Sacred Geometry, Ley-Lines & Places in Alignment – Part 14 Strait of Messina to Catania, Sicily

In the last post, I tracked the alignment from Delphi on Mount Parnassus, an important religious, cultural and social center of ancient Greece, to the Ionian Sea, and the islands of Atokos, Ithaca, and Kefalonia, the largest of the Ionian Islands of western Greece.

I am picking up the alignment at the Strait of Messina, a narrow strait between the eastern tip of Sicily and the western tip of Calabria in Italy.

The narrowest point of the Strait of Messina is between the Punta del Faro in Sicily…

…and the Punta Pezzo in Villa San Giovanni in Italy’s Calabria region.

Punta del Faro in Sicily, located northeast of Messina, has a lot going on in a small space.

Let’s start with the Torre Faro Pylon.

The Torre Faro pylon is one of two free-standing steel towers…

…with the other one, the Santa Trada pylon, being in the Villa San Giovanni across the strait, and standing on top of what looks like one of the more common star fort features.

We are told that they were built in 1955, and used between 1955 and 1994 to carry first 150-kilovolt, and then in 1971, a 220-kilovolt power-line across the Strait of Messina to respective sub-stations on both sides of it. They were decommissioned in 1993, and the conductors were removed a year later.

The Faro Point Lighthouse, also known as the Faro di Capo Pelori, is an active lighthouse that is completely automated, powered by mains electricity, or general purpose Alternating Current (AC) electric power supply.

It was said to have been first built in 1853, with periods of disuse in-between. It is operated by the Italian Navy.

I want to make the point that the Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. At one time, at 330-feet, or 100-meters, in overall height, it was one of the tallest manmade structures in the world.

It was said to have been heavily damaged over time by earthquakes, and that in 1477, the Citadel of Qaitbay was established by the Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf al-Din Qa’it Bay, and we are told the remaining stones of the Pharos Lighthouse were used in the building of it.

Bey is one of the five noble titles of the Moors. I just wonder if the name Qa’it Bay was changed from Qa’it Bey to obscure who we are really talking about here.

I also want to make note of the fact that, at least in the Romance Languages, the word for lighthouse, like the Pharos Lighthouse of Alexandria, includes the root sound of “Far”:

Italian – Faro

Spanish – Faro

French – Phare

Portuguese – Farol

Romanian – Far

And phonetically sounds like the word Pharaoh, which we are told was the common title for monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty, starting in 3,150 BC, up to the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BC.

Are they telling us something without telling us they are telling us?

I mean, after all, this is the emblem of the Shriners.  This organization is comprised of 32nd and 33rd degree Freemasons.  With a sword over the head of a pharaoh, this is an image of oppression.

There is what is described as a fortication adjacent to the Punta del Faro lighthouse in Sicily…

…that is now part of the Lido Horcynus Orca Park.

The fortification gets used for things like cinematographic festivals held here.

Lido Horcynus Orca Park is primarily a beach resort.

Does that look like a beach resort you would like to go to?

And Lido Horcynus Orca really has some interesting features surrounding the beachfront. Like, what the heck are these squares covering the landscape?

…and what are those two white column-looking things?

It brought to mind the square shapes I saw on Google Earth when I was looking at the coast of Iran across from Hormoz Island in the Strait of Hormuz…

…and both lay-outs in the landscape resemble chips on a circuit board.

As the most northeastern point of Sicily, where the Ionian Sea meets the Tyrrhenian Sea…

…Capo Peloro or Punta del Faro was supposedly the lair of Charybdis, one of the two beautiful women who had been turned into grotesque monsters by jealous goddesses in Greek mythology.

In one version of the myth, she would partially hide herself beneath a fig tree there, amd would frequently leap out into the sea in order to swallow huge quantities of water, creating a whirlpool that would suck down passing ships, and she would belch the water up afterwards.

Garofalo, otherwise known to the world as Charybdis, is found in the Strait of Messina. While not technically a whirlpool, it occurs when the winds and tides meet at cross-purposes in the strait, producing rough seas that are hazardous for vessels.

