composed in Alexandria, Egypt.

The “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” was said to be a variation of the Alexandrian World Chronicle, an anonymous Greek Chronicle compiled in Alexandria, said to have covered recorded history from Creation until the year 392 AD. 

We are told “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” translates to “Excerpts in Bad Latin.”

Scaliger was said to have taken the first scholarly interest in the “Excerpta Latini Barbari,” and first named the chronicle “Barbarus Scaligeri.”

The chronicle contains two main sections: (a) the history of the world from the creation to Cleopatra and (b) a list of kings or rulers from Assyria to the consuls of Rome, including the Ptolemaic dynasty, a list entitled “high priests and kings of the Jews” and an entry for Macedonian kings. 

Here is the problem I have with this translation of “Excerpta Latini Barbari.”

Barbaria, or Barbary, was the name given to a vast region stretching from the Nile River Delta, across Northern Africa, which would have included Alexandria, Egypt, and the location of ancient Carthage in present-day Tunis, Tunisia, to the Canary Islands.

The coast of North Africa is still called the Barbary Coast to this day.

What if “Excerpta Latini Barbari” translates to something along the lines of Excerpts from Barbarian Latin?”

We are taught that “barbarian” means a person from an alien land, culture, or group believed to be inferior, uncivilized, or violent.

I believe that Barbaria was one of the many empires of the original Moorish civilization, with its origins in ancient Mu, also known as Lemuria, as was Tartaria, or Tartary, in Asia, the name of much of which was changed to Manchuria in the mid-1850s.

In a similar fashion to “barbarian,” the word “tartarus” or “tartary” has come down to us meaning a deep abyss in hades that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked.

Anatoly Fomenko is a Russian mathematician who has proposed a new chronology, along with Russian mathematician Gleb Novosky and Bulgarian mathematician Yordan Tabov, in which they argue that events of antiquity generally attributed to the civilizations of the Roman Empire, Ancient Greece and Ancient Egypt, actually occurred during the Middle Ages, more than a thousand years later.

The concept is most fully explained in “History: Fiction or Science?” originally published in Russian.

The theory further proposes that world history prior to 1600 AD has been widely falsified to suit the interests of a number of different conspirators including the Vatican, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Russian House of Romanov.

Academic interest in the theory stems mainly from its popularity which has compelled historians and other scientists to argue against its methods and proposed world history.

Some of the central concepts of new chronology asserted by Fomenko and colleagues are:

Up to the 17th-century, historians and translators often “assigned” different dates and locations to different accounts of the same historical events, creating multiple “phantom copies” of these events.

This chronology was largely manufactured by Joseph Justus Scaliger in Opus Novum de emendatione temporum (1583) and Thesaurum temporum (1606), and represents a vast array of dates produced without any justification whatsoever, containing the repeating sequences of dates with shifts equal to multiples of the major cabbalistic numbers 333 and 360.

Fomenko’s methods included the statistical correlation of texts, dynasties, and astronomical evidence.

The Jesuit Dionysius Petavius completed this chronology in De Doctrina Temporum, 1627 (v.1) and 1632 (v.2).

Also known as Denis Petau, I can’t find any information about the contents of his chronology in an internet search.

I can only find copies of it on-line, not a summary of what is in it.

There are many, many reasons I am skeptical of the truthfulness of the historical narrative we have been taught.

And how did the new historical narrative get inside our heads, anyway?

The following screenshots are from a page entitled “The Origin of Compulsory Education” on Foster Gamble’s Thrive website. As I recall, it was from his movie “Thrive” that I first learned that the Rockefellers were the originators of the American Educational System.

When John D. Rockefeller established the General Education Board, it says the interest was in organizing children, and creating reliable, predictable, and obedient citizens, and not in producing critical thinkers.

Massachussetts passed the First Mandatory Attendance Law in 1852, which lines up with what I believe was the official kick-off of the new historical timeline, which I believe was the 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition in London.

Here are some examples I have encountered of famous explorers and their biographers in the history we have been taught all of our lives.

We are taught the primary initiator of the earliest time period of maritime exploration in our historical narrative, known as “The Age of Discovery, was Prince Henry the Navigator, who was said to have been born in 1394.

The fourth child of the Portuguese King John I, he was said to be a central figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire, and in the 15th-century European maritime discoveries and maritime expansion.

Interesting to note about Prince Henry.

Apparently no one used the nickname “the Navigator” during his lifetime, or in the following three centuries.

