In the first two parts of the series, I tracked an alignment for mines and mineral occurrences starting at Cape Farewell in Greenland; through northern Labrador and northern Quebec; the Belcher Islands and the James Bay region of the Hudson Bay; southwestern Ontario; the Northwest Angle of Minnesota; North Dakota; Montana; Idaho; Nevada; the Sierra Nevadas and San Francisco in California; in the Pacific through the Big Island of Hawaii, the Republic of Kiribati and the Solomon Islands; Australia; Cape Town in South Africa; Brazil; Venezuela; Colombia; Panama; Nicaragua; Honduras; Belize, and Mexico, ending at Merida, the southern apex of the star tetrahedron, which I believe is the terminus of the Earth’s grid system.
I chose Cape Farewell at the southern tip of Greenland as my starting point for this series because it sits on an alignment that globally connects with two different sides of the North American Star Tetrahedron.
I found it early in 2016 by connecting the dots when I noticed major cities in North America that were lining up in straight lines.
I extended the lines out, wrote down the cities and places that were in linear or circular alignment in spreadsheets, and got an amazing tour of the world of places I had never heard of after looking at countless images, and hours and hours of drone videos, and seeing the same signature and hand of design, from ancient to modern, all over the Earth.
In this post, I am going to cover mining and mineral findings along an alignment going in the other direction from Cape Farewell.
Cape Farewell is the southernmost point of Greenland.
Greenland is an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark.
As I mentioned in the first part of this series, the Nalunaq Gold Mine, Greenland’s first gold mine, opened in 2004 at the Inuit community of Nanortalik and the first mine developed in Greenland in over 30-years.
A narrow-vein, high-grade gold deposit, the Crew Gold Exploration company was the first to mine it for approximately 4-years, producing 308,000 ounces of gold.
Before World War II, Greenland was a tightly controlled colony of Denmark, otherwise closed off to the world.
After Denmark fell to the Germans in April of 1940, the United States established numerous and extensive facilities for air and sea traffic in Greenland, among other things.
Denmark was occupied by the Nazi Germans from 1940 to 1945. The headquarters of the Danish SS Unit was the massive Danish Freemasonic Lodge.
Apparently the chief concern by the United States and other interested parties in 1940 was to secure the strategically important supply of cryolite at Ivigtut, or Ivittuit, also at the southern tip of Greenland.
Ivittuut was one of the few places in the world so far discovered to have what is called naturally-occurring cryolite, which is an important agent in modern aluminum extraction.
Cryolite was discovered here in 1794, and it was mined until production was stopped in 1987 after synthetic cryolite was developed and reserves depleted.
The town of Ivittuut was abandoned soon afterwards.
Cryolite is an aluminum oxide mineral used in the electrolytic processing of Bauxite, an aluminum-rich oxide ore.
Aluminum is a chemical element with the symbol “Al” and the atomic number of 13.
It is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic and ductile metal in the boron group.
It is the Earth’s most abundant metal.
Due to its low density and ability to resist corrosion, aluminum and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry…
…as well as other transportation and building industries.
From Cape Farewell, the next place we come to are the Faroe Islands are a North Atlantic archipelago located 200-miles, or 320-kilometers, north of Scotland, and about half-way between Iceland and Norway.
Like Greenland, the Faroe Islands are an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark.
In our historical narrative, we are told that between 1450 AD and 1814 AD, The Faroe Islands were part of the Union of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy.
We are told the Oldenburg Monarchy had long-remained neutral in the Napoleonic Wars.
Britain was said to have feared that Napoleon would attempt to conquer the Danish-Norwegian naval fleet, and used that as a pretext to attack Copenhagen in what became known as the Seige of Copenhagen in August of 1807, and Britain seized the naval fleet in September of 1807.
This also assured the use of the sea lanes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea for the British merchant fleet.
The “fleet robbery” drew Denmark-Norway into the war on the side of Napoleon.
