Seeing World History Since 1945 with New Eyes – Part 1 1945 – 1960

I am going to give an overview of modern history in this video series, starting with the three major wartime conferences between the United States, United Kingdom, and Soviet Union – the Big Three of the Allied Powers during World War II – on up through the present-day, and see what comes to the surface that gives us more insight into the patterns that have led to the world we live in today.

I already have a feeling the patterns of what has taken place for Humanity since 1945 are not going to be nice.

The first Big Three wartime conference, the Tehran Conference was actually held in November of 1943, in which the Allies committed to open a second front against Nazi Germany, and two years after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in August of 1941.

Reza Shah Pahlavi was deposed in September of 1941 as a result of the British and Soviet Invasion of Iran during World War II because he was seen as a German ally even though Iran had maintained neutrality in the conflict, and the invasion took place purportedly to secure Iran’s oil fields and ensure Allied supply lines along the Persian Corridor.

He was replaced as Shah by his young son at the time, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi…the last Shah, or Emperor, of Iran.

The next of the Big Three wartime conferences was the Yalta Conference, which was held between February 4th and 11th of 1945, near Yalta in Crimea, a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in what was the Soviet Union at the time.

Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss the post-war reorganization of Germany and Europe.

Much was agreed to by the Big Three at the Yalta Conference, but what I want to highlight is the Declaration of Liberated Europe; the ratification of the agreement of the European Advisory Commission; and the groundwork for the United Nations.

The Declaration of Liberated Europe was created by the leaders of the three nations as a promise to allow the people to create democratic institutions of their own choice, and pledged the earliest possible establishment through elections governments responsive to the will of the people.

So this is what they all said…but what actually happened?  More on this soon.

The European Advisory Commission (EAC) allowed each occupying power full control over its occupying zone, and the subsequent Cold War was reflected in the partition of Germany as each occupying force could develop its zone on its own without influence from any overseeing body.

More on the Cold War shortly.

With regards to the formal establishment of the United Nations in San Francisco in June of 1945…

…all the parties at the Yalta Conference agreed to an American plan concerning voting procedures in the Security Council, which had expanded to five permanent members ~ which were, with the inclusion of France, China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

It was only 6 months after the Japanese surrender that Winston Churchill proclaimed that “an iron curtain had descended across central Europe.”

On the east side of the curtain were the countries connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union, while on the west side were the countries that were NATO members or nominally neutral.

The third Big Three wartime conference was held in Potsdam, Germany between between July 17th and August 2nd in 1945.

They gathered to decide how to administer Germany after its unconditional surrender nine-weeks earlier on the May 8th of 1945.

Franklin Roosevelt’s death occurred on April 12th of 1945, and his Vice-President Harry S. Truman succeed him and represented the U. S. as President at the Potsdam Conference…

…and on July 28th, the new Prime Minister Clement Atlee replaced Winston Churchill as the representative for Great Britain at the Potsdam Conference.

A number of changes had occurred since the Yalta Conference that greatly Big Three relations in Potsdam.

By the time of the Potsdam Conference, the Soviet Union occupied central and eastern Europe – with the Red Army effectively controlling Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania – claiming this region was a legitimate sphere of Soviet influence as well as a defensive measure against future attacks.

Outcomes of the Potsdam Conference included, but was not limited to: the division of Germany and Austria into four occupation zones, with their capitals of Berlin and Vienna divided into four zones as well; the prevention of Nazi activity and preparation for the reconstruction of Germany into a democratic state; the decision to put Nazi war criminals on trial; war reparations to Allied countries; and the dismantling of Germany’s war industry.

It is important to note that during the same time period as the Potsdam Conference, the United States successfully tested the first atomic bomb on July 16th at Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

The Potsdam Declaration was issued on July 26th, an ultimatum calling for the surrender of all Japanese forces or Japan would face prompt and utter destruction.