We are told the term was coined by two 19th-century German historians – Heinrich Schaefer and Gustave de Veer – and that the nickname was popularized by two British authors in the titles of their biographies of Prince Henry.

One was by Richard Henry Major in 1868…

…and the other was by Raymond Beazley in 1895.

Let’s see what else I found along these lines.

The next explorer of the “Age of Discovery” to come on the scene was Bartolomeu Dias, a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household.

We are told Dias sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, in 1488, setting up the route from Europe to Asia later on.

Not only did I find the German-English geographer and cartographer, Ernst Georg Ravenstein, mentioned previously in this post in connection with writing a biography of Martin Behaim and the first globe, come up  in association with a biography of Bartolomeu Dias…

…and Ravenstein also published “A Journal of the First Voyage of Vasco Da Gama” in 1898, the next Portuguese explorer of note who made it to India in a journey between 1497 and 1499, and said to be the first link to Europe and Asia by an ocean route.

Ravenstein was said to have translated what was called the only known copy of a journal believed to have been written on-board ship during Vasco da Gama’s voyage to India.

We are told Pedro Alvares Cabral, a Portuguese nobleman, military commander, navigator and explorer, was a contemporary of Vasco da Gama, and who led a fleet of thirteen ships into western Atlantic Ocean, and made landfall in what we know as Brazil in 1500.

The land Cabral had claimed for Portugal later became known as Brazil on the continent of South America.

Interestingly, Pedro Alvares Cabral apparently slipped into obscurity for 300 years, until the 1840s that is, when the Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II sponsored…

…research and publications dealing with Cabral’s life and expedition through the Brazilian Historical and Geographic Institute, which was founded in 1838, and part of the emperor’s plan to foster and strengthen a sense of nationalism among Brazil’s diverse citizenry.

Ferdinand Magellen was a Portuguese explorer who organized the Spanish expedition, which started in 1519 and ended in 1522, to the Spanish East Indies, a fleet known as the “Armada de Molucca” to reach the Spice Islands, and said to have resulted in the first circumnavigation of the earth.

I found a biography about Magellan written by an Austrian novelist, playwright, journalist and biographer named Stefan Zweig, who was born in Vienna in 1881, and died, along with his wife, in Petropolis, Brazil in 1942, of barbituate overdoses.

Petropolis, where Stefan Zweig died, was the name of a German-colonized mountain town 42-miles, or 68-kilometers, north of Rio de Janeiro.

Called the “Imperial City,” the Emperor Pedro II, who was responsible for reviving the memory of Pedro Alvares Cabral, was said to have issued an imperial decree ordering the construction of a settlement to be formed, with the arrival of German immigrants, as well as for the construction of his summer palace there, with the cornerstone said to have been laid in 1845, and that it was built by 1847.

Other notable explorers from the first “Age of Discovery” include:

Giovanni da Verrazzano was said to be a Florentine explorer, in the service of the French King Francis I, and being the credited with first European to explore the Atlantic Coast of North America between Florida and New Brunswick between 1523 and 1524.

We are told that the book “Verrazano’s Voyage Along the Atlantic Coast of North America, 1524,” was reproduced from an original artifact that was written by Giovanni da Verrazzano himself.

It was published in 1916, with an introduction by Edward Hagaman Hall, a New York State historian who was born in 1858 and died in 1936.

Edward Hagaman Hall also published a book about Jamestown, Virginia in 1902.

Henry Hudson was said to have been an English navigator and explorer during the early 17th-century, best known for his explorations of parts of the northeastern United States and Canada.

Between 1607 and 1611, he was engaged by various trading companies to sail to the Far North to find another way to Asia, via either the Northeast Passage or Northwest Passage.

Hudson met his death in the James Bay region of the Hudson Bay, when his crew mutinied, and sent him, his son, and 7 crew members adrift in a small boat with limited supplies.

Did Henry Hudson happen to have anything thing published about him in the late 19th-century, early 20th-century?

Well, I found this 1909 publication about Henry Hudson by Thomas Allibone Janvier, described as an American story-writer and historian, who was born in 1849 and died in 1913.

I do wonder if the relatively modern biographies of these explorers, with little or no information available about them until the late-19th-century to the early-20th-century, are indicative of some kind of back-filling of the historical narrative for the new modern chronology by those responsible for what I believe was the hijack of the original positive timeline.

In another biographical example, information jumped out at me when I saw the front page of a publication about the life of Jan Amos Komensky, also known to history as Comenius, a Czech who was credited with introducing and dominating the whole modern movement in the field of elementary and secondary education, that took me down the path of directly investigating of how this new timeline could have been constructed.

