In the last post, I tracked mining and mineral findings going east from Cape Farewell, the southernmost tip of Greenland; through the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean; across the Scandinavian countries of Norway, Sweden, and Finland; all the way across northern Russia and Siberia; across the Bering Strait into the State of Alaska; and down the alignment through Canada’s Yukon Territory; British Columbia; Alberta; Saskatchewan; Manitoba; Ontario; ending at Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior that is part of the State of Michigan.
This is the last part of this series.
I am picking up the alignment in Sudbury, officially Greater Sudbury, the largest city in Northern Ontario, a geographic and administrative region of Ontario…
…but is administered as a Unitary authority, and not part of any district, country or regional muncipality.
We are told the Sudbury region was inhabited by the Ojibwe, an Anishanaabe people of the Algonquin Group, for like 9…thousand…years.
We are told a large tract of land, including what is now Sudbury, was signed over to the British Crown in 1850, by the local chiefs, as part of the Robinson-Huron Treaty.
In return, the Crown pledged to pay an annuity to these First Nations people, originally set at $1.60 per treaty member, and it was last increased to $4 in 1874, where it is fixed to this day.
Reservations were also established as result of this Treaty.
Here is a example of the ancient, indigenous inhabitants having their land taken from them, and getting very little in return, in what is clearly a rigged exchange!
We are told nickel, and copper, ore was discovered in Sudbury in 1883, the same year as its founding, during the construction of the transcontinental railway.
The Jesuits arrived here in 1883, the same year the railroad was coming through, and established the Sainte-Ann-des-Pins Mission.
The Murray Mine, where there was a high concentration of nickel-copper ore, was said to have been the first mine established in 1883, apparently “discovered” by a blacksmith in the railway construction gang.
Just want to note there is a subtlety of language here in the historical record, in that it said the mine was discovered, sounding like the physical infrastructure of it, not that the blacksmith discovered the ore, then the mine came along.
It was mined during different periods of time between 1883 and 1971.
The people who live in Greater Sudbury live in an urban core, with many smaller communities scattered around 330 lakes…
… and among rock-hills said to have been blackened by the historical smelting that took place here.
In its history, Sudbury has been a major world leader in nickel mining.
Mining and mining-related industries dominated the economy here for much of the 20th-century, and has expanded to emerge as the major retail, economic, health, and educational center for northeastern Ontario.
The Lake Superior Provincial Park is northwest of Sudbury, and one of the largest provincial parks in Ontario.
On the left is a photo of Katherine Cove at Lake Superior Provincial Park, compared for similarity of appearance with Lake Arcadia in Edmond, Oklahoma, in the middle, and the Gulf of Bothnia on the right, found in the third part of this series, between Sweden and Finland.
The stone steps and walls pictured here are also at Lake Superior Provincial Park.
Not too far from the northern end of Lake Superior Provincial Park, and the Township of Wawa, there are numerous mining concerns, including gold…
…and historical mining for iron ore at the defunct Helen Mine and Magpie Mine.
Starting in 1900, the Helen Mine was owned and mined by…
…Francis Clergue, an American businessman who became the leading industrialist of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, who was said to have been responsible for…
…the building of the Algoma Central Railway, which was chartered in 1899…
…and starting in 1902, was said to have built a large refinery and steel mill in Sault Ste. Marie, where the ore was shipped after it opened in 1904.
We are told that a large iron deposit was discovered north of the Helen Mine in 1909.
The land was purchased by the Algoma Steel Company, and the Magpie Mine was commercially developed, in production between 1914 and 1926.
Ottawa, the capital city of Canada, is on the south bank of the Ottawa River on Ontario’s border with Quebec, with Gatineau on the other side of the river in Quebec.
We are told that it was founded as Bytown in 1826, which was marked by a sod-turning, and a letter from Governor-General Dalhousie which authorized Lt. Col. John By to divide up the town into lots.
We are told Bytown came about as a direct result of the construction of the Rideau Canal, which was said to have been built by Lt. Col. By, and opened in 1832…
…and Bytown was said to have grown because of the Ottawa River timber trade.