Then in 1814, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Treaty of Kiel, between the United Kingdom and Sweden on the anti-French-side, and Norway and Denmark on the French-side, dissolved the Oldenburg Monarchy by transferring Norway to the King of Sweden.
The King of Denmark retained the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland.
See how that works?
Something along the lines of “Something is rotten in Denmark,” a modern saying which originated from Shakespeare’s play “Hamlet.”
I find it interesting to notice the word “Hyperboreus” in this map associated with the 1814 Treaty of Kiel.
Legendary Hyperborea, a lost ancient land and fabulous world of eternal spring, was said to be located in the Far North.
Its people were said to be giants, with long and blessed lives untouched by war, hard work, old age and disease.
The Nazis believed there was a connection to the origins of the Aryan race with Hyperborea.
At any rate, the Faroe Islands are one of the classic zeolite localities of the world.
Zeolites are minerals with very small pores, composed primarily of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen, and used commercially as absorbents and catalysts.
Zeolites found on the Faroe Islands include, but are not limited to, different varieties of Stilbites…
…as well as a zeolite called Thomsonite, a silicate material, which are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups.
This example of Thomsonite is called Farolite.
Here are some of the sights found on the Faroe Islands.
While we are told the etymology of the name of these islands came from possibly an Old Norse word for “sheep” or the Swedish verb “fara,” meaning to travel, it is interesting to note that at least in the Romance languages, the word for lighthouse includes the root sound of “Far”:
Italian – Faro
Spanish – Faro
French – Phare
Portuguese – Farol
Romanian – Far
This is the Tower of Hercules, a lighthouse on Faro Island in A Coruna, Spain, which is located on the northwest coast of Spain in Galicia.
And phonetically, “Faro” sounds like the word “Pharaoh,” which we are told was the common title for monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty, starting in 3,150 BC, up to the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BC.
Are they telling us something without telling us they are telling us?
From the Faroe Islands, we cross the Norwegian Sea to Trondheim, Norway’s third most populous urban area, and fourth most populous municipality.
One of the historical name of Trondheim is Nidaros, with the city of Trondheim having been established in 1838. There is that “ar” sound again, that I have found in place names all over the world.
It is located at the mouth of what is called the River Nidelva…
…but which looks distinctly canal-like to me.
Trondheim is the seat of the Lutheran Diocese of Nidaros, and the Nidaros Cathedral is the national sanctuary of Norway and is the traditional location of the consecration of new kings of Norway, and is considered the northernmost medieval cathedral in the world.
It was said to have been built in the years between 1070 and 1300.
Just for similarity of appearances, here are the Nidaros Catheral in Trondheim in the top pictures, and the Victoria Terminus Railway Station in Mumbai, which used to be Bombay, India, pictured in the bottom photos, and said to have been built by the British in India between 1878 and 1888.
Nidaros Cathedral was said to have been constructed with the soapstone from a medieval soapstone underground quarry called Bakkaunet, close to the city center of old Trondheim, much of which has been destroyed by modern development.
There is considerable mining activity today in Norway, including but not limited to, the precious metals gold, silver, and platinum group elements.
The Headquarters of the Norwegian Directorate of Mining with the Commissioner of Mines at Svalbard is located in Trondheim.
In the area surrounding Trondheim today, the active mining is primarily for limestone and aggregate, which is a broad category of coarse- to medium-grained particulate matter used in construction in the form of sand, gravel, and crushed stone.
Nickel deposits are located northeast of Trondheim…
…and copper/zinc/gold deposits are located southeast of Trondheim at Roros-Tydal.
As a matter of fact, Roros has long been known for its copper mining industry, with the Roros Copper Works said to date back to 1646.
Rich deposits of copper ore were discovered here, which was said to have led to a golden age for the community in the 18th-century.
For comparison in similarity of appearance, here is Jerome, an old copper mining town in Arizona.