The publication is “In commemoration of the 350th anniversary of Comenius’ birthday” and was published in Chicago in 1942.

These two pieces of information brought up two main issues for me.

The first has to do with  World Fairs, Expositions and Exhibitions, which were held, we are told, in commemoration of specific events in history, so the same device was used with this publication of Comenius’ biography.

The birthdate that has come down to us for Comenius was March 28th of 1592, one-hundred-years after Columbus set sail for the New World.

The “World’s Columbian Exhibition,” also known as the Chicago World’s Fair, was said to have been held in 1893 to celebrate the 400th-anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the New World in 1492, and to have been designed by many prominent architects of the day.

And, as is typical of what we are told about the massive architecture said to have been built as temporary structures, after the World’s Columbian Exposition ended, all of the structures built for the Exhibition were destroyed except for the Palace of Fine Arts, now Chicago’s Museum of Science and Industry.

The Statue of the Republic in Jackson Park today is described as a gilded, and smaller, replica of the statue of the 1893 Exposition.

The original statue of the Exposition was said to have been destroyed by fire, and the new statue sculpted by the same artist, and erected in 1918 to commemorate both the 25th-anniversary of the World’s Columbian Exposition and the centennial-anniversary of the statehood of Illinois.

There are a couple of more points about these world fairs, exhibitions and expositions.

One is that starting in the late 1800s, early 1900s, they became the location for what were known as “infantoriums,” side-show attractions displaying premature newborn babies in incubators, like at the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Oregon.

Infantoriums like these were said to have been the main source of healthcare for premature babies for about 40-years.

There was a permanent infantorium at Coney Island from 1903 until 1943.

Besides the exploitation for profit of putting babies on display in a sideshow environment and charging admission to see them, the question remains, what happened to these premature babies?

Did they all get to go home to their families after being put on display to the public?

Why would premature babies in incubators even be a draw to people to see in a sideshow?

The other thing I would like to mention about these world events is they frequently had exhibits showcasing disasters, like the Galveston Flood Exhibit at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis…

…and the Johnstown Flood Exhibit at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.

Coney Island in New York City also became the location for a permanent Galveston and Johnstown Flood exhibits for many years.

I think these flood exhibits were devices used to tell the audience what to believe about what happened in our new historical narrative, not necessarily what actually happened.

The second piece of information on the front page of the publication about Comenius that struck me as noteworthy was the year of the publication – 1942.

Through the course of my research, I have come to believe the years of 1492, the year of the Fall of Grenada on January 2nd of that year, and 1942, midway through World War II, and the year of the Philadelphia Experiment, were the boundary years of a new 3D time-loop called Rome.

There are 450-years between 1492 and 1942, and, at 225 years, the mid-point year is 1717.

When I researched events that happened in the 40-41-42 the 90-91-92 years between 1492 and 1942, I found a lot of significant historical events related to creating the New world from the old world.

This includes the following information I found that was listed in these 50-year intervals:

Rodrigo Borgia becoming Pope Alexander VI in 1492.

Pope Alexander VI then issued the Inter Cetera Papal Bull in 1493, which authorized the land grab of the New World.

In 1540, Pope Paul III issued a papal bull forming the Jesuit Order, under the leadership of Ignatius Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees in Northern Spain.

The Jesuit Order included a special vow of obedience to the Pope in matters of mission direction and assignment.


In the year of 1542, Pope Paul III established the Holy Office, also known as Inquisition and the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

In 1590, the Governor of one of England’s earliest attempt at colonization,the Colony of Roanoke in North Carolina, John White, returned from a supply trip to find the colony deserted, known to us as the “Lost Colony,” and its fate a mystery to this day.

It is interesting to note that John White was also an artist, who went on five voyages between 1584 and 1590, and, we are told, provided the first views of the New World to England through his numerous sketches.

Between 1592 and 1593, there were plague epidemics recorded around Valletta in Malta, where we are told a temporary isolation hospital was set-up on an island in the Marsamxett Harbor called the Isolotto, and to which 900 suspected and confirmed cases were sent, with the rest of the population being told to self-isolate…

…and in London, where 15,000 people were said to have died in the last major plague outbreak of the 16th-century, and almost 5,000 more in the surrounding parishes, for which John Stow was said to have copied and preserved records of the outbreak.

The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was occupied by the Habsburgs until the extinction of their male line in 1740 with the death of Emperor Charles VI.