One more thing before moving across the Strait of Messina to Calabria.

As the ancient Pelorus, Punta del Faro is one of the most celebrated promontories of Sicily, and one of three promontories which were considered to give it the triangular form. Trinacria, the ancient name of Sicily, is said to derive from an ancient Greek word meaning “three legs” and is synonymous with the sun and said to convey motion.

When I looked up the word “Trinacria,”versions of this image popped up all over the place. This particular version includes a human head with serpents and wings…

…similar to the winged disk symbol, most commonly associated with Ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian cultures…

…and the caduceus, the staff of Hermes in Greek mythology, and an emblem of the medical profession in today’s world.

This version of the Trinacria is on the flag of Sicily. The head still has wings, but the serpents aren’t clearly defined as in the first head, kind of looking more like ropes, and the addition of what looks like three ears of wheat.

Why was the image modified?

The Trinacria itself is a symbolic representation of the zenith of the soul in its present state of existence, and the setting of the spiritual essence in its totality. It represents self-realization and ascension.

This is the flag of the Isle of Man, with a shape called the Triskelion…

…which is located in the Irish Sea between Ireland and Great Britain.

Interesting that there is information like this about ancient knowledge to be found in flags, as well as information about the true identity of the missing civilization.

This is the flag of Sardinia, a large island region of Italy in the Mediterranean Sea, northwest of the Strait of Messina. It is also called the flag of the Four Moors…

…and this is the flag of Corsica, an island region of France, just north of Sardinia, with one Moor’s head.

Now changing focus to look at Punta Pezzo, the closest point between Italy’s Calabrian shore in the Villa San Giovanni, and Punta del Faro in Sicily.

The city of Villa San Giovanni faces the city of Messina across the strait.

This part of Calabria was a focal point for Napoleon Bonaparte, after he proclaimed himself emperor of France in 1804.

He made his older brother, Joseph-Napoleon, the King of Naples and Sicily between 1806 and 1808, who we are told, implemented administrative reforms in 1806 that abolished the ruling system that was in place here, and the Lordship of Fiumara disappeared.

Then, starting in June of 1810, we are told the new King of Naples, Joachim Murat, and the brother-in-law of Napoleon, ruled the southern Kingdom from the heights of Piale for four months…

…during which that short period of time he was given the credit for having built the fort of Punta Pezzo, or Piale, with a telegraph tower…

…the Torre Cavallo…

…and the Castello Altafiumara…

…with the Castello Altafiumara and Torre Cavallo both being in close proximity to the Santa Trada Pylon we saw earlier.

This particular geographic location appears to have been a particularly important place on the planetary grid system, similar in scope of what’s here to what I found in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, situated across from each other with the Saint Mary’s River in-between them.

See my blog post “Sault Ste. Marie – A Microcosm of the Advanced & Global Moorish Civilization” for an in-depth analysis of the region nicknamed “The Soo.”

Just a short distance north of Calabria’s Punta Pezzo , we find the Ruffo Castle of Scilla, described as an ancient fortification, and situated on a promontory in the Strait of Messina in the town of Scilla…

…and which houses the Scilla Lighthouse, also operated by the Italian Navy, like the Faro del Cape Peloro in Sicily.

Here’s a view of this location from Google Earth…

…and along the nearby shoreline, there are what appears to be dozens of large, shaped masonry blocks in the water.

Scilla is also the traditional site associated with the sea monster Scylla of Greek mythology, with its location right at the entrance to the Strait of Messina.

The linguistic idiom “between Scylla and Charybdis” means having to choose between two similarly dangerous situations.

Other places of interest in Calabria, known in antiquity as Bruttium, include Tropea, an ancient seaside town built on top of a cliff, with a legend of having been founded by Hercules when returning from his labors at the Pillars of Hercules (in the Strait of Gibraltar)…

…and Reggio di Calabria, known as Rhegium in ancient times, located on the toe of the boot of the Italian peninsula.

It is interesting to note the presence of the same design pattern in the architecture of Reggio di Calabria that you find at the Supreme Court in Washington, DC; at Leconte Hall at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia; and at the National Library of Greece in Athens, Greece.