Bytown was incorporated as a town on January 1st of 1850, and this was superseded by the incorporation of the city of Ottawa on January 1st of 1855.
This is a depiction of Lower Town in Ottawa in 1855.
Lower Town is said to be the oldest part of the city.
Our history tells us that on New Year’s Eve of 1857, Queen Victoria was presented with the responsibility of choosing the location for the permanent capital of Canada, with Ottawa being described as a small, frontier town.
The Parliament buildings were said to have been constructed between 1859 and 1866, in an architectural style called Gothic Revival.
This a view of Parliament Hill from the Rideau Canal.
Does it make sense, according to the history we have been taught, that we could have been building on this massive and sophisticated scale in the time period between 1826 and 1866?
We are told the first gold was discovered at Eldorado in 1866, southwest of Ottawa.
That year, we are told that prospector Marcus Powell was in a 15-foot, or 5-meter, deep hole on a hill, whacking away at a seam of copper with a pick-axe and shovel, when he broke into a cave.
Years later, he described the cave as being “12-feet-long, six-feet-wide and six-feet-high,” or “4-meters-long, 2-meters-wide and 2-meters-high.”
Sounds more like a rectangular room to me!
The rush was on when he said the largest nugget was the size of a butternut…
…and the cave walls as dripping with golden leaves.
Pictured here is a wall at the Rosia Montana Gold Mines in western Transylvania in Romania, located in a region known as the “Golden Quadrilateral”…
A quadrilateral is a geometric 4-sided figure!
Next we come to Burlington, the largest city in the state of Vermont, and located 45-miles, or 72-kilometers, south of Vermont’s border with the Canadian province of Quebec.
We are told the town’s position on Lake Champlain helped it develop into a Port of Entry and center for trade…
…after the completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, which connects Lake Champlain with the Hudson River system…
…New York’s Erie Canal in 1825…
…and the Chambly Canal along the Richelieu River in Quebec in 1843, part of a waterway that connects the St. Lawrence River with the Hudson River in New York.
Steamboats connected freight and passengers with the Rutland and Burlington Railroad, which was chartered to build in 1843…
… and the Vermont Central Railroad, also chartered in 1843.
Again, the historical narrative we have been given in no way explains the existence of all of these massive long-distance engineering projects, which then seeks to inform us, after putting forth all that effort to build them, that in most cases, canals became obsolete as transportation arteries because the railways were so much more efficient.
At any rate, Burlington became a transportation hub and manufacturing center for the region, and it was incorporated in 1865, which was the same year the American Civil War ended.
This brings me to mining in Vermont.
For one, gold prospecting has been happening in Vermont since the “Vermont Gold Rush” of the 19th-century.
A San Francisco 49er-miner named Matthew Kennedy discovered gold at Buffalo Creek in Plymouth, Vermont, and by 1855, a gold rush was underway in Plymouth and nearby Bridgewater, both of which are close to Rutland, of the Rutland and Burlington Railroad.
We are told the exact same thing happened in Vermont that we are told about the other gold rushes: one person found gold, then another, and soon people were swarming to the brooks and rivers of Vermont with dreams of getting rich.
Apparently each year, more gold is revealed from erosion all over the state, with the most well-known site still being Buffalo Creek near Plymouth, where the whole thing was said to have started.
Starting in the early 19th-century, high-quality marble deposits were found in Rutland, and in the 1830s, a large-deposit of nearly solid marble was found in West Rutland.
We are told that by the 1840s, small firms had begun excavations, but that marble quarries proved profitable only after the arrival of the railroad in 1851.
Marble is a type of limestone used as a stone building material since antiquity, like in the Pantheon in Rome pictured here.
The Pantheon was said to have been built as a Roman Temple between 113 AD and 125 AD.
Rutland went on to become one of the world’s leading marble producers when, we are told, the marble quarries of Carrara in Italy became largely unworkable because of their extreme depth.