The House of Habsburg was one of the most distinguished and influential royal houses of Europe, and in addition to Portugal and Spain, produced the kings of Bohemia, Hungary, Croatia, Galatia, as well the Emperors of Austria, Austria-Hungary, and Mexico, and principalities in the Netherlands and Italy.

Then, the Great Frost of Ireland took place between 1740 and 1741, during which time the Irish population endured 21-months of bizarre weather without known precedent that defied conventional explanation. The cause is not known.

I have speculated that the Great Frost of Ireland was the result of a rip in the fabric of space-time caused by the Philadelphia Experiment.

I think this rip in the fabric of space-time allowed for non-human souls to incarnate in human form, because in 1744 Mayer Rothschild was born in Frankfurt, Germany. 

He established his banking business there in the 1760s…

…marking the start of the international banking family and ultimately the central banking system.

Then on February 6th of 1748, Adam Weishaupt was born in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany.

He went to a Jesuit school at the age of 7 and was initiated into Freemasonry in 1777.

Adam Weishaupt founded the Bavarian Order of the Illuminati in 1776.

Also in 1741, around the same time the Great Frost of Ireland was going on, the Royal Order of Scotland was founded, which is an order within the structure of freemasonry whose members are invited to join based on advanced masonic criteria.

Is it just a coincidence that the logo of the Royal Order of Scotland on the left has a symbol that resembles the sun in the logo of the Jesuits, on the right?

Or a coincidence that both resemble this version of the black sun symbol?

The Black Sun was said to have first originated in Nazi Germany as a symbol for a mystic energy source, and the black sun is also used in occult subcultures, including satanism.

Next, in 1790, President George Washington gave the first State of the Union address in New York City…

…the Supreme Court of the United States convened for the first time…

…the first United States Census was authorized in 1790…

…and the United States patent system was established, which I think was significant because it established the means by which others could claim the inventions of the previous civilization as their own..

In 1840, on January 19th, the United States Exploring Expedition of Captain Charles Wilkes sights what becomes known as “Wilkes Land” in the southeastern quadrant of Antarctica, claiming it for the United States…

…and two-days later, on January 21st, French naval explorer Jules Dumont d’Urville, arrived in Antarctica, and claimed what he named “Adelie Land” after his wife for France.

One day later, on January 22nd of 1840, British colonists reached New Zealand and officially founded the settlement of Wellington.

In 1890, the book “The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660 – 1783 ” by Alfred Thayer Mahan, was published while he was President of the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island…

…which was considered by scholars to be the single most influential book in naval strategy, and its policies quickly adopted by most major navies, and ultimately led to the World War I naval arms race…

In 1891, Liliuokalani was proclaimed Queen of Hawaii after the death of her brother, King Kalakaua.

She was the last sovereign monarch of the Hawaiian kingdom, from January 29th, 1891, until the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom on January 17th, 1893, by subjects of the Hawaiian kingdom, U. S. citizens, and foreign residents residing in Honolulu -the article I was reading didn’t say who specifically.

In 1892, Ellis Island was first opened to new immigrants on January 1st.

From 1892 to 1924, approximately 12 million immigrants arriving at the Port of New York and New Jersey were processed there under federal law.

So, these 50-year periods-of-time starting from 1492 take me to the reason why I went down this research path awhile back, which was the information 0n the front page of the publication about Comenius , which was that it was published in Chicago of 1942.

So, here is what I have pieced together to explain what I believe is the occulted timeline we have been experiencing with the original positive timeline that was hijacked by negative beings who have their best interests at heart, not ours.

Nines have significance in the development of the Mayan Calendar.

In the Mayan calendrical system, there are nine cosmic levels, called underworlds, in the evolution of consciousness.

Like the number of underworlds in the Mayan calendar, there were nine, 50-year-periods between 1492 and 1942.

I think the negative beings that created the New World timeline by mirroring how space-time is constructed to suit their purposes of achieving complete dominion over the Earth.

As a function of time, a period is defined as a round of time, or series of years by which time is measured.

In physics, a time period is the time taken for one complete cycle of vibration to pass a given point.

I think the 50-year-periods between 1492 and 1942 are the anchor points of this new false construct of time on the Earth.

The year 1717 is the mid-point year between 1492 and 1942.

The following is what I found happening in the historical narrative starting in 1717.

On January 4th, 1717, Great Britain, France, and the Dutch Republic sign the Triple Alliance in an attempt to maintain the Treaty of Utrecht, which was signed in April of 1713, in which in order to become King  of Spain, Philip had to  renounce his concurrent claim to the French throne.

