This is the second-part of a four-part series on the consistent finding of mining and mineral occurrences directly on the Earth’s alignments and leylines.
In the last post, I covered mining and mineral findings along the alignment starting at Cape Farewell, in Greenland; through to northern Labrador; northern Quebec; the Belcher Islands and the James Bay region of the Hudson Bay; southwestern Ontario; the Northwest Angle of Minnesota; North Dakota; Montana; Idaho; Nevada; the Sierra Nevadas of California, and ending at San Francisco.
I am picking up the alignment where I left off, heading into the Pacific Ocean after leaving San Francisco at the end of the last post, where we come to the big island of Hawaii.
The alignment crosses over Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano and the highest point in the state…
…and Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park, which encompasses the summits of two of the world’s most active volcanoes, Mauna Loa and Kilauea.
Most of this national park, which is contained in the Kau District, one of the six original districts, known as “moku,” of ancient Hawaii on the island.
There are nine districts on the island of Hawaii today.
Mauna Loa is described as one of the single, largest mountain masses in the world, constituting half of the island’s area, and is the home to the Mauna Loa Observatory on its north flank, a premier atmospheric research facility…
…and Kilauea is the island’s most active volcano.
All of the eastern flank of Kilauea lies within the neighboring Puna District of Hawaii, with a small portion of Mauna Loa running along the northern part of it.
There are two beaches of particular interest in the Kau District.
One is Punalu’u Black Sand Beach.
It is considered one of the finest examples of a true black sands beach in the world, made of basalt and said to be created by lava flowing into the ocean, which explodes as it reaches the ocean and cools.
Basalt is a volcanic rock that is low in silica content, and comparatively rich in iron and magnesium.
The magnesium in basalt is a chemical element with the symbol “Mg” and atomic number of 12.
It is a shiny gray solid that occurs in combination with other elements, and the fourth most common element on Earth, after iron, oxygen, and silicon.
It is the eleventh-most abundant element by mass in the human body, and is essential to all cells and over 300 enzymes.
I also found Mahana, also known as “Green Sands,” Beach on the southern tip of the island, also located in the Kau District.
It is known for its green-colored sands, which are comprised of a form of peridot called olivine.
Olivine is a semi-precious translucent stone that is a complex silicate of magnesium and iron.
It is commonly used in refactories, any material which has an unusually high melting point and that maintains its structural properties at very high temperatures.
Next we come to the Republic of Kiribati, and island country in the Pacific Ocean, which includes the island of Tarawa, where more than half of the country’s population lives.
Exploratory activities have taken place to exploit the deep sea mining of polymetallic nodules and cobalt rich crusts that have been identified there in Kiribati.
Historically, Kiribati was rich in phosphates, but commercially viable phosphate deposits have long-been depleted through mining.
This, for example, is an historical picture of what the island of Banaba there looked like before, and after, it was mined for phosphates.
Phosphates are derived from phosphorus, and are used in agriculture and industry…
…and are components as structural materials of bones and teeth, which are made of crystalline calcium phosphate, as well as other biological processes.
Now we come to the Solomon Islands, a British-protectorate until independence in 1978, yet to this day it is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, with the British monarch as head-of-state.
We are told the islands were named after the wealthy King Solomon by the Spanish navigator Alvaro de Mendana, who in 1568 came to the islands looking for the source of King Solomon’s wealth, and also that they were the biblically-mentioned land of Ophir, famous for its wealth and fine gold.
Hmmmm…now I wonder why he thought that?
At any rate, de Mendana was said to have found gold at a location where the Gold ridge Mine on Guadalcanal was developed and mined in the late 1990s, with production on and off since then.
Next, we come to Cloncurry, in the state of Queensland in Australia.
Both Cloncurry, and neighboring Mount Isa, have significant mining activities going on for copper, zinc, and uranium.
Zinc is a chemical element with the symbol “Zn” and atomic number of 30.
Zinc is a slightly brittle metal at room temperature…
…and, along with copper, is an alloy of brass.
It is used in the zinc-plating of iron, which produces a protective zinc-coating to prevent rust, and is the major industrial application of zinc.
Zinc is also an essential mineral for our good health, aiding in metabolism, digestion, nerve function, liver function, among many other things.
Uranium is a chemical element with the symbol “U” and the atomic number of 92.
It is a radioactive, silvery-gray metal, with the highest atomic weight of primordially-occurring elements, which are elements that have existed in their present form since before the earth was formed.
Uranium is widely used in nuclear power plans and nuclear weapons.
The alignment crosses over Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock, in the Northern Territory…
…a major sacred site to the Australian Aborigines, and to others around the world, considered to be one of the twelve primary nodal points of the Earth’s grid system.
Uluru is composed of arkose, a type of sandstone rich in the mineral feldspar.
Next we come to the West MacDonnell Ranges, also in the Northern Territory.
They are quartzite and sandstone parallel ridges that rise from a plateau about 2,000-feet, or 600-meters above sea-level.