By August 5th of 1945, the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, destroying the city and killing over 70,000 people…

…and the second atomic bomb was dropped on the ship-building center of Nagasaki on August 9th, several days later, killing around the same number of people as Hiroshima.

Japan formally surrendered on August 15th of 1945, with the formal treaty signed on board the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2nd of 1945.

The Potsdam Declaration was intended by the Big Three to be the legal basis for administering Japan after the war, and after Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Japan General Douglas MacArthur landed there in September, it served as the legal basis of the occupation’s reforms.

While the Emperor Hirohito was allowed to remain on the imperial throne, the Japanese constitution was completely overhauled, and the Emperor’s powers became strictly limited by law, and a parliamentary democracy was installed as the new form of government.

Also, after the August 15th surrender of Japan in 1945, the Korean peninsula was divided at the 38th-parallel into two zones of occupation, with the Soviets administering the northern half, and Americans the southern half.

In 1948, as a result of Cold War tensions, the occupation zones became two sovereign states – socialist North Korea and capitalist South Korea.

The governments of the two new Korean states both claimed to be the only legitimate Korean government, and neither accepted the border as permanent.

The beginnings of the Cold War are firmly rooted in the events of 1945.

Lasting from the formulation of the Truman Doctrine in 1947 until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, it was called “cold” because there was no direct fighting between the United States and the Soviet Union, but engaged instead in proxy wars by supporting different sides of major regional conflicts.

Truman was much more suspicious of the Soviets than Roosevelt had been, and saw Soviet actions in central and eastern Europe as aggressive expansionism.

President Truman announced the Truman Doctrine to Congress on March 12th of 1947, where he asked for money to contain the communist uprisings in Greece and Turkey.

It was an American foreign policy which had the stated purpose of containing Soviet geopolitical expansion and generally considered the start of the Cold War.

It led to the formation of NATO in 1949, a military alliance between western nations that still exists today.

The Warsaw Pact was signed in 1955 as a counter-balance to NATO between the Soviet Union and seven other eastern-bloc social republics of Central and Eastern Europe, and created in reaction to the integration of West Germany into NATO.

Aside from nuclear arsenal development under the doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction, said to have been intended to discourage a pre-emptive attack by either side, and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance between the United States and the Soviet Union was expressed by psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, rivalry at sporting events, and the Space Race.

The Berlin Blockade, which took place between June 24th of 1948 and May 12th of 1949, was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War.

The Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies power, railway, road, and canal access to the sectors in Berlin under western control during the multi-national occupation of Berlin.

In response the western allies organized the Berlin Airlift, which lasted from June 26th of 1948 to September 30th of 1949, to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, flying over 200,000 sorties in one year to provide the people of West Berlin food and fuel.

Let’s see what’s going on in other parts of the world in the mid-1940s.

In China, the Chinese Civil War was fought off-and-on between the Nationalist Republic of China and the Chinese Communist Party from 1927 to 1949.

Hostilities were being put on-hold between 1937 and 1945, when the two factions united in the face of the Japanese invasion of China and establishment of its puppet-state Manchukuo.

Generally referred to as the Chinese Communist Revolution, the Communists gained control of mainland China in 1949, forcing the leadership of the Nationalist Republic of China to retreat to the island of Taiwan.

The Partition of India in 1947 divided British India into the Hindu-majority Union of India and the Muslim-majority Dominion of Pakistan…

…displaced 10 – 12 million people in forced mass migrations to the newly-constituted dominions, and created overwhelming refugee crises, as well as large-scale violence, thereby establishing the conditions for suspicion and hostility between these two countries that has existed into the present-day.

This movement of people started after India’s official Independence Day from Great Britain on August 15th of 1947.

So much for the non-violent independence movement Mohandas Gandhi had led for 25-years prior, and Gandhi himself was assassinated on January 30th of 1948.

Now with regards to the creation of the State of Israel.

Great Britain had been granted a colonial mandate for Palestine and Transjordan by the League of Nations on April 25th of 1920, which lasted until the formation of Israel in May of 1948.