This prevented the thrones of Spain and France from merging together, and ultimately paved the way for the maritime, commercial, and financial supremacy of Great Britain.

War of Spanish Succession

In February of 1717, James Francis Edward Stuart of the House of Stuart, called the Pretender, who at one time was claimant to the throne, left where he was living in France, after the Triple Alliance was signed in January, to seek exile with Pope Clement XI in Rome – why he went specifically there, I don’t know, but he died in Rome in 1766.

While most portraits on-line are of a white person, this is believed to be a portrait on the left of James Francis Edward Stuart that was painted when he lived in France.

On June 24th, 1717, the Premier Grand Lodge of England – the first Free-Mason Grand Lodge – was founded in London. 

Grand Lodge of London

And then on 7/17/1717 – an interesting date from a numerological perspective – the premier of Georg Friedrich Handel’s “Water Music” took place for King George I on a barge on the Thames. 

Handel's Water Music Premier

Exactly 200 years later from the performance of Water Music on the River Thames, on 7/17/1917, the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and its Commonwealth, changed its name from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor, supposedly due to anti-German sentiment during World War I.

There is one more thing that I found happening in the 1717 time-frame, the mid-point year of the time-loop I am proposing, that I would like to share.

In 1716, John Law, Scottish gambler turned economist and banker, set-up a public bank in France known as the General Private Bank, issuing paper money against deposits of gold and silver.

While in the Netherlands, Law studied the Amsterdam Exchange Bank and the Dutch East India Company, also known as the VOC.

The Dutch East India Company was the world’s most valuable company of all-time, worth $7.9-trillion as a stand-alone company.

Law was intrigued by these things working together: bankers accepting shares as collateral for loans, and conversely, borrowing to buy new shares, in an interaction between the stock market and lenders that produced a new kind of economy.

With these ideas, Law devised a system based on paper-money, and within which he was convinced that in order for an economy to work well, credit was necessary.

It met with success, and in 1717, the French government approved Law’s proposal to merge a number of existing businesses under the name Company of the Indies, which was also known as the Mississippi Company, comprising a vast area of eight states which at that time belonged to France, and Law became the Company’s Chief Director in 1718.

The Mississippi Company acquired important monopolies in the tobacco trade, exclusive trading rights in Louisiana, the Mississippi River Valley, China, East India, and South America.

The General Private Bank became the Royal Bank in 1718, which meant that the bank-notes were guaranteed by the king.

The key to the Bank Royale agreement was that France’s National Debt would be paid by the revenues coming from the opening of the Mississippi Valley.

The Mississippi Company boomed on paper, however it only took 2 years for the bubble to burst in 1720.

What does all of this have to do with the today?

I am seeing the underpinnings of everything.

For one thing, all of this certainly sounds like the genesis of the financial and economic system under which the world has been operating for quite some time.

For another, it illustrates one of the mechanism by which the New World Order was created from the Old World Order, the Earth’s original ancient, advanced civilization and control of the financial system and resources was undertaken, as well as everything else, in this New World.

How else did they take everything over?

They created a cataclysm, or a series of cataclysms, that covered the Earth in mud and wiped the memory of the original civilization that built everything off the face of the Earth, and then dug out enough of the infrastructure to re-start civilization, bringing us to the world we live in today.


The Beings behind this went through all the trouble to do all of this because in a Free Will Zone like Earth, the Human Beings who live here have to give their consent to choose whether the follow the Light or the Dark.

The only way they can accomplish this acceptance, however, is by outright lies, deception and duplicity because if people knew the true agenda of these controllers, the majority of Humanity would never, ever accept this.

The controllers of this world have tricked us into worshipping them and have kept our consent for this system by lying to us about their existence.

They are evil beings who have committed unspeakable crimes against Humanity and Creation, and have deliberately manipulated the events and conditions in our world for their benefit and our detriment.

What has taken place here is so crazy it is hard to know exactly what they did to get us to this point in history.

I am providing my best explanation for what has taken place here based on my research findings that are outlined in this post.

Yet, at this same point in history, many of us are asleep no more…

…and more are waking up all the time!

Their day is over with the Great Awakening taking place right now! It is now just a matter of time before they are completely done.

The Ernestine House of Wettin and the House of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha

Great evil in the form of parasitic non-human souls incarnated in human form on the Earth, and subsequently created the conditions for the world we are living in today.  