Reggio di Calabria is located on the Aspromonte, a long craggy mountain range that runs up through the center of the region, and described as resembling a giant pyramid.

This is Mount Consolino in the Aspromonte…

…and within the boundaries of Aspromonte National Park, you find places like the ghost towns of Pentedattilo…

…as well as waterfalls, like the multi-storied Maesano waterfalls.

Back across the Strait to take a look at Messina proper, with a population of over 230,000, and the metropolitan area of Messina, which includes Punta del Faro, is around 650,000, making it the third-largest city in Sicily, and the thirteenth largest in Italy.

The Messina Cathedral is said to be an example of Norman architecture, built on the orders of the Norman King Ruggero II in 1120 AD.

For comparison in appearance, this is the Igreja Matriz da Expecacao in Ico, Brazil.

We are told the current Bell-Tower next to the Messina Cathedral was inaugurated in 1933, after having been designed by the firm of Ungerer of Strasbourg, and is famous for having the biggest and most complex astrological clock in the world.

Every day at noon, a complex system of counterweights, leverages, and gears moves gilded bronze statues located in the facade.


The Fountain of Orion is in front of the Messina Cathedral, and said to have been finished in 1553, commemorating both the city’s mythical founder, and the completion of the first aqueduct of Messina in 1547…

…but I couldn’t find any information about there being an aqueduct in Messina in the present-day when I looked for it.

Messina is a major port city

…and the said-to-be 16th-century Forte del Santissimo Salvatore is located at the port’s entrance.

The Stele of the Madonna Lettera, erected on the fort, was said to have been consecrated and inaugurated in 1934.

I see the Torre Faro pylon in the distance.

It looks like there could be a triangulated relationship between the Stele, the Torre Faro pylon, and the Santa Trada pylon…

…just like the triangulated relationship I found in the first part of this series between the lighthouse at Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay, and the Fort Point Light on the Presidio side of the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Lime Point Light on the other side of the bridge

The next place we come to on the alignment is Mount Etna, on the east coast of Sicily, in what is called the Metropolitan City of Catania, formerly the Province of Catania.

It is located between the cities of Messina and Catania.

It is a stratovolcano that is one of the most active in the world, and is in an almost constant state of activity.

I learned several years ago in a Megalithomania presentation by Antoine Gigal about pyramids around Mount Etna, and I am drawing from her research in the next slides about this obscure subject.

Antoine Gigal is a French writer, researcher and explorer, and the founder of Giza for Humanity who went to Sicily when she heard about 12 pyramids there.

Instead of finding the 12 pyramids she was told about, she found 23 pyramids around Mount Etna, and proceeded to literally do field research, as the pyramids were in the middle of fields.

She found pyramids of different shapes and sizes…

…like an oblong step pyramid between the towns of Passopisciaro and Francavilla…

…which has a standing stone…

…a rectangular pyramid between Linguaglossa and Randazzo…

…and this rectangular pyramid on Mount Etna’s north side.

In Antoine Gigal’s presentation, she demonstrates that the construction style of the Sicilian pyramids is like that of the Guimar Pyramids of Tenerife in the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean, and also like that of the pyramids of the island nation of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean.

The last place I am going to be looking at in Sicily is Catania…

…located at the foot of Mount Etna.

This illustration is said to be of a 1679 eruption of Etna that impacted Catania and also shows what looks to be a star fort around the city or a star city.

This prompted me to look for historic maps of Catania, and I found this old map of the city which confirms the finding.

Beneath the surface-level city of Catania, there are said to be several layers of underground cities…

…and an underground river, named Amenano…

…and in the Piazzo del Duomo, the main square of the city, is the Amenano Fountain of the Amenano River, said to have been sculpted in 1867 by Italian sculptor Tito Angelini.

The Catania Town Hall, also known as the “Palace of the Elephants” is also in the Piazzo del Duomo…

…with the U Liotru fountain, the elephant symbol of Catania, said to have been carved from ancient lava stone and topped by an obelisk from Syene (now called Aswan) in Egypt.