Inside Proctor Mountain in Danby, Vermont, which is south of Rutland, in Rutland County…
…is the Vermont Danby Quarry, the world’s largest underground marble quarry, from where ten different types of marble are extracted.
Why is it that marble quarries look like the huge stone blocks were pre-cut, like a long time ago?
This is what the Vermont Danby Quarry looks like:
Other examples are the marble quarries of Carrara in Italy…
…at this marble quarry in Afyon, Turkey…
…and this one in Victoria Brazil.
Could so-called marble quarries actually be ancient marble infrastructure?
Like this megalithic masonry wall in Norba, Italy?
Dorset Mountain is part of the Taconic Mountains, a major range of peaks running along the eastern border of New York State, northwest Connecticut, western Massachusetts, north to central-western Vermont.
These are pictures of the Taconic Ramble State Park…
…in Hubbardton, Vermont, northwest of Rutland.
There is also slate mining in the Taconic Mountains, notably in the Lake Bomoseen Region, notable for extensive slate-quarrying operations.
Located within Bomoseen State Park are the remnants of slate quarries, like the operation at Cedar Mountain pictured here in this historical post card.
The slate quarries here provided slate to the West Castleton Railroad and Slate Company, which started operations in the 1850s.
Slate is a fine-grained rock formed by the metamorphosis of clay and shale that tends to split along parallel cleavage planes, usually at an angle to the planes of stratification…
…and used for things like roofing material and writing surfaces.
The “Pharaoh Lake Wilderness Area” is near Lake Bomoseen.
This is the Rock Pond Mine at Pharaoh Lake, at some point in time a graphite mine.
Graphite is a crystalline form of the element carbon, with atoms arranged in a hexagonal structure.
It is used in steel production, pencils, lubricants, and electronics, and converts to diamond under high temperatures and pressures.
Montpelier, the capital of Vermont, is next on the alignment.
It is the least populous state capital in the United States.
The city center of Montpelier is described as being in a flat clay zone, surrounded by hills and granite ledges, with the Winooski River flowing along the south edge of downtown Montpelier.
Here are the Winooski River Houses in Montpelier, built right on top of old stonemasonry.
Montpelier was incorporated as a village in 1818, and the town developed into a center for manufacturing, especially after the Central Vermont Railway opened in Montpelier on June 20, 1849.
We are told the layout of the main streets paralleling the rivers was in place by 1858, and that the downtown street pattern has changed very little since that time.
In 1895, Montpelier was incorporated as a city.
In Graniteville, southeast of Montpelier…
…we find the Rock of Ages Quarry, with the same big blocks of stone going on.
It is the world’s largest, deep-hole dimension granite quarry, and provides memorials of all kinds, as well as granite for precision machine bases.
Granite is an igneous rock with 20% – 60% quartz by volume, as well as other crystalline minerals, and can be a variety of different colors, depending on their mineralogy.
Like marble, granite has been used as a stone building material since antiquity.
The famous aqueduct of Segovia in Spain was made from granite.
In 1992, the Vermont State Legislature named three “State Rocks” – granite, marble, and slate.
Besides the massive stone quarry industry, there are 266 mines of different types listed in Vermont.
The next place we come to on the alignment is Haverhill in New Hampshire, and the county seat of Grafton County.
It includes the villages of Woodsville, Pike, and North Haverhill, Haverhill Corner, and the district of Mountain Lakes.
It was said to have been incorporated in 1763, and that by 1859, had 2,405 inhabitants…and three grist-mills; twelve saw-mills; a paper mill; a large tannery; a carriage manufacturer; an iron foundary; seven shoe factories; a printing office; and several mechanic shops.
Here is an historic depiction of Woodsville in Haverhill…
…and, as well, Woodsville was once an important railroad center.
A railway supply enterprise was said to have been developed there by saw-mill operator John Woods, after the establishment of the Boston, Concord & Montreal Railroad, which was said to have opened in Woodsville in 1853, and was where the railroad established its division offices and a branch repair shop.