The Malbunka Copper Mine is located in the Gardiner Range of the West MacDonnells.
Besides copper, it is known for its azurites, called azurite “suns.”
Next we come to Lake Carnegie, in the Goldfields-Esperance region of Western Australia…
…just north of the main goldfields region of Western Australia.
Next we come to Lake Barlee, also in Western Australia…
…where potash and lithium brine mining has been explored in this salt lake.
Potash is a salt mixture that contains potassium in a water-soluble form.
Potassium is a chemical element with the symbol “K” and atomic number of 19…
…and is a silvery metal that is soft enough to be easily cut by a knife.
Uses of potassium include potassium soaps, fertilizers, detecting fungal infections on the skin, and removing hair from animal hide.
Potassium ions are vital for the functioning of all living cells, with the transfer of potassium ions across nerve cell membraines being necessary for normal nerve transmission.
The alignment goes through the Ajana District in Western Australia.
Forty-eight lead and copper mines once operated in the Ajana District.
Sir Augustus Charles Gregory discovered the location of the lead outcroppings of what became the first mine there, the Geraldine Mine, in 1848.
Sir Augustus was an English-born explorer and surveyor of Australia.
The Geraldine mine was in operation by 1849.
These are the ruins of what was called the “Lynton Convict Hiring Depot,” which provided the convict labor used to work the mine…
The buildings here were said to include a store, bakery, depot, well, lock-up, hospital, lime kiln and administration block that were said to have begun in 1853, and that no sooner were they finished in 1856 than the depot closed because of the harsh living conditions and transportation problems.
This is a cobblestone floor found at the Geraldine mine, said to have been where the convict miners broke up the ore…
…to pick out the highest-grade galena, which is the primary ore of lead, and contains silver as well.
Lead is a chemical element with the symbol “Pb” and atomic number of 82.
Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials.
As well, it is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point.
Lead’s high density, low melting-point, ductility, and relative inertness to oxidation, make it useful.
The alignment leaves Australia and next lands at Cape Town at the tip of South Africa, across the South Indian Ocean.
The Dutch East India Company, known by the initials VOC, established the first European settlement in South Africa there in 1652, called the VOC Cape Colony.
The Dutch East India Company was chartered on March 20th of 1602 to trade with India and Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly for the Dutch spice trade.
It was an early multinational corporation that existed from 1602 to 1799, and the world’s most valuable company of all-time, with a worth of $7.9-trillion.
Mining is South Africa’s third-largest business sector, after agriculture and manufacturing, and is the world’s leading producer of copper, platinum, uranium, and vanadium.
Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol “V” and atomic number of 23.
It is a hard, silvery-grey, and malleable metal.
It is mainly used to produce specialty steel alloys, such as high-speed tool-steels…
…and the vanadium redox flow battery system for storage may be an important application for the future.
From Cape Town, the alignment crosses the South Atlantic Ocean, and enters Brazil at Salvador, the capital of the Brazilian State of Bahia.
Salvador was said to have been founded by the Portuguese in 1549 as the first capital of Brazil, and is called one of the oldest colonial cities in the Americas.
The Jesuits arrived in 1552, and worked in converting the indigenous people of the region to Roman Catholicism. Hmmm. I wonder exactly what went down when they arrived!
Interesting to note, a sharp escarpment divides Salvador’s Lower Town from its Upper Town by 279-feet, or 85-meters.
We are told Brazil’s first urban elevator, the Elevador Lacerda, has connected the two towns since 1873.
Emeralds are mined in Bahia State, and since the 1970s, Brazil has served as a consistent source of commercial quality emeralds.
As a matter of fact, the Bahia Emerald, unearthed at the Carnaiba mine in Bahia State in 2001, is one of the largest emeralds ever found.
It weighs approximately 752-lbs, or 349-kg, and has been valued at as much as $400-million.
Emerald is a gemstone, and a variety of the mineral beryl, and colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
It is a cyclosilicate, meaning a rock-forming mineral made up of silicate groups.
Moving west along the alignment from Salvador, we come to the Chapada Diamantina National Park in the center of Bahia State, and considered one of the ten best national parks in the world.
We are told this region was deserted until the discovery of gold and diamonds here in 1844, which then was said to have triggered a rush of gold and diamond seekers wanting to make their fortunes.
This was 5-years before the San Francisco gold rush started in 1849.
There sure was a lot of “gold-rushing” going on during this time period!
The Chapada Diamantina National Park is known for its numerous rivers, which form impressive waterfalls, and pools of crystalline water.
Next we come to Almeirim, a city on the Amazon River…
…and a municipality in Brazil’s Para State.
The municipality is crossed by the equator.
The Ipitina Mining District is in Almeirim, located near the border with Amapa State.