In this post, I am going to be doing a deep dive on the topic of the German Ernestine House of Wettin, and the House of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha that came from it, and other related people and subjects, because I have uncovered evidence in my research that these Houses were an integral part of how the evil took everything over.

I have come to believe as a result of my research that there was a hostile takeover of the earth’s grid system after a deliberately-caused cataclysm that result in a world-wide flood of mud which wiped out most of the original civilization.

I think pockets of original people existed in underground locations, as well as the beings behind this, until enough of the original infrastructure was dug out of the mud flow to re-start civilization.

Here goes ~ it’s time to take the plunge!

The Ernestine Duchies, also known as the Saxon Duchies, were a changing numbers of small states that were mostly located in the modern German State of Thuringia, and ruled by the Dukes of the Ernestine line of the House of Wettin.

Tracing back at least to Theodoric I of Wettin in the 10th-century, we are told, the House of Wettin itself was one of the oldest in Europe, and was a dynasty of German counts, dukes, prince-electors, and kings of territories in the present states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia.

The Treaty of Leipzig in 1485 divided the House of Wettin into two-ruling branches, the Ernestine and the Albertine, which divided the Wettin lands into a Saxon and Thuringian part.

Many ruling monarchs outside of Germany were later tied to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, a cadet branch of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin.

This is the Coat-of-Arms of the House of Wettin.

As I present my research on the Ernestine House of Wettin, and the House of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha, I will share evidence for what I believe the image in the center of the Coat-of-Arms represents this is telling us who incarnated into this lineage in order to seed a new royalty to replace the former royal houses, and rule the Earth.

I find it noteworthy that the uniforms of the modern royals look just like the uniforms of the original royals.

I believe that negative beings behind the cataclysm and hostile take-over have executed and implemented an elaborate, multi-generational plan comprised of fallen angels, reptilians, archons, and other negative extraterrestrial races beings with a negative agenda towards Humanity, the Creator and Creation, all of whom have been interfering on earth but who have managed to convince most people they don’t exist.

Along with whatever caused the mud flood, I think a deliberately-caused rip in the fabric of space-time resulted in the Great Frost of Ireland between 1740 and 1741, allowed for non-human souls to incarnate in human form. 

The Great Frost of Ireland of 1740 and 1741 was a period of time that is in the historical record in which the Irish population endured 21-months of bizarre weather without known precedent that defied conventional explanation. The cause is not known.

I have speculated that the Great Frost of Ireland, which took place between 1740 and 1741 was the result of a rip in the fabric of space-time caused by the Philadelphia Experiment.

There is actually a time-travelling naval vessel in the field of information int he form of a 1980 movie called “The Final Countdown,” about the USS Nimitz going back in time to the day before the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th of 1941.

While I certainly can’t prove this theory, “The Final Countdown” could be an example of predictive programming.

The negative beings have to tell us what they are doing to gain our consent for their actions, but they don’t tell us they are telling us, and instead relying on such methods as predictive programming in movies, TV shows, and books etc. in order to gain our tacit consent (since we don’t know they are telling us something) rather than informed consent.  Predictive programming is defined as:  Storylines, or even subtle images, that in retrospect seem to hint at events that actually end up happening in the real world.

I think this rip in the fabric of space-time allowed for non-human souls to incarnate in human form, because three-years later, in 1744 Mayer Amschel Rothschild was born in Frankfurt, Germany.  He established his banking business there in the 1760s, marking the start of the international banking family and ultimately the central banking system.

Starting out as a dealer in rare coins, his business grew to include a number of princely patrons, and continued to expand into an international banker and profiteer from the Napoleonic Wars.

He sent his son Nathan to London in 1798, where a Rothschild bank was established in the City of London in 1804, and other sons to found banks in the cities of Paris, Vienna, and Naples.

During Great Britain’s war against Napoleon, Nathan Mayer Rothschild became Britain’s banker and paymaster on the Continent, which contributed to the Duke of Wellington’s defeat of Napoleon and consolidated the basis of the financial dynasty of the Rothschilds.

On February 6th, 1748, Bavarian Illuminati-founder Adam Weishaupt was born in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany. He went to a Jesuit school at the age of 7 and was initiated into Freemasonry in 1777.

Weishaupt’s radical views on Illuminism got him in trouble with the ruler in Bavaria when writings of his were intercepted and deemed seditious, and he fled to the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg under the protection of Duke Ernest II starting in 1784.

Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, was born on July 15th of 1750, and was the progenitor of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha line, which seeded the lineage of the new royals.