Haverhill is the location of the Bedell Bridge State Historic Site, which was the location of the second-longest covered bridge in the country, and which was unfortunately, we are told, destroyed by wind in 1979.
All that remains are the stone piers of the bridge in the Connecticut River.
There are 76 mines in Grafton County, out of the 260 listed for New Hampshire as a whole.
Most of the gold-bearing water in New Hampshire is found in the northern and western parts of the state, although scattered gold deposits have been found across the state in limited qualities.
As a matter of fact, gold fever never really took off here after a gold rush in the 1860s because the discoveries here paled in comparison to all of the other gold- rush places.
New Hampshire is known, however, as a fantastic state for rock hounds, with an abundance of valuable gems and minerals, including, but not limited to amethyst…
…and the state gemstone, smoky quartz.
Next we come to Portland, the largest city in the state of Maine, and the seat of Cumberland County.
It is the largest metropolitan area in northern New England, with the Greater Portland metro area having over a 500,000 people, which is one-third of Maine’s total population.
The Port of Portland is the largest tonnage seaport in New England.
The Old Port is a district of Portland, known for its cobblestone streets, 19th-century brick buildings…
…and its fishing piers.
So…when did Portland first come into being?
Well, we are told there was an attempt to establish a colony there in 1623 by English naval captain, writer, and explorer Christopher Levett, when he was granted 6,000 acres, or 2,400 hectares, to establish a settlement at what was known as Casco Bay.
He was said to have built a stone house, left a company of ten men, and departed for England to write a book in order to bolster the settlement, but the settlement failed within a year, and the fate of the men unknown.
Fort Levett on Cushing Island in Casco Bay is named for him, a U. S. Army fort said to have been built beginning in 1898.
Fort Levett was part of the Harbor Defenses of Portland, a U. S. Army Coast Artillery Corps Harbor Defense Command, active between 1895 and 1950, and which also included Fort Baldwin, said to have been constructed between 1905 and 1912…
…Fort Popham, said to have been commissioned in 1857, and built starting in 1861…
…which was said to have been built in 1808…
…and Fort Gorges, among others.
Fort Gorges was said to have been built between 1858 and 1864.
All over the world, I have found high concentrations of star forts in one geographic location – like the island of Bermuda, Fernando de Noronha Island of the coast of Brazil, the island of Crete, and in the Strait of Dardenelles in modern Turkey, to name a few.
I believe they functioned as a battery on the earth’s grid system, and were not originally military in nature, and that places with a large number of star forts were power centers on the grid.
One of the definitions of battery is: a device that produces electricity that may have several primary or secondary cells arranged in parallel or series, as well as a battery source of energy which provides a push, or a voltage, of energy to get the current flowing in a circuit.
Like Vermont, there is a great deal of rock-quarrying in Maine.
The granite which was used to build Fort Popham, for example, was said to have come from quarries on the nearby Fox Islands in Casco Bay.
This is the old granite quarry at Vinalhaven, a small town on the larger of the two Fox Islands.
The Millennium Granite Quarry and Stoneworks is just south of Portland, in Wells, Maine.
It has been mined for centuries…
…and provides superior, soft-pink granite.
The first commercial gemstone mine was discovered in 1821 near Paris, Maine, when two young men found tourmalines that were lying on the ground, and then later the same year, gem-quality red and green tourmalines were found in a nearby rock ledge.
Many world-class tourmalines have been mined here, and is the official state gemstone.
…but there are other gemstone found in Maine as well, like citrine…
…and rose quartz, among others.
Next, we come to the Canary Islands, an archipelago and the southernmost autonomous community of Spain in the Atlantic Ocean.
Historically, the Canary Islands have been considered a bridge between Africa, North America, South America, and Europe.
Mount Teide, a volcano on the island of Tenerife, is the highest point in Spain, and the highest point above sea-level in the islands of the Atlantic.
Teide Observatory , a major international astronomical observatory, is located on the slopes of the mountain.