A League of Nations Mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another after World War I, in this case territories that were conceded by the Ottoman Empire following the end of World War I in 1918.

Despite growing conflict between Palestinian Arabs and Palestinian Jews, Truman ultimately decided to recognize Israel.

David Ben-Gurion proclaimed the establishment of the modern State of Israel on May 14th of 1948, and President Truman recognized the new nation on the same day.

On the same day the new State of Israel was proclaimed, and the British Army withdrawn, gun-fire broke out between Jews and Arabs, and Egypt had launched an air assault that evening.

The Korean War started in 1950, when North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25th following clashes along the border and insurrections in the South.

North Korea was supported by China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea by the United Nations, principally from the United States.

The United Nations Security Council denounced the North Korean move as an invasion, authorizing the formation of the United Nations Command and forces to Korea, and the decisions to do this were made without the participation of Security Council members China and the Soviet Union.

One of the first major engagements of the war was the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter between the UN Command and North Korean forces, which took place between August 4th to September 18th of 1950, in which UN forces fought of North Korean forces for six-weeks, and ultimately were able to break free from the perimater, a 140-mile, or 230-kilometer, long defensive line around the southeastern tip of South Korea.

Shortly after a UN counter-offensive was launched from Incheon in September of 1950, the Chinese entered the war, triggering a retreat of UN forces, and by December, China was in South Korea.

The Korean War ended in 1953, during which time there was a back-and-forth going on – Seoul was captured numerous times, and communist forces were pushed back to the 38th-parallel numerous times, creating a stalemate in the ground-war.

From the air, North Korea was subject to a massive U. S. bombing campaign, and the Soviets flew in covert missions in defense of their Communist allies.

The Korean Armistice Agreement was signed on July 27th of 1953, ending the fighting; creating the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to separate North and South Korea; and allowing for the return of prisoners.

No peace treaty was signed, however, and the two Koreas are still technically at war in a frozen conflict.

The Korean War was one of the most destructive conflicts of modern times, with around 3,000,000 deaths due to the war, and proportionally, a larger civilian death toll than either World War II or the Viet Nam War; caused the destruction of nearly all of Korea’s major cities; and there were thousands of massacres on both sides.

The Geneva Conference was convened in 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, to settle unresolved issues from the Korean War and the First Indochina War in Viet Nam, and attended by representatives from the United States, France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the People’s Republic of China, as well as from Korea and Viet Nam.

The Geneva Conference was held in the Palace of Nations, the home of the United Nations Office in Geneva, said to have been built between 1929 and 1938 to serve as the headquarters of the League of Nations, the forerunner of the United Nations.

While no declarations or proposals were adopted with regards to Korean situation, the Geneva Accords that dealt with the dismantling of French Indochina would have major ramifications.

The French military forces in Viet Nam, formerly part of French Indochina, had been decisively defeated in May 7th of 1954 by the Communist Viet Minh forces under Ho Chi Minh at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu.

The very next day the discussions on French Indochina began at the Geneva Conference, and the western allies did not have a unified position on what the conference was to achieve in relation to French Indochina.

The Geneva Accords establish North and South Vietnam with the 17th parallel as the dividing line, and the French agreed to remove their troops from North Viet Nam.

The agreement also stipulates that elections are to be held within two years to unify Vietnam under a single democratic government.

These elections never happen.

The non-Communist puppet government set up by the French in South Viet Nam refused to sign.

The United States also refused to sign on, with the belief that national elections would result in an overwhelming victory for the communist Ho Chi Minh who had so decisively defeated the French colonialists.

Within a year, the United States helped establish a new, anti-Communist government in South Viet Nam, and began giving it financial and military assistance.

A mass migration took place after Viet Nam was divided.

Estimates of upwards of 3 million people left communist North Viet Nam for South Vietnam, going into refugee status in their own country, and many were assisted by the United States Navy during Operation Passage to Freedom.