In World War II in Norway, Germany invaded neutral Norway in 1940 on the pretext that Norway needed protection from British and French interference, and like Denmark, the Nazis occupied Norway for 5-years, until 1945.
Germany actually invaded Norway in for reasons such as: strategically, to secure ice-free harbors from which its naval forces could seek to control the North Atlantic; to secure the availability of iron ore from mines Sweden through the ice-free port of Narvik; to pre-empt a British and French invasion with the same purpose; and to reinforce the propaganda of a “Germanic empire.”
There are two iron ore mines in Lapland, in northern Sweden.
One is Kiruna, the largest and most modern underground iron ore mine in the world.
It first opened in 1898.
Iron ore is also mined at Gallivare.
The Iron Ore Line, a 247-mile, or 398-kilometer, long railway connects Kiruna and Gallivare to Narvik.
The Iron Ore Line was said to have opened in 1888……and some more “ar” sounds in place names.
I am quite sure there were other reasons the Nazis were there related to the original advanced civilization, but our history has been so white-washed it is impossible to go there because true history has been completely removed from the historical record. It is only available in what is not written, in architecture like Norway’s National Theater in the background of this photo.
Who were the Nazis, really? Certainly not friends of Humanity.
Were they defeated in World War II as we have been taught?
Or did they continue on to this day without our knowledge in a hidden form?
From Trondheim, the alignment next crosses the Scandinavian Mountains, also known as the Kjolen Mountains, which run through the Scandinavian Peninsula.
The highest peak in Norway is Galdhopiggen, southwest of Trondheim.
It’s name is said to mean “Home of the Giants.”
On that note, does nature make square boulders…and pointed-peaks…on its own?
We have never been given any other information that would provide another explanation, so we accept that its natural as the only possible explanation.
More examples from the Scandinavian Mountains.
Next on the alignment from Trondheim across these mountains is Sundsvall, a port by the Gulf of Bothnia between Sweden and Finland.
It is the seat of Sundsvall Municipality in Vasternorrland County.
Sundsvall was said to have been chartered in 1621, and that Swedish industrialism started there in 1849 when the Tunadal Sawmill brought a steam-engine-driven saw.
It is still a center of the Swedish forestry industry.
As a result of my research, I believe that the year of 1851 was the official start of the New World order timeline.
See my blog post “Exposing Exhibitions, Expositions, and World Fairs since 1851” for more information about why I believe this.
We are told that Sundsvall has burned down and been rebuilt four times.
The last time it burned down was on June 25th of 1888, allegedly due to a spark from a steamship.
Two other Swedish cities were said to have burned the same day – Umea and Lilla Edet – from what we are told were unusually windy conditions.
Then we are told, after the fire, the decision was made to rebuild Sundsvall using stone.
Sundsvall’s city center was nicknamed the Stenstaden, or the “Stone City.”
I have also speculated in my “Poking into Historical Fires” series that one of the roles of “Great Fires” in our historical narrative were smokescreens to disguise real intentions or activities, and the fires that actually happened were started intentionally for the purposes of the destruction of the architecture of the original Moorish civilization which was the physical infrastructure of the planetary grid, and/or to provide cover for the explanation the architecture was built when we are told it was.
At any rate, on the subject of mining and minerals, the Saxberget Mine is one of the mines in the Vasternorrland County of which Sundsvall is a part, in which not only copper, lead, silver, and zinc is mined…
…these minerals are as well.
There are also four other active mines in Vasternorrland County, including mines for gold, copper, and zinc.
Sweden had a different experience from Norway and Denmark during World War II.
We are told Sweden was successfully able to maintain its policy of neutrality during the entirety of World War II.
Keeping its neutrality translated to allowing the Germans to transport the 163rd Infantry Division in 1941, along with heavy weapons, from Norway to Finland; allowing German soldiers to use the railway when on leave between these two countries; and selling iron ore to Germany throughout the war.
For the Allies, Sweden shared military intelligence, and helped to train soldiers from Norway and Denmark, to enable them to be used for the liberation of their home countries; and allowed the Allies to use Swedish air bases between 1944 and 1945.