All nine of the deposits listed are being mined for gold…
…with the first listed, the Carara deposit, also being mined for…
…muscovite, the most common form of mica and a silicate material of aluminum and potassium…
…which has industrial applications in the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials, and to some extent as a lubricant…
…the mineral pyrite, also known as fool’s gold, which is an iron sulfide…
…and used commercially in the production of sulphur dioxide…
…quartz, a crystalline mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms…
…which has the ability to vibrate at precise frequencies…
…and tourmaline, a crystalline boron silicate material that is found in a wide variety of colors…
…with both electrical and magnetic properties.
Next on the alignment, we come to Boa Vista in Roraima State.
One of the most striking things I found out about Boa Vista right away is that we are told it was a planned city with a radial plan, designed by civil engineer Darci Aleixo Derenusson, who was said to have based his design on that of Paris, France.
Boa Vista was founded in 1890.
Derenusson wasn’t born until 1916, and he died in 2002.
In 1943, Boa Vista became the capital of the recently created Federal Territory of Rio Branco, which was later re-named Roraima.
The Territory was said to have grown from mining operations there.
The main source of employment here once upon a time was machine-based mining, which was prohibited at some point because of the damage it was causing to the environment.
While I am not able to find out anything about what was being mined here through an internet search, those look like diamonds, or some kind of gemstones, in the city’s coat-of-arms….
Derenusson was said to have designed Boa Vista between 1944 and 1946.
Keep in mind this is not the most accessible place in the world, with limited long-distance road system access.
There was also a star fort, São Joaquim do Rio Branco Fort, located at one time approximately 19-miles, or 32-kilometers, from Boa Vista.
Apparently the full fort no longer exists, but if you go there, you can see a model of what it used to look like!
Next the alignment goes through Venezuala, where it crosses over the Orinoco Mining Arc.
The Orinoco Mining Arc and other areas in Venezuela have the 2nd-highest gold reserves in the world, and 32 certified gold fields.
From Venezuala, the alignment enters Colombia.
There is a considerable amount of gold-mining in the island in and around Zaragoza, Colombia.
For one, the El Limon Mine near Zaragoza is a high-grade gold mine and mill…
…but the area surrounding Zaragoza has four other gold mines mines, three of which are active.
The El Silencio mine was in production for over 150-years, and is no longer being mined.
Colombia has the largest coal-resource-base in South America, and is a major coal player globally.
With reserve estimates ranging between twelve and 60-billion tons, Colombia exports more than 90% of its production annually, making it the world’s 5th-largest coal exporter.
The next place we come to on this alignment is Colon, a city and seaport in Panama located beside the Caribbean Sea, near the Atlantic entrance to the Panama Canal.
Here are two examples of mining operations in this part of Panama.
The Cerro Petaquilla Mill in Colon is a surface-mining operation, with copper as its primary commodity, and gold, molybdenum and silver as secondary outputs.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with the symbol “Mo” and the atomic number of 42.
It is a brittle silver-gray metal, used in steel alloys.
The Molejon Gold Project was west of Colon, located close to the Caribbean coast.
It was said to have produced 100,000 ounces of high-grade gold annually from 2010 until its closure in 2015.
Next the alignment enters Nicaragua at Bluefields, and heads towards Tegucigulpa in Honduras, where it passes numerous gold mines and projects.
All together there are 65 mines in Nicaragua.
Next we are travelling along the alignment in Honduras from Tegucigalpa through San Pedro Sula, where there is considerably more mining activity than Nicaragua.
There are 230 active mines in Honduras.
Now we are heading into Belize, and going through Belmopan, the capital city of Belize, and the smallest capital city in the Americas by population.
In 2010, it was 16, 451.
Like Boa Vista in Brazil, we are told that Belmopan was founded as “planned community” in 1970, after Hurricane Hattie destroyed 75% of Belize City in 1961, Belize’s former capital.
Belize was still a British Colony at that time, and didn’t gain its independence from Britain until 1981.
There is only placer gold mining in Belize, in rivers, creeks, gravel beds, and other sediments in the southern Belize Alps Maya Mountain chain, with prospectors using things like portable dredges…
…and gold pans.
There is mining in Belize, however, with eight active mines listed for Barium/Barite, lead and zinc, silver and copper.
Barium is a chemical element with the symbol “Ba” and atomic number of 56.
Barite is the primary ore of barium.
Barium compounds are used for things like x-ray shielding because it has the ability to block x-ray and gamma-ray emissions.
From Belize, we enter Mexico, heading towards Merida, the capital and largest city of Yucatan State in Mexico.
Merida is also the southern apex of the North American Star Tetrahedron.
While this part of Mexico has minimal mining activity compared to other parts of Mexico, currently almost 19% of Mexico’s landmass is parceled out to over 33,000 mining titles, and has the fourth-largest mining industry in the world, with 888 active mining projects, and I have found several long-distance alignments like this going through Mexico.
I am going to end this post at Merida.
I chose Cape Farewell at the southern tip of Greenland as my starting point for this series because it sits on an alignment that globally connects with two different sides of the North American Star Tetrahedron.
In the next post, I am going to cover my findings along an alignment going in the other direction from Cape Farewell.
I will summarize my findings and interpretations of this material at the end of the fourth part of this series.