As with everywhere else, there is much more to find in Catania, but I am going to end this post here, and pick up the alignment on the island of Malta.

Sacred Geometry, Ley-Lines & Places in Alignment – Part 11 The Anatolian Plateau

In the last post, I tracked this alignment which originated in San Francisco through Van, the name of a city and province in eastern Turkey, and taking a close look at the history of this region in the Armenian Highlands; to the Valley of the Chimney Fairies in Goreme National Park in the historical region of Cappadocia, as well as taking a look at the region’s underground cities and above-ground rock complexes.

The Anatolian Plateau is called the central upland region of the ancient region of Anatolia, known as Turkey today. The region of Cappadocia and its Valley of the Fairy Chimneys in Goreme National Park from the last post is centrally located on the Anatolian Plateau.

Anatolia is said to mean something along the lines of “Rising Sun” or “the East” in ancient Greek, and has been a bridge between Europe and Asia for thousands of years.

In a similar fashion, Khorasan, the name historically given to the northeastern Persia Empire which came up in previous posts on this alignment, is also said to mean the “Land where the Sun Rises” or the “Eastern Province.”

The Anatolian Plateau is hemmed in by two mountain ranges – the Taurus to the South, and the Pontic Mountains in the northeast & the Kure Mountains in the northwest.

While I am here, I am going to take this opportunity to venture off the alignment and explore this ancient place because I know there is a lot to find.

The Taurus Mountains separate the Mediterranean Coastal Region of Turkey from the Central Anatolian Plateau, extending in a curve from the Province of Antalya in the West…

…to the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the East.

Antalya Province, also known as the Turkish Riveria, is the center of Turkey’s Tourism Industry, and its capital, Antalya, is the fifth-largest city in Turkey.

It is the largest city on Turkey’s Mediterranean coast, with a population of over one-million.

This is Kaputas Beach on the Mediterranean Sea in Antalya…

…compared with Green Sand Beach on the big island of Hawaii…

…Vaja Beach in Korcula, Croatia…

…and Grama Bay in Albania.

These are just a few of many examples I have found that demonstrate similar shapes and angles of beach and rocky coastline in very different places.

The UNESCO World Heritage Site of Xanthos is in Antalya Province, said to be an ancient Lycian city.

This is what remains of the Nereid Monument in Xanthos, with its megalithic base, and believed to be a tomb…

…that was discovered by a British explorer of Turkey, Charles Fellows, who led the archaeological excavation of Xanthos in the early 1840s and shipped an enormous amount of antique monuments to London, where they were reconstructed in the halls of the British Museum, including the Nereid Monument.

Charles Fellows was knighted in 1845 for his services in the removal of Xanthian antiquities to Britain.

This is a surprisingly plain tombstone for him at London’s Highgate cemetery ~ I wonder what that signified!

The Lycian Nereid Monument was said to have inspired the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, said to have been built between 353 and 350 BC as a tomb for King Mausolus, ruler of Caria, a region of western Anatolia north of Lycia…

…and the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus was said to have been the inspiration for the old Standard Oil Headquarters in Manhattan…said to have been built between 1884 and 1928??

Lycia was a geopolitical region in Southern Anatolia, populated by speakers of the Luwian Language group…

… said to have been a language with a hieroglyphic script in use between 1,300 BC and 600 BC…

…and here are the Lycian rock-cut temple tombs of Dalyan, said to date back to the 4th-century BC.

…which are reminiscent of rock-cut Petra in Jordan, attributed to a people called the Nabateans.

Once considered part of ancient Lycia, the Olympos-Beydaglari National Park is located in the Taurus Mountains in Antalya, along the Mediterranean coast, near the Kemer and Kumluca Districts. It is also called Olympos-Bey National Park.

Hmmm. There is that “Khem” sound again. And Bey is one of the five noble titles of the Moors, along with Dey, El, Al, and Ali. Just a coincidence?

Let’s take a closer look at Olympos-Bey National Park.

The Olympos-Bey National Park contains the ruins of what was called the city of Olympos…

…and the park includes Mount Olympos, the highest mountain in Turkey.