It sounds like Sweden’s definition of neutrality was having no problem working for both sides.
I seriously think World War II was not really about what we are told it was.
From Sundsvall, we cross the Gulf of Bothnia between Sweden & Finland…
…and is the northernmost arm of the Baltic Sea.
The land surrounding the Gulf of Bothnia is heavily-forested, which are logged and transported for milling.
This gulf is also important for the shipping of oil to the coastal cities and ores to steel mills.
The Aland Islands are a group of approximately 500 islands located at the entrance of the Gulf of Bothnia.
The islands are an autonomous, Swedish-speaking, province of Finland.
It is a favorite destination of people who like to climb boulders.
When I see these “boulders” on the left, I see ancient masonry, which also reminds me of Red Rock Canyon in Hinton, Oklahoma, just west of Oklahoma City and south of I-40, on the right.
The alignment next enters Vaasa, a city on the west coast of Finland, and the capital of the Ostrobothnia region of Finland.
Both Finnish and Swedish are spoken here.
It was said to have been founded in 1606, and named after the House of Vasa, an early modern royal house founded in 1523 in Sweden.
We are told the mainly wooden and densely built town was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1852, and that out of 379 buildings only 24 privately-owned buildings survived, including what was the Court of Appeals, said to have been built in 1775 and now the Church of Korsholm…
…and these stone ruins are said to be of St. Mary’s church where the fire was in Old Vaasa.
The fire was said to have started in a barn owned by a district court judge by a visitor who fell asleep in the barn and dropped his pipe in the dry hay.
Finland is one of the leading mining countries in Europe, and the mining industry plays a very important role in Finland, along with its future growth potential.
On this map, there are four mines around the alignment as it leaves Vaasa.
One is #5, which is mined for zinc, sulphur, copper, silver, gold and iron.
The next is #6, mined primarily for phosphorus and mica.
Also # 7, mined for copper, zinc, gold, silver, nickel and cobalt.
And #8 is mined for gold.
Finland’s role in World War II was similar to Sweden, but slightly different.
It openly participated in the war initially as an Axis power between 1939 and 1944, allied with Germany, Japan and Italy…
…and then switched sides until the end of the war to the Allies, the grouping of the victorious countries of World War II, against the Axis Powers.
This is a photo of Finnish soldiers raising their flag at the war’s end at the Three-Country Cairn, which marks where the international borders of Finland, Sweden, and Norway meet.
By the end of the war, Finland had ceded nearly 10% of its territory, including its fourth-largest city, Vyborg, to the Soviet Union, as well as pay a large amount of war reparations to them.
As a result of the territorial loss, we are told all of the East Karelians abandoned their homes, and relocated to areas that remained within the borders of Finland.
Karelia is described as an area of historical significance for Finland, Russia, the former Soviet Union, and Sweden, and since 1945 divided between Finland and the Northwestern Russian Federation…
…and there’s that “ar” sound again.
Next we arrive at Archangelsk, in the north of European Russia, and another “ar” sound. Hmmm.
It is known in English as Archangel.
The city’s coat-of-arms display Archangel Michael defeating the devil, and the legend states that the victory took place near where the city stands, and that Michael still stands watch over the city.
Archangelsk was the chief seaport of medieval and early modern Russia, until 1703, when it was replaced by Saint Petersburg.
This is a portrait I found of Tsar Ivan III, also known to history as Ivan the Great.
He was said to have brought the Archangelsk area back into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1478.
Leaving this here for your consideration. Can you say with absolute certainty that you are looking at a white European ruler?
As far as mining goes, I found the Grib Diamond Mine in Archangelsk Oblast, one of the largest diamond mines in Russia and in the world.
It has estimated reserves of 98.5 million carats of diamonds, and annual production capacity of 3.62 million carats.
This map shows the locations of Soviet forced labor camps of the Gulag.