Duke Francis was an art connoisseur who initiated a big collection of books and engravings, and his 300,000-picture collection of copperplate engravings is currently housed in the Veste Coburg, a star fort that dominates the town of Coburg on Thuringia’s border with Bavaria.

Francis succeeded his father as the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in 1800.

Napoleon defeated Austrian and Imperial forces in the Battle of Austerliz on December 2nd of 1805, andas a result, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved on August 6th of 1806, and on December 15th of 1806, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, along with the other Ernestine Duchies, entered Napoleon’s Confederation of the Rhine, becoming client states of the French First Empire, which lasted until 1813.

Prior to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the imperial throne of the Holy Roman Empire was occupied by the House of Habsburg. Also called the House of Austria, the House of Habsburg was one of the most distinguished and influential royal houses of Europe.

The Habsburg male line died out in 1740 with the death of Emperor Charles VI, and as a result of the War of Austrian Succession that took place between 1740 and 1748, the Empress Maria-Theresa had to concede Habsburg lands in Austria, Spain, and Italy to other powers as part of the terms of the 1748 Treaty of Aix-La-Chappelle, which also confirmed the right of succession of the German House of Hanover to the British throne.

King George I of the German House of Hanover succeeded to the British throne on August 1st of 1714.

The House of Stuart had been the ruling monarchs of the British Isles since King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1613.

In February of 1717, the Stuart heir, James Francis Edward Stuart, known in our historical narrative as the Pretender, left where he was living in France in order to seek exile with Pope Clement XI in Rome, which was where he died 1766.

He would have been heir to the three thrones, but was forcibly prevented from claiming them when he tried to do so.

The portrait on the left is believed to be a portrait of James Francis Edward Stuart that was painted when he lived in France.

The Revolutions of 1830 took place in France, Belgium, Italy, Brazil, Poland & Switzerland, which was the same year that Bavarian Order of the Illuminati founder Adam Weishaupt died in Gotha, in November.

These revolutions led to the establishment of Constitutional Monarchies, and the substitution of the concept of popular sovereignty for hereditary right.  In France, King Louis-Philippe I of the Habsburg House of Bourbon’s cadet branch of the House of Orleans, was the last King of France.

Notice the differences in complexion of these portraits of him findable in a search, with the fourth one of him appearing to be a photograph of a man with a darker skin-complexion.

The two-tone facial coloration of the portrait of King Louis-Philippe I reminded me of another one I had seen like that.

I had seen it with the two-tone face of King Charles III of Spain, shown here.

Then these are existing portraits and statues for comparison of King Philip II of Spain, also ruler of Portugal, as well as England & Ireland for a time, and the son of Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.

These two portraits of Emperor Charles V are available to find in an internet search, again with similar facial structure between the two portraits, the tilt of the chins, and the similar clothing.

The 1830 revolutions in Europe also led to Leopold, the son of Duke Francis of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, becoming Leopold I, the first King of the Belgians, in 1831.

He had strong ties to Great Britain as he had moved there and married Princess Charlotte of Wales in 1816, second-in-line to the British throne after her father the Prince-Regent, who became King George IV.

She is recorded as having died after delivering a stillborn child a year after they were married, leaving King George IV without any legitimate grandchildren.

King George III’s son, the Prince-Regent George’s brother, Prince Edward, ended-up proposing to Leopold’s older sister Victoria, of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who were the parents of the future Queen Victoria.

King Leopold I was said to play an important role in the creation of Belgium’s first railroad in 1835 and subsequent industrialization.

We are told that Belgium was the second country in Europe to open a railway and produce locomotives, after a private rail-line opened between Stockton and Darlington in north-east England on September 27th of 1825.

The very old-looking Skerne Bridge was said to have been built in 1825 for the Stockton and Darlington Railroad, and carried the first train on opening day.

It is considered to be the oldest railway bridge in continuous use in the world.

The first stretch of the Belgian Railway network was said to have been completed between northern Brussels and Mechelen in 1835, and was the first steam passenger railway in continental Europe.

By 1836, the line to Antwerp had been completed, and by 1843, four main-lines had been added to the Belgian rail network.

There are 6,893-miles, or 11,903-kilometers, of railroad track in Belgium, which has the greatest mileage of rail per square mile in the world.

This is the Antwerp Central Rail Station, said to have been built between 1895 and 1905 to replace the original wooden station from 1836.

It was severely damaged by V-2 rockets during World War II. More on this subject later.

So, were they actually doing these heavy-duty engineering projects when they told us they were, during a time we are also taught in our history was low-technology…or were they just bringing the engineering technology from Earth’s original positive advanced civilization back on-line?