Although the peak of Teide seems to not have a completely regular shape, this is the projection of its shadow.
With regards to mining and mineral occurrences in the Canary Islands, this is what I found.
On the island of La Gomera in the Valle Gran Rey, a place where this interesting terracing is going on…
…there was a gold mine in a mountain being worked secretly.
…and where there was high-quality gold to be found, with the potential for more to be discovered throughout the area.
Like in the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic between the tip of Greenland and Norway, zeolites are found in the Canary Islands.
Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used industrially as commercial absorbants and catalysts.
Here is an example of Stilbite, a zeolite that was found on the island of Gran Canaria…
…at the Barranco de Agaete, said to have steep walls lined with stilbite.
The Canary Islands are said to be of volcanic origin, and have been visited by researchers from the very beginning of the 19th-century, including Alexander von Humboldt in 1799, a Prussian naturalist and explorer, who was said to have climbed the Teide volcano, before heading off to study Venezuala…
…and in 1815, the German geologist and paleontologist Leopold von Buch visited the Canary Islands, where he primarily studied the production and activities of volcanoes.
He studied with Alexander von Humboldt at the Freiburg School of Mining, and is considered a founder of modern geology.
I will do a future post on the scientific explorations of the 19th-century, and my thoughts on the role they might have played in the formation of a new historical narrative after the occurrence of what I believe was a worldwide mud flood that wiped out the Earth’s original, highly-advanced, civilization.
The next place on the alignment we come to is Laayoune, the capital of Western Sahara.
Western Sahara is a disputed territory, and classified as a non-self-governing territory by the U.N.
It is claimed by, and de facto administered by Morocco, in on-going dispute with the native inhabitants, the Sahrawis, who want self-governance.
The Western Sahara is composed of the geographic regions that include Rio de Oro (meaning “River of Gold” in Spanish).
This is what the landscape there looks like today.
We are told that Rio de Oro became a Spanish protectorate in 1884 as a result of the Berlin Conference.
The Berlin Conference of 1884 – 1885, organized by the German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany’s sudden appearance as a imperial power.
The outcome of the “General Act of the Berlin Conference” can be seen as the formalization of the “Scramble for Africa,” also known as the “Partition of Africa” or the “Conquest of Africa,” was the invasion, occupation, and division of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism period between 1884 and 1914, the year in which World War I started.
I think Otto von Bismarck was a driving force behind all that has taken place here, and a subject for future study. Too much to go into here.
The period of history known as New Imperialism is characterized as a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 1800s and early 1900s.
I am sure this was a motive…
…but there was also a rich and proud heritage of Africa and its people that has been removed from the collective awareness that was replaced with something quite different from what it originally was.
You can look on-line to find out about Mansa Musa, the King of Mali between 1312 and 1337….but has the general population ever heard of him?
Mansa Musa was one of the richest men in World history, if not the richest. One of his titles was “Lord of the Mines of Wangara.”
During his reign, Mali may have been the largest producer in the world of gold.
Does this immense wealth fit the historical narrative we have been given about this part of the world?
At any rate, Laayoune is said to have been founded in 1938, and is a hub for phosphate mining in the region.
Vast phosphate deposits are mined at Bu Craa, southeast of Laayoune, where abundant, pure phosphate deposits lie near the surface.
It produces about 2.5 million tons of phosphates each year.
Aided by the longest conveyor belt in the world, which travels 61-miles, or 98-kilometers, phosphates are shipped from Bu Craa to Laayoune…
…where massive ships transport it around the world.
Phosphate, a form of the chemical element of phosphorus, and along with nitrogen, is a necessary component of the synthetic fertilizer needed for the world’s agricultural sector.
Abalessa, in Algeria’s Tamanrasset Province in southern Algeria, is the next place we come to on this alignment.
It is located on the ancient Trans-Saharan caravan route.
It is the former capital of the Ahaggar, or Hoggar, Mountains, a highland region in the central Sahara, along the Tropic of Cancer.