An estimated 52,000 people moved from South to North Viet Nam, mostly Viet Minh members and their families.

The Chinese occupation of Tibet started in 1950, when China invaded Tibet and engaged in a military campaign at the Battle of Chamdo to take the Chamdo Region from an independent Tibetan state, one of three traditional provinces of Tibet along with Amdo and U-Tsang.

As a result, Chamdo was captured by the Chinese, and Tibet was eventually annexed when the State Council of the People’s Republic of China dissolved Tibet on March 28th of 1959, and it became known as the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China in 1965.

Since that time, over a million Tibetans have been killed, and monks, nuns, and lay-people who protest ending up as political prisoners who are tortured and held in sub-standard conditions.

China has a policy of resettlement of Chinese citizens to Tibet; Chinese is the official language; and Tibetans have become a minority in their own country.

Tibet’s spiritual and temporal leader, the 14th-Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, and other Tibetan refugees escaped to Dharamsala in India during the 1959 Tibetan Uprising, where he established the Central Tibetan Administration, the Tibetan government in exile which is not recognized by China.

Joseph Stalin passed away in 1953.

The guy who was so chummy with the other leaders at the Big Three wartime conferences was a brutal dictator.

He rose to power in 1924 after Lenin’s death, and became a dictator, ruling by terror with a series of brutal policies which left countless millions of his own citizens dead.

Between 1928 and 1940, Stalin enforced the collectivation of the agricultural sector, by stripping people who owned land and livestock of their holdings, forcing people to join collective farms, and rounding up and executing higher-income farmers, and confiscating their land.

Instead of increasing the food supply, this policy caused food shortages, which in turn led to what was called the Great Famine between 1932 and 1933, with millions of people perishing from starvation.

The height of Stalin’s terror campaign was known as the Great Purge, taking place between 1936 and 1938, during which time an estimated 600,000 Soviet citizens were executed, and millions more were deported, or imprisoned in forced labor camps known as gulags.

Not a nice man.

Neither was Chairman Mao, who was doing much the same kinds of things to his people in China.

For one example, Mao and the Chinese Communist Party launched the Great Leap Forward in 1958 for the citizenry to industrialize China by the mass mobilization of the country’s population into agriculturally-based communes to increase grain supply.

It had the same effect as forced farming collectives had in the Soviet Union, resulting in the Great Chinese Famine, with an estimated number of deaths ranging between 15- and 55-million, the largest in history, not to mention that researchers give of up to 3-million people being tortured to death or executed for violating the policy.

The Cold War-era Nuclear Arms Race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, Soviet Union and their respective allies.

The first Soviet atomic bomb was detonated on August 29th of 1949.

A ring of spies in the Manhattan project led by German physicist Klaus Fuchs and American physicist Theodore Hall had kept Stalin well-informed on the American progress, including detailed designs.

Fuchs arrest in 1950 led to the arrest of other suspected Russian spies, including Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, who were convicted of espionage in 1951 and executed in 1953, the first American civilians to be executed for such charges and the first to suffer that penalty during peacetime.

Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 67 nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands, vaporizing whole islands, carving craters into its shallow lagoons, and exiling hundreds of people from their homes.

Novaya Zemlya is a boomerang-shaped island off the northern coast of Russia, where there is a history of nuclear testing by the Russians, including over 224 nuclear detonations at Novaya Zemlya between 1955 and 1990. 

The most powerful nuclear weapon ever, the hydrogen bomb “Tsar Bomba,” was detonated at Novaya Zemlya in 1961.

The Chinese Nuclear Weapons Test Base had four nuclear testing zones at Lop Nur, a former salt lake in China’s Uighur Autonomous Region, starting in 1959 – with H-Bomb detonation in 1967 – until 1996, with 45 nuclear tests conducted.

France had its nuclear testing program in Reggane in Algeria between 1960 – 1961, before Algeria’s independence. They conducted four atmospheric nuclear tests, which contaminated the Sahara Desert with plutonium, negatively impacting those who live here to this day – not only Reggane, but far beyond.