Most of them served mining, timber and construction works.
From Archangelsk, the alignment crosses the Yamal Peninsula, located in northwest Siberia.
The Yamal Peninsula holds Russia’s biggest gas reserves…
…and gas production facilities are actively evolving there, as well as infrastructure such as gas-pipeline and bridges.
Natural gas is a hydrocarbon, a compound which consists of hydrogen and carbon.
It is used as a fuel source for heating and cooking, and electricity generation, as well as for vehicles, and used in the manufacture of plastics, and other commercially important chemicals.
The Obskaya-Bovanenkovo Railway there, owned and operated by the Russian gas corporation Gazprom, is the world’s northernmost railway.
The Yamal Peninsula has been in the news in recent years because of the appearance of huge sinkholes, starting with one that appeared in 2014. By 2015, five more had developed.
Learning about the appearance of sink holes here is where I first heard about this place.
I Wonder if the ground underneath it had been mined?
It’s appearance looks somewhat similar to an open-pit mine.
The next places we come to on the alignment are Dudinka and Norilsk in Krasnodar Krai, which is a federal subject of Russia within the Siberian Federal District.
Dudinka processes and sends cargo via Norilsk Railway to the Norilsk Mining and Shipping Factory, as well as shipping non-ferrous metals, coal and ore.
Non-ferrous refers to metals other than iron or steel.
Norilsk and the surrounding area is heavily engaged in the mining business.
Norilsk is the world’s northernmost city with a population of more than 100,000, with permanent inhabitants at 175,000, and the second-largest city inside the Arctic Circle.
The official founding date of Norilsk is 1935, and then it was expanded as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, and then subsequently became the center of the Norillag system of Gulag forced-labor camps, which existed from June of 1935 to August of 1956.
The nickel deposits of Norilsk-Talnakh are the largest known nickel-copper-palladium deposits in the world.
The smelting of the nickel ore is directly responsible for severe pollution, typically coming in the form of acid rain or smog, and some estimate the 1% of the world’s sulphur dioxide emission comes from Norilsk’s nickel mines.
The next place we come to is Tiksi, an urban locality in the Sakha Republic on the shore of the Buor-Khaya Gulf of the Laptev Sea, southeast of the delta of the Lena River.
When I first tracked this alignment several years ago, I came across information about the Lena River Pillars, so they have been in my awareness for awhile.
They are called a natural rock formation, with alternating layers of limestone, marlstone, dolomite, and slate…alternating layers?
The Lena Pillars Nature Park was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2012.
Keep the Lena Pillars in mind when we come to some places further down on the alignment.
Tiksi serves as one of the principal ports for access to the Laptev Sea.
Modern Tiksi was said to have been founded in 1933, and since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, its population has considerably declined, and many of its apartment blocks are abandoned.
Silver and tin are listed on this map as being in the region surrounding Tiksi.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol “Sn” and the atomic number of 50.
It is a silvery metal that characteristically has a faint yellow hue, and is soft enough to be cut without much force.
In modern times, tin is used for tin/lead soft solders, which are 60% tin…
…and in the manufacture of electrically conducting films of indium tin oxide in optoelectronics, which is the study of and application of electronic devices having to do with lighting.
Other uses are corrosion-resistant tin-plating in steel…
…and it is widely used for food-packaging.
Next, the alignment crosses into the Chukchi, also known as Chukotka, Peninsula, the easternmost peninsula of Asia, where I found the Kupol Gold mine.
The mine is situated over the Kayemraveem ore belt, which contains both high-quality gold and silver.
The mineral deposits are estimated to hold 4.4 million ounces of gold and 54.2 million ounces of silver, on top of 1.72 million inferred ounces of gold, and 22.2 million inferred ounces of silver.
Inferred deposits mean that the ore is not necessarily accessible due to geological obstacles.
The alignment exits Russia at Uelen, a small settlement just south of the Arctic Circle in the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Far East.