It is famous for the Tin Hinan Tomb, the 1,500-year-old monumental grave, we are told, built for the Tuareg matriarch, Tin Hinan.
She is believed to have lived between the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.
Women have a high status in the matriachal and ancient Tuareg society. Among other things, primarily women own livestock, and other movable property, while personal property can be inherited by both women and men.
The Tuareg Shield, from which are told the Ahaggar Mountains were formed, is a host for world-class gold deposits, with at least 600 gold occurrences having been identified…
…and is part of the 3,000-kilometer, or 1864-mile, long Pan-African, Trans-Saharan belt that is believed by some to have been one of the most important orogenic systems leading to the formation of the Godwana Supercontinent.
Orogenic means events that cause distinctive structural phenomena related to tectonic activity, affecting rocks and crusts in particular region, happening within a specific period, in this case said to have been during the end of the Neoproterozoic era, the unit of geological time said to have been between 1,000-million years ago, and 541-million years ago.
Next we come to Bilma, an oasis town in east Niger…
…known for its salt and natron production through the salt pans there.
…and from which salt cones are made, sold for livestock use throughout western Africa.
Like Abalessa, Bilma is a stop on the ancient Trans-Saharan caravan route.
Salt is a crystalline compound of sodium chloride and widely used, for example, for seasoning food and in food preservation…
…and natron, a sodium bicarbonate component of salt, and historically used as well as a cleaning product for home and body.
Natron refers to Wadi el Natrun, or Natron Valley, in Egypt, from which natron was mined by the ancient Egyptians…
…for the burial rites of mummification.
The symbol for the chemical element sodium is “Na” was derived from natron, and its atomic number is 11.
Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly-reactive metal, however, the free metal does not occur in nature and must be prepared from compounds.
Sodium is an essential element for all animals and some plants.
By means of the sodium-potassium pump, living human cells pump three sodium ions out of the cell in exchange for two potassium ions pumped in.
In nerve cells, the electrical charge across the cell membrane enables transmission of the nerve impulse – an action process – when the charge dissipates, and sodium plays a key role in this.
I also think the earth’s salt lakes have some kind of energy generative function.
Salt captures the sun’s energy and stores it, so I see the salt lakes I find all over these alignments as being an energy power source for the grid system.
One more thing before moving from here is that Bilma is primarily inhabited by the Kanuri people.
The Kanuri people are described as a powerful African people that founded the pre-colonial Kanem-Borno Empire.
The Kanem Empire existed from 730 AD to 1380 AD…
…and then continued as the Bornu Empire until 1900.
The next place on the alignment is Biltine, the capital of the Wadi Fira region of Chad, formerly known as the Biltine Prefecture.
Chad is a land-locked country in north-central Africa.
France conquered the territory in 1920, and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa, a French colonial empire that lasted from 1900 until 1960.
Since its independence in 1960, Chad has been plagued by political violence, and is one of the poorest countries in the world, with most of its inhabitants living in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers.
The Zaghawa people are described as a central African Muslim ethnic group of eastern Chad and western Sudan, and as nomads who obtain their livelihood through herding cattle, camels and sheep and harvesting wild grains.
Interestingly, it is said that in the Girgam, the royal history of the Kanem-Bornu Empire I mentioned previously, refers to the Zaghawa people as the Duguwa, the line of kings of the Kanem Empire prior to the rise of the Islamic Seyfawa dynasty in 1086 AD.
In 1851, a copy of the Girgam was given by a local associated with the Sefuwa Dynasty of the Kanem-Bornu Empire to Heinrich Barth, an Arabic-speaking German explorer of Africa, and he published a translation of it in 1852.
He travelled throughout Africa between 1850 and 1855, establishing friendships with rulers ands scholars, and carefully documenting the details of the cultures he visited.
Hmmmm…and it was the Germans who organized the Berlin Conference in 1884 that carved up the continent of Africa between the European colonial powers?
Could there possibly be a connection between these occurrences?
Well, let’s see, Chad has sizeable reserves of crude oil, which is the country’s primary source of export earnings.