This is not to be confused with Mount Olympus in Greece, on the border between Thessaly and Macedonia.

It is the highest mountain in Greece, and notable in Greek mythology for being the home of the Greek gods.

But wait…in North America, there is a Mount Olympus in Washington State, the highest mountain on the Olympic Peninsula there…

…and there is a Mount Olympus in Utah, near Salt Lake City in the Wasatch Range.

Named after Mount Olympus in Greece? That’s certainly what we are led to believe by historical omission, but what if these two Mount Olympuses in North America, and the ones in Greece and Turkey, are representative in some way of the ancient advanced civilization worldwide that we have not been told about?

Lake Egirdir is located in the Taurus Mountains.

The ancient town of Egirdir on the lake shore looks to have an artificial island, called “Yesil Ada” or “Green Island,” attached to it by a causeway.

There is also a protected harbor here at Egirdir…

…that looks like protected harbors I have seen around the world, like Olafsvik harbor in Iceland…

…Funchal Harbor on the island of Madeira…

…the harbor at Chichi-Jimi in Japan’s Bonin Island group…

…and the ports of Dover, England and…

…and Calais, France in the English Channel, to name a very few.

Heading east across the Taurus Mountains running along the southern part of the Anatolian Plateau, we come to the province and city of Konya.

The Mevlana Museum is in the city of Konya.

The Mevlana Museum is also the mausoleum of the Sufi Mystic Rumi…

…whose followers founded the Mevlevi Order based there, better known as the Whirling Dervishes, who practice a spinning dance used to connect with the Divine.

The Turkish rug on the left from Konya has similar design patterns to the Persian rug from Mashhad, Iran, on the right.

The heavy masonry of the Taskopru, or Stone Bridge, is a combined regular dam and bridge in Konya Province, a flood barrier said to have been built between 1908 and 1912 on what was called a ruined arch bridge…

…and Catalhoyuk is located in Konya Province, a neolithic city that is dated back to origins in 7,100 BC…

…and Lake Tuz, pictured on the top, is in Konya Province, the second-largest lake in Turkey, and one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world. It is compared with the world’s largest salt flat on the bottom, the Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia.

Both are incredibly reflective!

Lake Tuz is situated on this alignment I have been tracking starting in San Francisco, California.

Further east, we come to more interesting places, like Mount Nemrut…

… in Commagene, a historical kingdom of Armenia located in what is now Turkey.

Mount Nemrut is described as a tomb-sanctuary built by King Antiochus I Theos, ruler of Commagene from 70 BC – 36 BC.

On the eastern side of the complex, there are what appears to be just colossal human and animal heads.

The question is: broken heads, like we are told, or buried heads…

…because, on the western side of the complex, there is a row of intact colossal full statues with similar heads…

…as well as a large relief with a lion superimposed with an arrangement of stars, and said to depict the planets of Jupiter, Mercury, and Mars as a star chart that gives us the date of July 7th in 62 BC, and is surmised to be an indication of when construction on the complex began.

At any rate, this is what the available information has to say about it.

Heading further along towards the eastern end of the Taurus Mountains in the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, we are close to the province of Sanliurfa in southeast Turkey near the country’s borders with Syria and Iraq.

The capital of Sanliurfa Province, is Sanliurfa, also known as Urfa. It is also believed to be Ur Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldeans, the hometown of Abraham, and is approximately 50-miles, or 80-kilometers, east of the Euphrates River.

The location of Abraham’s birthplace, with the entrance pictured here, is generally believed to have been in Harran, less than 20-miles, or 32-kilometers, from the city of Sanliurfa.

The Pool of Abraham, or Balikli Gol, in the city of Sanliurfa is believed to have been where Nimrod threw Abraham into a fire, but God turned the flames into water, and the logs into fish.

The carp in the Pool of Abraham are held sacred, and protected to this day.

Gobekli Tepe is an archaeological site approximately 7-miles, or 12-kilometers, northeast of the city of Sanliurfa.

In 1994, Klaus Schmidt of the German Archaeological Institute reviewed an archaeological survey done in 1963 conducted jointly by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago.