Located near Cape Dezhnev, where the Bering Sea meets the Chukchi Sea, it is the easternmost settlement in Russia…and all of Eurasia.
The Chukchi Sea forms part of the Arctic Ocean, bordered in the east by northwestern Alaska and in the west by northeastern Siberia.
Estimates of oil and gas reserves on the U. S. portion of the Continental Shelf, including both the Chukchi and the neighboring Beaufort Sea, range up to 30 billion barrels of oil equivalent.
The U. S. government began offering oil and gas leases in the Chukchi Sea in the 1980s, but little exploration and no development occurred on them, and all the older leases expired.
There is significant opposition to exploration and drilling here.
The Diomede Islands are located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska.
The island of Big Diomede belongs to Russia, and Little Diomede to the United States.
In spite of their proximity to each other, they are separated by the International Date Line, and Big Diomede is 21 hours ahead of Little Diomede, almost a day.
They are described as rocky, mesa-like islands.
Next we come to Nome, located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast of Alaska on the Norton Sound of the Bering Sea.
The most populous city in Alaska at one time, Nome was incorporated in April of 1901…
…shortly after gold was discovered on Anvil Creek there in 1898 by “three lucky Swedes.”
News of the discovery was said to have reached the outside world that winter, and that by 1899, had a population of 10,000 people.
The area was first organized as the “Nome Mining District.”
Also in 1899, gold was found in the beach sands for dozens of miles along the coast at Nome, spurring the stampede to new heights.
In 1899, Charles D. Lane founded the Wild Goose Mining and Trading Company…
…for which he was said to have built the Wild Goose Railroad, which ran from Nome to Dexter Discovery, and by 1908 to the village of Shelton.
Charles D. Lane, a millionaire mine owner, was recognized as a founder of Nome.
He was born in Palmyra, Missouri, in 1840, and moved to California with his father in 1852.
He got involved in the mining industry, developing successful mines in Idaho, California, and Arizona, before hearing of the first gold strike in Nome in 1898.
Gold mining has been a major source of employment and revenue for Nome through to the present day.
As a side-note about Nome, the Iditarod, an annual long-distance sled dog race, runs in early March from Anchorage to Nome, and commemorates a relay of sled dog teams that we are told was organized in 1925 to deliver a life-saving serum for a diptheria epidemic raging among Alaska natives in the Nome area.
We come to McGrath next…
…which sits in the middle of a snaky, s-shaped river bend of the Kuskokwim River…
…the same shape that I find in rivers all over the world…
…like the Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado River near Page, Arizona…
…the River Thames in London, England…
…and the Yellow River in China.
In 1906, gold was discovered in what became the Ophir Creek Mines the Innoko Mining District, the first of many mining claims and sites throughout this region, besides what became known as Ophir.
Since McGrath was the northernmost point on the Kuskokwim River accessible by large riverboats, it became a regional supply center, and from 1911 to 1920, hundreds of people went to the Ophir Gold District by way of dog sled, or on foot.
We next come to Anchorage, Alaska’s largest city, located in Southcentral Alaska…
…at the terminus of the Cook Inlet, between the Knik Arm to the North and Turnagain Arm to the South.
The Cook Inlet was named for the English explorer, Captain James Cook…
…who sailed into it in 1778 when he was looking for the Northwest Passage.
Gold was discovered in Anchorage in the 1880s, and was said to have turned the region into a mining area overnight.
This is an Alaskan gold nugget.
Over the following years, several mines were established in the area producing hundreds of thousands of ounces of gold, with Anchorage becoming an active gold mining center.
The Crow Creek Mine, in the Girdwood section of Anchorage, is one of the best known hydraulic gold mines in Alaska.
Hydraulic mining involves delivering water through nozzle at high-pressure against the gravel deposits.
These deposits, or slurries, were then passed on to large sluice boxes, which separated all the gold from the deposits.
The Crow Creek Mine is family-owned; still in production; and allows visitors to pan for gold.