Also, Wadi Fira region of which Biltine is the capital is reported to have large deposits of gold-bearing quartz, as well as deposits of natron, uranium, silver and diamonds.
Most of the mining in Chad is small-scale due to the lack of foreign investment because of political and cultural instability.
The next place we come to on the alignment is El Obeid, the capital of the state of North Kurdufan in Sudan.
El Obeid is a terminus of Sudan Railways.
Sudan has 2,935-miles, or 4,725-kilometers, of narrow-gauge, single-track railways that serve the northern and central part of the country…
…with construction of the railroad said to have first started in 1878.
There is an oil refinery in El Obeid…
…that is part of Sudan’s oil industry.
As of 2016, Sudan held 5-billion barrels of proven oil reserves, ranking 23rd in the world.
Also, there are more than 40,000 gold-mining sites, and about 60 gold-processing companies operating in Sudan.
It looks like Sudan’s resources have been developed in a way that Chad’s has not, in spite of both countries having the same issue of political and cultural instability since independence from Britain in 1956.
Sudan was the historical location of the Kingdom of Kush…
…with its capital being Meroe, situated on the east bank of the Nile River in Sudan.
Now we come to Gonder, a city and district in Ethiopia.
It previously served as the capital of the Ethiopian Empire, and holds the remains of numerous royal castles, including those of the Fasil Ghebbi, the home of the Ethiopian emperors.
The Solomonic dynasty, also known as the House of Solomon, is the former ruling dynasty of the Ethiopian Empire.
Its members were lineal descendents of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba through their son Menelik I, the first Emperor of Ethiopia.
Haile Selassie was the last Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974…
…at which time he was deposed in a coup, and a one-party communist state was established in Ethiopia in March of 1975.
Ethiopia became a Federal Democratic Republic in 1991.
Ethiopia uses the ancient Ge’ez script, one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world, and when I saw the script pictured here, it immediately brought to mind a few others.
This is Ge’ez script on the top left, compared with the Armenian alphabet on the top right, Norse runes on the bottom left, and Vril on the bottom right.
It would not surprise me to learn that these are scripts of the original language, Vril, which was connected to the Ancients and their mastery of how to harness natural energy to create amazing things.
And…yes…there is mining in Ethiopia, including but not limited to gemstones like diamond and sapphire, industrial minerals, gold and tantalum.
Tantulum is a chemical element with the symbol “Ta,” and atomic number of 73.
It is a rare, hard, blue-gray metal that is highly-corrosion resistant, and is considered a technology-critical element.
Next we come to Hargeysa, Somalia, in Somaliland in the Horn of Africa.
The Horn of Africa is the peninsula that is the easternmost projection of the continent, and referred to in ancient and medieval times as Barbara, and denotes the region containing Somaliland, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.
This is a map showing oil concessions in Somaliland circa 2007.
There have been exploratory geological surveys done here, but the mining industry is new and looking for developers.
Around Hargeysa, the mineral resources include sodium, copper, tin and gypsum in the region as well.
Gypsum is a soft, sulphate mineral…
…and is the main constituent of many forms of plaster, drywall, and blackboard chalk, but has many other uses as well.
The last place I want to look at on this alignment are the Maldives, an island republic in the Indian Ocean, southwest of the Indian subcontinent.
Now at first glance, you wouldn’t associate mining with a place that looks like this.
This is the capital of the island nation of the Maldives, Male, on Male Atoll.
I knew what it looked like from prior research through Male, so I was prepared to not find any mining here.
But I did find mining activity ~ coral mining!
Coral mining can take place anywhere coral is available in a convenient location, usually occurring at low tide, and is done by either using dynamite…or iron bars to manually to retrieve the coral by breaking-up the larger corals into smaller pieces that can easily be carried to shore.
However it is extracted, the results are loss of biodiversity, and erosion and land retreat.
The most common use of coral is to turn it into limestone or a cement substitute for use as a building material…
…but it can also be used to make calcium substitutes, which are then used to produce lime…