The site was buried, and the following year, in collaboration with the Sanliurfa Museum, Klaus Schmidt unearthed the first of many huge T-shaped pillars.

More than 200 stone pillars in about 20 circles are known through geophysical surveys, with heights up to 20 feet, or 6-meters, and weighing up to 10-tons, and fitted into sockets hewn out of bedrock.

It is dated back to the 10th-century BC, or 12,000 years ago, and is considered the oldest man-made temple complex yet discovered.

Interestingly, there are animal reliefs carved onto the pillars like this one…

…compared with similar-looking carvings found at Cutimbo in Peru, near Lake Titicaca…

…and at the Lore Lindu National Park on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia.

Moving northeast, close to the Pontic Mountains, is the city of Kars, in eastern Anatolia.

Kars is the largest city along Turkey’s closed border with Armenia, and a settlement that was historically a crossroads of Armenian, Turkish, Georgian, Kurdish, and Russian cultures.

As such, apparently it was of great interest, and the history we are told about it is filled with battles and sieges for control of it.

The Siege of Kars of 1855, for example, was the last major operation to took place during the Crimean War of 1853 to 1856, between the Russian Empire, which ultimately lost the war, and an alliance between the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain, and Sardinia.

Interestingly, in 1854 a British general had been sent to Kars by the supreme commander and chief of British Expeditionary Forces in Crimea to assess the situation.

When I look at this map depicting the siege, I see what appear to be at least thirteen star forts, and which appear to no longer exist in modern times.

Here is an antique map of Kars which also appears to show shapes that could indicate the presence of star forts.

I believe that star forts functioned as part of the circuitry of the original grid system of the earth, and were not military in nature as we have been told. I find them all over the alignments I have found, and they seem to have been prime targets for explorers and European European colonial empires.

The Kars Citadel is still here, though apparently only seven of the original 220 towers remain.

It was said to have been built by the Saltuks in 1152 AD.

There were canals in Kars…

…and these next two photos taken in Kars show classic mud flood evidence of like steep streets with disappearing windows at ground-level, and below-ground level.

Next, I would like to look at Munzur National Park on the Anatolian plateau, situated between the Taurus and Pontic Mountains, and the Armenian Highlands.

It is the largest national park in Turkey, and was established in 1971.

This is a bend of the Munzur River in the national park in Turkey…

…compared with Horseshoe Bend in Page, Arizona…

…this riverbend in the Hulunbuir Grasslands of Inner Mongolia…

…and the Yellow, or Huang He River, the Mother River of China.

The capital of Turkey was moved to the Anatolian Plateau in 1923, when the city of Ankara was chosen as the capital of the new state to remove it from the former imperial capital of Istanbul and to place the capital it in a more central location in the country.

It appears that Ankara is quite the mix of ancient and modern infrastructure!

Within Genclik Park, which is a public park just across the street from Ankara’s main train station…

…we find Ankara’s Luna Park amusement park.

I have believed there to be a connection between amusement parks and rail systems from the time I found this picture of Kansas City, Missouri’s Electric Park, an historic trolley park.

I find it hard to believe that extraordinary trolley parks, like this one in Kansas City, were built at the turn-of-the-century.

Electric Park was said to have been built by the Heim Brothers’ Brewery to increase their beer sales and trolley line ridership. This was the second version of their Electric Park, said to have existed between 1907 and 1925, at which time we are told it was destroyed by fire, the fate of many such trolley and amusement parks, especially in the United States.

Please see my post “Revealing the Significance of Historic Trolley Parks in the United States” for more information about this.

I also found that Mashhad, Iran has a Luna Park as well, in its Mellatt Park.

Mellat Park in Mashhad has amazing hydrological features and beautiful fountains…

…as does Genclik Park in Ankara.

Ankara was one of the main tribal centers of the Galatians, we are told. Galatia in Anatolia was part of the ancient Celtic World.