The next place we come to is Juneau, the capital city of Alaska.
It is located in the Gastineau Channel…
…and the Alaskan Panhandle, the southeastern portion of Alaska, bordered to the east by the northern part of British Columbia.
Juneau is unique as a state capital for not having roads connecting it to the rest of the state. All transportation-related activities are by air and sea only.
Vehicles are transported to Juneau by barge or the Alaska Marine Highway Ferry System, which serves communities in Southeast Alaska with no road access, and also transport people and freight.
The city is said to be named after a gold prospector from Quebec named Joe Juneau.
What we are told is that after the California Gold Rush, miners migrated up the Pacific coast in search of other gold deposits.
In 1880, mining engineer George Pilz from Sitka, which was formerly under Russian rule, offered a reward to any local native Alaskan who could lead him to gold-bearing ore.
Pilz received information that prompted him to direct prospectors Joe Juneau and Richard Harris to the Gastineau Channel to Snow Slide Gulch at the head of Gold Creek, where they found nuggets as big as “peas and beans.”
Shortly thereafter a mining camp sprang up, and shortly after that, so many people came looking for gold, that the camp became a village.
This is said to be a photo of Juneau in 1887.
Major mining operations in the Juneau Mining District prior to World War II included the Treadwill Mine, owned and operated by a man named John Treadwell, southeast of Juneau on Douglas Island.
In its time, it was the largest hard-rock gold mine in the world, employing 2,000 people, and producing over 3-million Troy ounces of gold between 1881 and 1922.
He operated a stamp mill, pictured here circa 1908, which mined gold by way of a mill machine that crushed ore by pounding rather than grinding for either further processing or extraction of metallic ores.
The next place we come to on the alignment is Whitehorse, the capital of Canada’s Yukon Territory.
The city is situated on the Alaska Highway, as well as the Yukon River, and incorporated in 1950.
It was named after the White Horse Rapids, near Miles Canyon.
These rapids, and the Miles Canyon, provided a significant challenge to gold-seekers heading to the Klondike gold rush.
The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of northern Yukon between 1896 and 1899.
Same kind of story as the other places I have mentioned – as soon as word about the discovery of gold in the Klondike reached Seattle and San Francisco, it triggered a stampede of prospectors, immortalized in photos like this of the long-line waiting to cross the Chilkoot Pass, a high-mountain pass between the Boundary Ranges of the Coast Mountains between Alaska and British Columbia.
Miles Canyon is also one of the places I had in mind when I shared the pictures of the Lena River Pillars previously in this post.
These are called the Miles Canyon Basalts.
We are told they are a package of rocks that include various exposures of basaltic lava flows and cones that erupted and flowed across an ancient, pre-glacial landscape in south-central Yukon.
Again, because we are given no other possible explanation as to how they came into existence, we accept this information as valid.
The Minto Mine is an open-pit copper and gold mine located 149-miles, or 240-kilometers, north of Whitehorse, beginning production in 2007…
…and there are numerous mining claims in the Yukon Territory as well.
The next place we come to on the alignment is Dawson Creek, a city near the eastern edge of the Peace River Regional District of British Columbia.
The city of Dawson Creek received its name from the Dawson Creek that flows through here, which was named after the surveyor George Mercer Dawson, when he and his team came through in 1879.
Dawson Creek became a regional center after the western terminus of the Northern Alberta Railways was extended there in 1932.
The community grew rapidly in 1942, when the U. S. Army used the rail terminus as a shipment point during the construction of the Alaska Highway, and it is the starting point of the Alaska Highway.
The Peace River Region of which Dawson Creek is a part has an extensive coal-mining industry, centered in the municipality of Tumbler Ridge.
There are at least five major mining projects here, with the Murray River Mine developed starting in 2017 as an underground metallurgical coal mine.
Metallurgical coal, or coking coal, is a grade of coal that can be used to produce good-quality-coke, which is used as an essential fuel and reactant in the blast furnace process for primary steel-making.