Between 1960 and 1966, a total of 17 nuclear tests were conducted in the Reggane District of Algeria. It is called Africa’s Hiroshima.

The Space Race was a competition to achieve spaceflight firsts, with origins in the ballistic-missile-based nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union following World War II.

Quickly achieving spaceflight capabilities such as satellites, uncrewed space probes, and human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the moon was seen as necessary for national security.

The beginning of the Space Race was seen as the date of August 2nd of 1955, when the United States announced it was going to launch artificial satellites for the International Geophysical Year, and the Soviets responded by saying they were going to launch on in the near future, and they ended up having the first successful launch, with Sputnik I on October 4th of 1947.

The peak of the Space Race was considered to be the what we are told was the United States landing the first humans on the moon on July 20th of 1969 with the Apollo 11 mission.

Senator Joseph McCarthy became the public face of a period of time in which Cold War tensions propelled fears of widespread Communist subversion in the United States.

In 1950, one of the U. S. Senators from Wisconsin, McCarthy said he had the names of 205 Communists working at the State Department, which prompted the Senate to form a special committee to look into the allegations, the outcome of which was said to not find much supporting evidence.

When he became chair of the Senate Permanent Investigations subcommittee in 1952, McCarthy called more than 500 people before the committee for questioning – people in the federal government, universities, the film industry, and elsewhere.

He was ultimately censured by the Senate in 1945 for “conduct unbecoming a senator.”

The definition of McCarthyism is making baseless accusations of subversion or treason without any proper regard for evidence, especially when referring to Communism.

A lot of what we see playing out in our world right now makes me wonder if these claims about communist infiltrators was baseless…or actually based in fact….

The short-lived Hungarian Uprising took place from October 23rd of 1956 to November 10th of 1956 against Soviet control and policies, and was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the end of World War II.

The symbol of it was the Hungarian flag with the communist emblem cut-out.

Starting out as a student protest, the movement turned into a much larger revolt, and the government collapsed, and thousands organized themselves in militias battling the Hungarian army and Soviet troops.

The revolution was ultimately crushed when a large Soviet force invaded Hungary and by January of 1957, a new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all opposition.

The Suez Crisis of 1956 was an invasion of Egypt by Israel followed by the British and French to regain western control of the Suez Canal and remove Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser who had just nationalized the canal, which prior to that was owned primarily by Britain and France.

The invasion was quickly stopped upon political pressure from the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Nations.

Britain and France were humiliated and Nassar was strengthened.

Fidel Castro came to power in 1959 after overthrowing Cuban President Fulgencio Batista via guerrilla warfare, and subsequently assuming military and political power as Cuba’s Prime Minister.

He was ideologically a Marxist-Leninist and Cuban Nationalist, and under his administration, Cuba became the first one-party Communist state in the western hemisphere.

The United States opposed Castro’s government, and Castro aligned himself with the Soviet Union.

More on Castro’s Cuba in the next part of this series.

The first CERN particle accelerator became operational in Geneva, Switzerland on February 5th of 1960, described as a unique tool for penetrating deeper into the knowledge of matter.

On March 6th of 1960, it was announced that 3,500 American soldiers were going to be sent to Viet Nam for the first time, after North Viet Nam escalated military operations against South Viet Nam.

As seen in this blog post, there are patterns that can be detected when looking at the historical narrative. These patterns seen in the period of time from 1945 to 1960 show how events and people were manipulated for particular outcomes benefiting the world powers at the expense of other countries and their people.   At the same time, they were deceiving us about what was really going on in order to gain our consent, like with the examples of partitioning one country into two, setting up two different political systems, and then instigating them to fight each other, and the inherent brutality against Humanity of communism, to name a few. 

We are conditioned to see all of this as normal, but it’s not! 

Someone or something is benefiting from it all, but not Humanity.