So interestingly, when I see Ankara Citadel, the foundations of which were said to have been laid by the Galatians in more ancient times (no date was given but prior to Roman times) on a prominent lava outcrop…

…I am once again reminded of Edinburgh Castle in Scotland, which was said to have been built starting around 1100 AD on the plug of an extinct volcano…

…which is what I thought of when I was looking at the rocky outcrop Van Castle is situated on in Van, Turkey, in the last post, said to have been built by the Urartian King Sarduri in 900 BC…

…and the Kars Citadel, circa 1152 AD by the Saltuks, that we just visited looks similar to these other three places.

Yet all built by different civilizations at different times?

When Ankara became the capital of the new Republic of Turkey in 1923, it had been moved from Istanbul, the country’s imperial, historic, economic, and cultural center straddling the continents of Europe and Asia across the Bosporus Strait.

Prior to the capital’s move to Ankara, Istanbul was known as Constantinople, at one time the capital of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Latin Empire, and from 1453 to 1923, the Ottoman Empire.

I am immediately drawn to look into Galata, situated between theBosphorus Straight and what is called the Golden Horn, directly across from the main part of historical Constantinople.

In this history I read about Galata, the name is said to have come from the Greek “Galatai, referring to a Celtic tribe of Gauls who were said to have camped here during Hellenistic times before moving on to the Galatia region in Central Anatolia.

Why would they name a place permanently for temporary inhabitants that were only passing through?

The Galata Tower there absolutely dominates everything in its surroundings!

However, we are told the Genoese get the credit for building it in 1378, when they had a colony here between 1273 and 1453, at the apex of the walls of the citadel, also said to have been built by the Genoese, that no longer exists.

Here are more photos of the outside of the Galata Tower…

…and of the inside of the Galata Tower.

This picture of inside the Galata Tower…

…looks like the Basilica Cistern, the largest of several hundred ancient cisterns that lie beneath Istanbul, and said to have been built during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I between 527 to 565.

The Basilica Cistern is located…

…490-feet, or 150-meters, from the Hagia Sophia, also said to have been built during the reign of Emperor Justinian I, between 532 and 537 AD.

I found this diagram showing the geometric lay-out of the Hagia Sophia…which contains an eight-pointed star.

The last place I am going to look at is the city of Izmir, a city on the western edge of the Anatolian Plateau.

The alignment I have been following passes through here on its way towards the Aegean Sea and Greece.

Known in times past as Smyrna, from ancient times to around 1930, at which time it became predominantly known by its Turkish counterpart, Izmir.

Izmir has more than 3,000 years of recorded urban history…

…and up to 8,500 years as a human settlement since the Neolithich area, with Yesilova Hoyuk being continuously inhabited at least between 6,500 BC and to 4,000 BC.

Discovered in 2003, the Yesilova Hoyuk site was at some point in its history…

…covered in silt.

Silt is defined as a fine sand clay, or other material carried by running water and deposited as a sediment.

Izmir’s Metropolitan area extends along the outlying waters of the Gulf of Izmir, where we see what appears to be a shaped, masonry shoreline…

…and inland to the north across the Gediz River Delta, which has a shape similar to the Connecticut River along the Vermont – New Hampshire border in the United States.

The last place I am going to take a look at in Izmir is Konak Square.

This is the clock tower there, said to have been built in the Moorish style in 1901 by the Levantine French architect Raymond Charles Pere.

Levantine refers to the Latin Church of the Catholic Church in the Middle East, in the Levant, which included the country now called Turkey.

This is the Konak Pier on the eastern end of Konak Square.

Gustav Eiffel is credited with its construction in 1890, a French civil engineer and architect most famous for the tower in Paris bearing his name.

Konak Pier is now an upmarket shopping mall in Izmir.

There is so much more to find, but I am going to end this post here. 

It is clear that this geographical region known since 1923 as Turkey, for less than 100-years, and known as Anatolia for far longer, has a very ancient and storied and obscured past, which goes back at least 12,000 years with the dating of the Gobekli Tepe Complex, and with many places showing evidence of having been covered over massively with silt, or mud, or whatever would have caused things like needing to be dug out from the earth.

In the next post, I am going to be picking up the alignment leaving Izmir to where it enters the Aegean Sea.