Next we come to Edmonton, the capital city of the Province of Alberta.
Edmonton is North America’s northernmost metropolitan area, with a population over 1-million.
Edmonton is also the northern apex of the North American Star Tetrahedron that I found in 2016, which was the starting point of all of my research work.
Known as the “Gateway to the North,” Edmonton is the staging area for large-scale oil sands projects in northern Alberta…
…and large-scale diamond-mining operations in the Northwest Territories.
The next place on the alignment is Saskatoon on the South Saskatchewan River, and the largest city in the Province of Saskatchewan.
The city has nine river crossings, and is nicknamed “Paris of the Prairie”…
…and notable architecture like the Delta Bessborough Hotel, also known as the “Castle on the River,” said to have been built for and opened in 1935 for Canadian National Hotels, a division of Canadian National Railway.
We are told that the founding of Saskatoon started with the purchase of 21-sections of land straddling the South Saskatchewan River by the Toronto-based Temperance Colonization Society in 1882, for the purposes of setting-up a dry community in the prairie.
The first settlers were said to have arrived by railway from Ontario to Moose Jaw in Saskatchewan, then complete the final leg to what became Saskatoon by horse-drawn cart, as the railway had yet to be completed to Saskatoon.
Saskatoon lies on a long, rich belt of rich potassic chernozem, which is a rich, black-colored soil containing a high-percentage of humus, or amorphous organic soil material, and high-percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus, and ammonia.
It is very fertile, and can produce high agricultural yields.
It was said to have been first identified and named by Russian geologist and soil scientist Vasily Dokuchaev in 1883, when he was studying the tall-grass steppe, or prairie, of European Russia.
Interesting to note that he was said to have made this discovery right after the founding of Saskatoon in 1882.
Kimberlite, a rare, blue-tinged, coarse-ground intrusive igneous rock sometimes containing diamonds…
…was first discovered in the Sturgeon Lake area of northwestern Saskatchewan in 1988.
In 2016, DeBeers tested for kimberlite targets in the Northwest Athabaska Kimberlite Project, but ended its search when drill-test results from several targets did not yield expected results.
The DeBeers Group, an international corporation that specializes in all aspects of the diamond industry, was founded in 1888 by British businessman, Cecil Rhodes.
The Athabasca Basin is best known for its substantial uranium deposits.
Next, the alignment crosses Winnipeg, the capital and largest city of the Province of Manitoba, located on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers.
The city is named for the nearby Lake Winnipeg…
…which has the largest watershed of any lake in Canada, receiving water from four U. S. states, and four Canadian provinces.
Lord Selkirk, a Scottish philanthropist, was involved with the first permanent settlement by sponsoring immigrant settlements in Canada starting in 1811 at what was known as the Red River Colony.
He purchased the land from the Hudson Bay Company, and surveyed the river lots for immigrant settlement.
We are told Winnipeg developed rapidly after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881…
…and became a transportation hub, including having electric streetcars at one time, according to this historical postcard, among other things.
Manitoba is home to several active mines, one of which is in Flin Flon, Manitoba, on the provincial border with Saskatchewan.
It is has high-grade zinc and copper deposits in what is called a VMS, or “Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide” deposit.
Manitoba also produces 100% of Canada’s cesium, lithium, and tantalum, minerals used in such things as electronics, specialized batteries, and jet engine components.
Cesium is a chemical element with the symbol “Cs” and atomic number of 55.
It is a silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 83.3-degrees Fahrenheit, or 28.5-degrees Celsius, one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at near room temperature.
It has a wide range of applications in the production of electricity, in electronics, and in chemistry.
Tantalum is a chemical element with the symbol “Ta” and the atomic number of 73.
It is a rare, hard, blue-gray lustrous metal that is highly resistant to corrosion.
The chemical inertness of tantalum makes it a valuable substance for laboratory and electronic equipment and as a substitute for platinum.
We come now to Thunder Bay, Ontario, on this alignment.