On August 9th of 1832, Leopold married Louise-Marie of Orleans, daughter of King Louis-Philippe I of France.

Their children included:

Leopold, Duke of Brabant, who succeeded his father as King Leopold II of the Belgians, ruling Belgium from 1865 until 1909.

As a result of the 1884 Berlin Conference, under the direction of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck during which the continent of Africa was divided up among the European colonial powers, Leopold II was allocated his own personal colony in what became known as the Belgian Congo to a private charitable organization run by him.

Seeing how much wealth the Congo had, King Leopold II started taking advantage of the abundance of raw materials in the country, especially rubber, which grew naturally in the rainforest there, and which inhabitants were forced to collect.

Many strategies of forced labor were practiced to collect the rubber, and workers were assembled by extreme violence, like whipping people, and villages were plundered by soldiers and companies, where women were raped.

The Congolese weren’t seen as a people that had to be protected, and instead, the soldiers would do things like cut the limbs off people to offer their leaders as war trophies.

Millions of Congolese people were killed as a result of these inhumane acts of violence, with estimates ranging between 3-million and 20-million deaths.

The daughter of King Leopold I, Princess Charlotte would became the future Empress of Mexico when she married her cousin Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, an Austrian archduke who accepted the job as the only emperor of the Second Mexican Empire in April of 1864, after an invitation from the French Emperor Napoleon III, who had invaded Mexico, along with Spain and Great Britain, to establish a new, pro-French Mexican monarchy with his support and some conservative party monarchists who were opposed to the liberal party administration of Benito Juarez.

Maximilian’s life was cut short by execution by firing squad in 1867, after his capture by Republican forces, and the country’s Republican government was then restored again under President Benito Juarez.

Besides King Leopold I and Victoria, the mother of Queen Victoria, Duke Francis of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld fathered five other children who survived to adulthood:

Ferdinand Georg August, born in Coburg as Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in 1785.

In 1826, his title changed to Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, when his brother, Duke Ernest I, made a territorial exchange with other members of the family.

He married Maria Antonia Kohary de Csabrag in 1815.

She was the heiress of the Kohary family and one of the three largest landowners in Bulgaria.

By his marriage, he established the Catholic cadet branch of the family, the House of Saxe-Cobury and Gotha-Kohary, which gained the thrones of Portugal in 1837 and Bulgaria in 1887.

After his father-in-law’s death in 1826, Ferdinand inherited the Hungarian princely estate of Kohary, and formerly Lutheran, he converted to Roman Catholicism.

Duke Francis’ son Ernest I was the last sovereign Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, which he reigned as for twenty years, from 1806 to 1826, at which time he became the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha when the Ernestine Duchies were rearranged after Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg died without an heir, and Ernest ultimately received Gotha after he ceded Saalfeld to Saxe-Meningen.

The first wife of Duke Ernest I was Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, whom he married in July of 1817.

They had two children.

Ernest, who inherited his father’s lands and titles…

…and Albert, who was later the husband of Queen Victoria.

Duke Ernest I and his wife Louise divorced in 1826, and she was said to have died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831.

He married his niece, the 33-year-old daughter of his sister Antoinette, the Duchess of Wurttemburg, making her both stepmother and first-cousin to the legitimate children of Ernest I. They did not have children of their own.

In 1796, at the age of 14, Duke Francis’ daughter Princess Juliane of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld married the Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, the grandson of Empress Catherine II, and she became known as Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna.

In many ways, their marriage was forced on them, and they never had children together.

The marriage was finally annulled in 1820.

The second-oldest daughter of Francis I, Antoinette, the mother of her brother Ernest’s second wife, married Alexander of Wurttemburg in November of 1798.

Is that the Hidden Hand?

With that hand-inside-coat gesture Napoleon himself was so well-known for?

The Urban Dictionary defines the “Hidden Hand’ as a secret brotherhood that controls a network of secret societies such as the Bavarian Illuminati and Freemasonry that carry out the orders that are passed down to them through various levels of power…and that the only truly powerful family is the British Royal family because of their bloodline. They are the highest authority and control everyone else through a network of secret societies that work under them.

Alexander of Wurttemberg’s sister Sophia Dorothea was married to Tsar Paul I, and she took the name Maria Feodorovna when she converted to the Russian Orthodox Church.

Tsar Paul I was emperor of Russia from his coronotion in November of 1796 until his violent assassination in March of 1801 as a result of German, Russian and British co-conspirators.